1 Chronicles 26:16
To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came forth westward, with the gate Shallecheth, by the causeway of the going up, ward against ward.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(16) To Shuppim and Hosah.—No such name as Shuppim (1Chronicles 7:12) occurs among those of the Levitical warders as given above in 1Chronicles 26:1-11. It is almost certainly a mistaken repetition of the last two syllables of Asuppim, which immediately precedes it. (The mistake is as old as the Vulgate; the LXX. has εἰς δεύτερον, perhaps reading lishnàyîm instead of le Shuppîm.) Read: And to Hosah (the lot fell) to the west, with the gate Shallèketh on the highway that goeth up.

The gate Shalleketh, mentioned here only. The name means casting down (in Isaiah 6:13, it denotes felling a tree); and hence this gate has been identified with the “Rubbish” or “Refuse Gate.” (Comp. Nehemiah 3:13.) It seems an objection to this, that the gate faced the highway that goeth up from the lower city to the Temple. Perhaps the name alludes to the drop, or steep descent, from the Sanctuary to the city.

Ward against ward.—Heb., mishmār lĕummath mishmār. Compare the use of the same preposition in 1Chronicles 26:12 and 1Chronicles 25:8; 1Chronicles 24:31. Here the meaning seems to be that Hosah had to guard two posts, viz., the western gate of the Temple, and the gate Shalleketh which lay opposite, in the western wall of the Temple area. (The LXX. has φυλακὴ κατέναντι φυλακῆς; the Vulgate custodia contra custodiam; implying that Hosah’s warders were stationed opposite to each other.) But perhaps these concluding words refer to all four stations, and should be rendered, ward like ward, or ward and ward alike, or post over against post.

1 Chronicles 26:16. With the gate Shallecheth — A gate of the court, so called, as some think, because the ashes and filth of the temple were cast out on that side, which was the most convenient for that purpose, because that was a private quarter, the great ways to the temple lying on the other sides. By the causeway of going up — By which causey they went up toward the temple. Ward against ward — As one gate was over against another, the west against the east, and the north against the south, so one ward was over against another.26:1-32 The offices of the Levites. - The porters and treasurers of the temple, had occasion for strength and valour to oppose those who wrongly attempted to enter the sanctuary, and to guard the sacred treasures. Much was expended daily upon the altar; flour, wine, oil, salt, fuel, beside the lamps; quantities of these were kept beforehand, besides the sacred vestments and utensils. These were the treasures of the house of God. These treasures typified the plenty there is in our heavenly Father's house, enough and to spare. From those sacred treasuries, the unsearchable riches of Christ, all our wants are supplied; and receiving from his fulness, we must give him the glory, and endeavour to dispose of our abilities and substance according to his will. We have an account of those employed as officers and judges. The magistracy is an ordinance of God for the good of the church, as truly as the ministry, and must not be neglected. None of the Levites who were employed in the service of the sanctuary, none of the singers or porters, were concerned in this outward business; one duty was enough to engage the whole man. Wisdom, courage, strength of faith, holy affections, and constancy of mind in doing our duty, are requisite or useful for every station.All recent commentators seem to be agreed that the words "to Shuppim" ought to be cancelled, the name having arisen from an accidental repetition of the preceding word, "Asuppim."

The gate Shallecheth - literally, "the gate of projection" - the gate, i. e., through which were "thrown out" the sweepings of the temple, the ashes, the offal of the victims, and the like.

The causeway of the going up - Compare the marginal reference note.

Ward against ward - Or, "watch opposite to watch." Hosah had in charge both the western gate of the temple, and also the gate Shallecheth, which was in the outer wall, opposite. Hence, he had to keep two watches, one over against the other.

16. the gate Shallecheth—probably the rubbish gate, through which all the accumulated filth and sweepings of the temple and its courts were poured out.

by the causeway of the going up—probably the ascending road which was cast up or raised from the deep valley between Mount Zion and Moriah, for the royal egress to the place of worship (2Ch 9:4).

ward against ward—Some refer these words to Shuppim and Hosah, whose duty it was to watch both the western gate and the gate Shallecheth, which was opposite, while others take it as a general statement applicable to all the guards, and intended to intimate that they were posted at regular distances from each other, or that they all mounted and relieved guard at the same time in uniform order.

Shuppim and Hosah for some reason were joined together in the custody of that gate.

The gate Shallecheth; a gate of the court so called, as some think, because the ashes and filth of the temple were cast out on that side, which was the most convenient gate for that purpose, because that was a private quarter, the great ways to the temple lying on the other sides.

By the causeway of the going up; by which causeway they went up towards the temple.

Ward against ward; which may respect either,

1. The time of their watching, that when one guard went off another came on. Or rather,

2. The place of their guard; and so this may be understood, either,

1. Of this western quarter, where there was a double guard, either because there were two gates there, as some think, or for some other cause now unknown. Or rather,

2. Of all the quarters compared together; of all which having spoken he adds this, that as one gate was over against another, the west against the east, and the north against the south, so one ward was over against another. To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came forth westward,.... Of Shuppim no mention is before made; of Hosah, see 1 Chronicles 26:10 their lot was to be placed at the gates on the western wall, where were four; the two more southward being assigned to the sons of Obededom, whose lot also was southward, are taken notice of under the division in the preceding verse; Parbar was another, 1 Chronicles 26:18, and another follows here:

with the gate Shallecheth, by the causeway of the going up; this gate was in later times called Coponius, from the name of a Roman commander, in the times of Herod, who might give it this name on his account; it might have the name of Shallecheth either from "sending out", or carrying out the filth of the temple through it; or rather from "casting up the causeway", as here expressed, which was the going up, or ascent, Solomon made, by which he went up to the temple, 1 Kings 20:5 and which agrees with the description Josephus (a) gives of one of the gates on the western wall, that it led to the royal palace, the valley between being filled up for the passage; on each side of which causeway, it is said, grew oaks and teil trees, see Isaiah 6:13 which served both to keep up the causeway, and to make a fine, pleasant, shady walk for the king to pass through to the temple; all which are observed by Dr. Lightfoot (b):

ward against ward; for as the gates answered one another, so the wards or watches at them.

(a) Antiqu. l. 15. c. 11. sect. 5. (b) Ut supra, (Prospect of the Temple), c. 5. sect. 1.

To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came forth westward, with the gate {h} Shallecheth, by the causeway of the going up, ward against ward.

(h) At which they used to cast out the filth of the city.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
16. To Shuppim and Hosah] Read, To Hosah. The word “Shuppim” (LXX. B, εἰς δεύτερον) seems to be an accidental repetition (in a corrupt form) of “Asuppim” (1 Chronicles 26:15), and so should be omitted from the text.

Hosah … going up] R.V. Hosah westward, by the gate of Shallecheth (mg. “casting forth”), at the causeway that goeth up. There is no other mention in the Bible of a gate “Shallecheth,” but it is perhaps to be identified with “the entering in of the house of the Lord … which was in the precincts” (“Parvârim” Heb.) mentioned 2 Kings 23:11; cp. note on 1 Chronicles 26:18. “The causeway” led up to the Temple either from Ophel (on the S.) or from the Western City (across the Tyropœon Valley). Traces of two causeways have been discovered by excavation, viz., “Wilson’s Arch” (Bädeker, p. 57) and “Robinson’s Arch” (ib. p. 59). The second of these arches probably marks the site of a causeway belonging to the period of the Kings.The Merarites. Hosah's sons and brothers. חוסה has been already mentioned (1 Chronicles 16:38) along with Obed-edom as doorkeeper. Hosah made Shimri head of the Merarites, who served as doorkeepers, because there was no first-born, i.e., because his first-born son had died without leaving any descendant, so that none of the families descended from Hosah had the natural claim to the birthright. All the sons and brothers of Hosah were thirteen. Meshelemiah had eighteen (cf. 1 Chronicles 26:9), and Obed-edom sixty-two (1 Chronicles 26:8); and all taken together they make ninety-three, whom we are (according to 1 Chronicles 26:12.) to regard as the heads of the 4000 doorkeepers. In 1 Chronicles 9:22 the number of the doorkeepers appointed by David is stated to be 212, but that number most probably refers to a different time (see on 1 Chronicles 9:22). Bertheau further remarks: "According to 1 Chronicles 16:38, sixty-eight are reckoned to Obed-edom and Hosah, in our passage seventy-five; and the small difference between the numbers is explained by the fact that in the first passage only the doorkeepers before the ark are referred to." Against this we have already shown, in our remarks on 1 Chronicles 16:38, that the number there mentioned cannot be held with certainty to refer to the doorkeepers.
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