1 Corinthians 5:12
For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not you judge them that are within?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(12) For what have I to do . . .?—The Apostle in this verse at once explains the grounds of the limitation of his remarks to Christians, and seems to hint also, by the form of expression here, that the Corinthian Church ought to have been able to have understood his remarks as only applicable to themselves and not to the heathen.

Them also that are without.—The heathen. It was a common form of expression amongst the Jews to designate the Gentile world (Mark 4:11).

Do not ye judge them that are within?—As the Christian Church could sit in judgment only on its own members, so they should have concluded that only on them had St. Paul passed judgment.

1 Corinthians 5:12-13. For, &c. — I speak of Christians only: for what have I to do to judge them that are without — Namely, heathen: do not ye judge them that are within? — Ye, as well as I, judge those of your own community: them that are without, God judgeth — The passing sentence on these God hath reserved to himself, and they shall not go unpunished, though they fall not under your censure. Therefore — In consideration of this, both in one view and the other, let it be your immediate care, as you regard the peace of the church, and the safety of your own souls; to put away from among yourselves — Speedily, and with all due solemnity; that wicked person — Whom I have mentioned, and any others, whose characters may, like his, be scandalous and infections. The apostle is thought, by some, to have written this, and the preceding verse, to show the Corinthians the reason why, after commanding them to pass so severe a sentence on the man, he said nothing to them concerning the woman, who was guilty with him. The discipline of the church was not to be exercised on persons out of it. Hence it appears that this woman was a heathen. 5:9-13 Christians are to avoid familiar converse with all who disgrace the Christian name. Such are only fit companions for their brethren in sin, and to such company they should be left, whenever it is possible to do so. Alas, that there are many called Christians, whose conversation is more dangerous than that of heathens!For what have I to do ... - I have no authority over them; and can exercise no jurisdiction over them. All my rules, therefore, must have reference only to those who are within the church.

To judge - To pass sentence upon; to condemn; or to punish. As a Christian apostle I have no jurisdiction over them.

Them also that are without - Without the pale of the Christian church; pagans; people of the world; those who did not profess to be Christians.

Do not ye judge ... - Is not your jurisdiction as Christians confined to those who are within the church, and professed members of it? ought you not to exercise discipline there, and inflict punishment on its unworthy members? Do you not in fact thus exercise discipline, and separate from your society unworthy persons - and ought it not to be done in this instance, and in reference to the offender in your church?

12. what have I to do—You might have easily understood that my concern is not with unbelievers outside the Church, but that I referred to those within it.

also—Implying, Those within give me enough to do without those outside.

do not ye, &c.—Ye judge your fellow citizens, not strangers: much more should I [Bengel]. Rather, Is it not your duty to judge them that are within? God shall judge them that are without: do you look at home [Grotius]. God is the Judge of the salvation of the heathen, not we (Ro 2:12-16). Paul here gives an anticipatory censure of their going to law with saints before heathen tribunals, instead of judging such causes among themselves within.

For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? My jurisdiction extendeth not to heathens; God hath intrusted to me not the government of the world, but the government of his church.

Do not ye judge them that are within? Nor would I have you concern yourselves further, than in judging your own members, those that are within the pale of your church, and who, by a voluntary joining with you, have given you a power over them. For what have I to do to judge,.... To admonish, reprove, censure, and condemn:

them also that are without? without the church, who never were in it, or members of it; to whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction does not reach; and with whom the apostle had no more concern, than the magistrates of one city, or the heads of one family have with another:

do not ye judge them that are within? and them only? The apostle appeals to their own conduct, that they only reproved, censured, and punished with excommunication, such as were within the pale of the church, were members of it, and belonged unto it; nor did they pretend to exercise a power over others; and it would have been well if they had made use of the power they had over their own members, by admonishing and reproving such as had sinned; by censuring delinquents, and removing from their communion scandalous and impenitent offenders; and therefore they need not wonder that the apostle only meant fornicators, &c. among them, and not those that were in the world, by his forbidding to company with such: reference seems to be had to ways of speaking among the Jews, who used not only to call themselves the church, and the Gentiles the world, and so them that were without, both their land and church; but even those among themselves that were profane, in distinction from their wise and good men. They say (q),

"if a man puts his phylacteries on his forehead, or upon the palm of his hand, this is the way of heresy (or, as in the Talmud (r), the way of the Karaites); if he covered them with gold, and put them upon his glove (or on his garments without, so Bartenora, or, as Maimonides interprets it, his arm, shoulder, or breast), lo, this is , "the way of them that are without":''

on which the commentators (s) say, "these are the children of men, who walk after their own judgment, and not the judgment of the wise men": and Maimonides (t) says, they are such who deny the whole law, and neither believe anything, either of the written or the oral law.

(q) Misn. Megilla, c. 4. sect. 8. (r) T. Bab. Megilla, fol. 24. 2.((s) Jarchi, Bartenora, & Yom Tob, in Misn. Megilla, c. 4. sect. 8. (t) In. ib.

{10} For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?

(10) Those who are false brethren ought to be cast out of the congregation. As for those who are outside of it, they must be left to the judgment of God.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Corinthians 5:12 f. The reason for his having spoken in reference to the Christians, and not those without the Christian pale: for it does not at all concern me to be passing disciplinary judgments upon the latter.

τὶ γάρ μοι] for what concern is it of mine? etc. See Wetstein on the passage, and Schaefer, a[847] Bos. Ell. p. 598. The emphasis falls so entirely upon τί and τοὺς ἔξω, that we have not ἐμοί, which is not needed even if the reading καὶ (even, besides) τ. ἔξω be adopted.

τοὺς ἔξω] was with the Jews the standing name (חיצונים) for the heathen (see Lightfoot, Hor., a[848] Marc. iv. 11; Schoettgen on this verse; Kypke, II. p. 198); and so, in like manner, with the Christians it was the standing appellation for all who were non-Christians, as being outside the fellowship of the true people of God (Colossians 4:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:12; 1 Timothy 3:7).

οὐχὶ τοὺς ἔσω ὑμεῖς κρίνετε;] By this question Paul appeals, in justification of what he has just said: “what does it concern me,” etc., to the exercise of judicial functions by his readers themselves in the administration of church discipline, in so far, that is to say, as that discipline bore upon their fellow-Christians, and not upon those outside of the Christian society. Rückert thinks that Paul means to say: Judging is not my matter at all (seeing that the members of the church were judged by their fellow-members themselves; while those without, again, God would hereafter judge). But judging was doubtless his matter (see 1 Corinthians 5:4-6, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 5:13), only not respecting those ἔξω. What he means is rather this: “To judge those who are not Christians is no concern of mine, any more than you take in hand to judge any others except your fellow-believers.” “Ex eo, quod in ecclesia fieri solet, interpretari debuistis monitum meum, 1 Corinthians 5:9; cives judicatis, non alienos,” Bengel. The simple κρίνετε is altered in meaning by Billroth: Is it not enough that ye? etc., as well as by Castalio, Grotius, al[849]: judicare debetis (we find this interpretation as early as Theophylact). The Corinthians actually judged, every time that they passed a sentence of ecclesiastical discipline. Lastly, it is a mistake to render, as is done by τινές in Theophylact, Knatchbull, Hammond, Michaelis, Semler, Rosenmüller, Flatt, Heydenreich: No; judge ye your fellow-Christians! Οὐχί is not a suitable answer to ΤΊ, and would, besides, require ἈΛΛΆ after it (Romans 3:27; Luke 1:60; Luke 12:51; Luke 13:3; Luke 13:5; Luke 16:30), and that with a clause forming a logically correct antithesis to the question put.

[847] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[848] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

[849] l. refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.1 Corinthians 5:12-13. τί γάρ μοι τοὺς ἔξω κ.τ.λ.; “For what business of mine is it (Quid mea refert? Cv[879]) to judge those that are outside? (Is it) not those within (that) you judge, while those without God judges?” By these questions P. justifies his excluding the impure ἀδελφὸς ὀνομαζ. from the communion and social courtesies of the Church. He holds jurisdiction over those within its pale; of their conduct the Church (ὑμεῖς) is bound to take note; the world outside must be left to the judgment of God: “cives judicate, ne alienos” (Bg[880]). The Ap. places himself and the Cor[881] on the one side (cf. 1 Corinthians 6:4; also 1 Corinthians 12:25 f.), in contrast with God who judges τοὺς ἔξω. “Within” and “without” denoted in Synagogue usage members and non-members of the sacred community (see parls.): οἱ ἔσω = οἱ ἅγιοι, οἱ οἰκεῖοι τῆς πίστεως, οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, etc. Yet this mutual judgment of Christians by each other has great limitations (Romans 14:4-10; Matthew 7:1 ff.); its sphere lies in vital matters of character essential to Church life; and there it is subject to the final Court of Appeal (see 1 Corinthians 4:3 ff.).—ὁ Θεὸς κρίνει (not κρινεῖ): P. is not anticipating the Last Judgment, but laying down the principle that God is the world’s Judge; see Romans 2:16; Romans 3:6, Hebrews 12:23, etc.—The interrog. οὐχὶ holds under its regimen the two clauses linked by the contrastive δέ; El[882] however reads τοὺς δὲ ἔξω κ.τ.λ. assertively, as a concluding “grave enunciation”.

[879] Calvin’s In Nov. Testamentum Commentarii.

[880] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

[881]
Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[882] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

From his digression to the lost Ep. and the general social problem, the Ap. returns, with vehement emphasis, to the offender of 1 Corinthians 5:1 f. and demands his expulsion in the solemn words of the Deuteronomic law. τὸν πονηρὸν is not Satan (“scelerum omnium principem,” Cv[883]), nor “the wicked” in general—each case as it arises (Hf[884]); but “istum improbum” (Bz[885]), the case of notorious and extreme guilt which gave rise to the whole discussion.—ἐξάρατε (cf. ἐκκαθάρατε, 1 Corinthians 6:7) takes up again the ἵνα ἀρθῇ of 1 Corinthians 5:2, with the added thought (ἐξ- … ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν) of the riddance effected by his removal. The terrible sentence of 1 Corinthians 5:3 ff. had not, in so many words, prescribed ejection, though implying it; and P. needed to be very explicit: see note on 1 Corinthians 5:9. The formal expulsion must proceed from the Cor[886],—ὑμεῖς κρίνετε; the Church is a self-governing body.

[883] Calvin’s In Nov. Testamentum Commentarii.

[884] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht, ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[885] Beza’s Nov. Testamentum: Interpretatio et Annotationes (Cantab., 1642).

[886] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.12, 13. For what have I to do to judge them also that are without?] The connection of thought in this and the next verse is as follows: “You have supposed me to have been urging you to abstain altogether from any kind of intercourse with sinners. You misunderstood my meaning. I only meant to refer to the members of your own community. As you might have gathered from your own practice, which is confined to the Christian body, I have no authority to deal with those without. They are in the hands of God.” And then he abruptly adds, ‘Cast out the wicked man,’ or ‘the evil thing.’ The word therefore (literally ‘and’) is absent from many MSS., and has been supposed to have been introduced from the Septuagint version of Deuteronomy 13:5; Deuteronomy 17:7; Deuteronomy 21:21, &c. In the Greek the word ye in 1 Corinthians 5:12 is emphatic, and the words those that are within scarcely less so—‘it is those that are within that ye judge.’ Some editors would read the following words as a question, ‘Doth not God judge those that are without?’1 Corinthians 5:12. Τί γάρ μοι καὶ τοὺς ἔξω κρίνειν; οὐχὶ τοὺς ἔσω ὑμεῖς κρίνετε;) Artemonius, p. 212, refers to the conjecture of Le Clerc, and after changing a few words presents it in this form: τί γάρ μοι καὶ τοῖς ἔξω; καὶ νῦν οὖν τοὺς ἔσω ὑμεῖς κρίνετε. There are here various changes of letters, by which the word κρίνειν, the most necessary of them all, is cancelled. If the meaning of Paul had been, what have I to do with those that are without? the Greek idiom would have required ἐμοί, not μοι. Τί γάρ μοι καὶ τοὺς ἔξω κρίνειν, viz. ἐστί; for what have I to do to judge those that are without? (Verbals [such as Bengel’s “externos judicatio”] govern the case of the verb, ex. gr.: Curatio hanc rem, taking charge of this matter.) Expressions very similar occur, ἱνατί μοι ζῇν, Genesis 27:46 : οὐ σοὶ, Ὀζία, θυμιᾶσαι, 2 Chronicles 26:18 : οὐκ ἔστι γὰρ χαίρειν, λέγει Κύριος, τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, Isaiah 48:22 : ὄπως μὴ γένηται αὐτῷ χρονοτριβῆσαι, Acts 20:16 : πόθεν σοι ταῦτα ἐιδέναι, Hippolytus de antichristo, chap. 32. These remarks apply to the whole sentence; we shall now consider the words one by one.—καὶ) also, which intimates, that those, who are within, give me enough to do.[44]—ΚΡΊΝΕΙΝ, to judge) He judges, who is not mixed up with them, does not keep company with them.—οὐχὶ, do not ye?) From what is wont to occur in the Church, you ought to have interpreted my admonition, alluded to in 1 Corinthians 5:9, You judge your fellow-citizens, not strangers; how much more should I? You judge, will thus signify righteous judgment. But this may also be a previous [anticipatory], and, that too, a seasonable sting to the Corinthians, who were judging [bringing before heathen courts of justice] them that were within, while [though] they considered the saints removed [exempt] from judgments concerning things pertaining to this life, 1 Corinthians 6:1-3.

[44] This very particle καὶ, also, however, is considered of less importance in the 2d, than in the 1st Ed., and it is entirely omitted in the Germ. Vers.—E. B. ABCG Vulg. Memph. fg (ante-Hieron. Lat.) Versions omit καὶ. D and later Syr. retain καὶ.—ED.Verse 12. - For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? To pass sentence on heathens is no concern of mine; it is no part of my office. The phrase "them that are without" was originally a Jewish phrase. To the Jews all men were outsiders (chitsonin) except themselves. The phrase was adopted by Christians, but in a less contemptuous sense (1 Thessalonians 4:12; Colossians 4:5). We find a description of "those that were without" - "aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenant of promise" - in Ephesians 2:12. Do not ye judge them that are within! An appeal to their own practice and to common sense. Christian rules can, of course, only apply to Christian communities.
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