Gihon
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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
Gihon

valley of grace

Smith's Bible Dictionary
Gihon

(a stream).

  1. The second river of Paradise. (Genesis 2:13) [EDEN]
  2. A place near Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the anointing and proclamation of Solomon as king. (1 Kings 1:33,38,45)
ATS Bible Dictionary
Gihon

1. One of the four rivers of Paradise; as some suppose, the Araxes, Genesis 2:13. See EDEN, and EUPHRATES.

2. A fountain near Jerusalem on the west, besides which Solomon was anointed king, 1 Kings 1:33,38. Hezekiah covered it over, and brought its waters by a subterranean channel into the city, 2 Chronicles 32:3,30 33:14. A pool still exists in the spot referred to, three hundred feet long, two hundred wide, and twenty deep, with steps at two corners; and recently, in digging to lay the foundations of the Anglican church, an immense conduit was discovered running east and west, thirty feet under ground built of stone and coated with cement, and partly cut out of solid rock. Probably this was connected with the fountain of Gibon.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
A stream.

(1.) One of the four rivers of Eden (Genesis 2:13). It has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus, or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern name of the Arras, discharges itself into the Caspian Sea. It was the Asiatic and not the African "Cush" which the Gihon compassed (Genesis 10:7-10). (see EDEN.)

(2.) The only natural spring of water in or near Jerusalem is the "Fountain of the Virgin" (q.v.), which rises outside the city walls on the west bank of the Kidron valley. On the occasion of the approach of the Assyrian army under Sennacherib, Hezekiah, in order to prevent the besiegers from finding water, "stopped the upper water course of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David" (2 Chronicles 32:30; 33:14). This "fountain" or spring is therefore to be regarded as the "upper water course of Gihon." From this "fountain" a tunnel cut through the ridge which forms the south part of the temple hill conveys the water to the Pool of Siloam, which lies on the opposite side of this ridge at the head of the Tyropoeon ("cheesemakers'") valley, or valley of the son of Hinnom, now filled up by rubbish. The length of this tunnel is about 1,750 feet. In 1880 an inscription was accidentally discovered on the wall of the tunnel about nineteen feet from where it opens into the Pool of Siloam. This inscription was executed in all probability by Hezekiah's workmen. It briefly narrates the history of the excavation. It may, however, be possible that this tunnel was executed in the time of Solomon. If the "waters of Shiloah that go softly" (Isaiah 8:6) refers to the gentle stream that still flows through the tunnel into the Pool of Siloam, then this excavation must have existed before the time of Hezekiah.

In the upper part of the Tyropoeoan valley there are two pools still existing, the first, called Birket el-Mamilla, to the west of the Jaffa gate; the second, to the south of the first, called Birket es-Sultan. It is the opinion of some that the former was the "upper" and the latter the "lower" Pool of Gihon (2 Kings 18:17; Isaiah 7:3; 36:2; 22:9). (see CONDUIT; SILOAM.)

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
GIHON (1)

gi'-hon (gichon; Geon): One of the four rivers of Eden (Genesis 2:13). It is said to compass the Whole land of Cush (Ethiopia), probably a province East of the Tigris. The Gihon is thought by Sayce to be the Kerkha, coming down from Luristan through the province known in the cuneiform texts as Kassi, probably the Cush of the Bible.

See EDEN.

Used figuratively of wisdom in Sirach 24:27, "as Gihon (the King James Version Geon) in the days of vintage."

GIHON (2)

(gichon, gichon (in 1 K), from root gayach "to burst forth"):

(1) See preceding article.

(2) The Nile in Jeremiah 2:18 Septuagint (Geon); in Hebrew shichor (see SHIHOR).

(3) A spring in Jerusalem, evidently sacred, and, for that reason, selected as the scene of Solomon's coronation (1 Kings 1:38). It is without doubt the spring known to the Moslems as `Ain Umm edition deraj ("the spring of the steps") and to the Christians as `Ain Sitti Miriam ("the spring of the lady Mary"), or commonly as the "Virgin's Fount." It is the one true spring of Jerusalem, the original source of attraction to the site of the early settlers; it is situated in the Kidron valley on the East side of "Ophel," and due South of the temple area. See JERUSALEM. The water in the present day is brackish and impregnated with sewage. The spring is intermittent in character, "bursting up" at intervals: this feature may account for the name Gihon and for its sacred characters. In New Testament times it was, as it is today, credited with healing virtues. See BETHESDA. Its position is clearly defined in the Old Testament. Manasseh "built an outer wall to the city of David, on the West side of Gihon, in the valley" (= Nahal, i.e. the Kidron; 2 Chronicles 33:14). From Gihon Hezekiah made his aqueduct (2 Chronicles 32:30), now the Siloam tunnel.

See SILOAM.

The spring is approached by a steep descent down 30 steps, the water rising deep underground; the condition is due to the vast accumulation of rubbish-the result of the many destructions of the city-which now fills the valley bed. Originally the water ran down the open valley. The water rises from a long deep crack in the rock, partly under the lowest of the steps and to a lesser extent in the mouth of a small cave, 11 1/2 ft. long by 5 ft. wide, into which all the water pours. The village women of Siloam obtain the water at the mouth of the cave, but when the supply is scanty they actually go under the lowest step-where there is a kind of chamber-and fill their vessels there. At the farther end of this cave is the opening leading into the aqueduct down which the water flows to emerge after many windings at the pool of Siloam. The first part of this aqueduct is older than the time of Hezekiah and led originally to the perpendicular shaft, connected with "Warren's tunnel" described elsewhere (see SILOAM; ZION).

The preeminent position of importance which Gihon held in the eyes of the earlier inhabitants of Jerusalem is shown by the extraordinary number of passages, rock cuttings, walls and aqueducts which exist all about the spring. Walls have been made at different periods to bank up the waters and direct them into the channels provided for them. Of aqueducts, besides the "Siloam aqueduct," two others have been formed. One running from the source at a considerable lower level than that of Hezekiah was followed by the present writer (see PEFS, 1902, 35-38) for 176 ft. It was very winding, following apparently the West side of the Kidron valley. It was a well-cemented channel, about 1 1/2 ft. wide and on an average of 4 1/2 ft. high, roofed in with well-cut stones. There are no certain indications of age, but in the writer's opinion it is a much later construction than Hezekiah's aqueduct, though the rock-cut part near the source may be older. It was discovered by the Siloam fellahin, because, through a fault in the dam, all the water of the "Virgin's Fount" was disappearing down this channel. A third aqueduct has recently been discovered running off at a higher level than the other two. It is a channel deeply cut in the rock with curious trough-like stones all along its floor. It appears to be made for water, but one branch of it actually slopes upward toward its end. The pottery, which is early Hebrew, shows that it is very ancient. The whole accumulated debris around the source is full of pre-Israelite and early Israelite pottery.

E. W. G. Masterman

Strong's Hebrew
1521. Gichon -- "a bursting forth," one of the rivers of Eden ...
... Jer. Transliteration: Gichon Phonetic Spelling: (ghee-khone') Short Definition:
Gihon. Word ... Jer. NASB Word Usage Gihon (6). Gihon. Or ...
/hebrew/1521.htm - 6k
Library

Gihon, the Same with the Fountain of Siloam.
... A Chorographical Century. Chapters 21-30 Chapter 25 Gihon, the same with
the Fountain of Siloam. I. In 1 Kings 1:33,38, that which ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 25 gihon the same.htm

In the Last, the Great Day of the Feast'
... farther up in the narrowest part of the Kedron Valley, which presently bears the
name of the Virgin's Fountain,' but represents the ancient En-Rogel and Gihon. ...
/.../edersheim/the life and times of jesus the messiah/chapter vii in the last.htm

David Appointing Solomon
... The king also said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause
Solomon my son to ride upon mine own mule, and bring him down to Gihon: 34. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture f/david appointing solomon.htm

The Story of Solomon and his Temple
... placed Solomon upon it; and with the king's guards, and the nobles, and the great
men, they brought the young Solomon down to the valley of Gihon, south of the ...
/.../marshall/the wonder book of bible stories/the story of solomon and.htm

The Beauty of Paradise.
... it was signified that a river flowed out of Eden to water Paradise, and after that
divides into four heads; of which the two called Pison and Gihon water the ...
/.../theophilus/theophilus to autolycus/chapter xxiv the beauty of paradise.htm

How Solomon Became the Ruler of Israel
... Let Solomon my son ride upon my own mule, bring him down to Gihon, and there let
Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet make him ruler over Israel and blow ...
/.../sherman/the childrens bible/how solomon became the ruler.htm

Further Use Made of the System of the Phrygians; Mode of ...
... "But the name of the second river is Gihon: this is that which compasseth the land
of Ethiopia." This, he says, is hearing, since Gihon is (a tortuous stream ...
/.../hippolytus/the refutation of all heresies/chapter iv further use made of.htm

Letter Li. From Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, in Cyprus, to John ...
... The name of the first is Pison...and the name of the second is Gihon." [1273] I
myself have seen the waters of Gihon, have seen them with my bodily eyes. ...
/.../jerome/the principal works of st jerome/letter li from epiphanius bishop.htm

From the Talmud and Hebraica
... Chapter 24 Some buildings in Acra. Bezeiha. Millo. Chapter 25 Gihon, the same with
the Fountain of Siloam. Chapter 26 The Girdle of the City. Nehemiah 3. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/

On the Creation of the World
... Moses to Christ the Lord, the Son of God; and four living creatures, viz., a man,
a calf, a lion, an eagle; and four rivers, the Pison, the Gihon, the Tigris ...
/.../victorinus/on the creation of the world/on the creation of the.htm

Thesaurus
Gihon (6 Occurrences)
... to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the
head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ...
/g/gihon.htm - 16k

Enrogel (4 Occurrences)
... Ain sitti Miriam and `Ain Umm el deraj, an intermittent source of water which rises
in a cave on the West side of the Kedron valley opposite Siloam (see GIHON...
/e/enrogel.htm - 15k

En-rogel (4 Occurrences)
... Ain sitti Miriam and `Ain Umm el deraj, an intermittent source of water which rises
in a cave on the West side of the Kedron valley opposite Siloam (see GIHON...
/e/en-rogel.htm - 15k

Shiloah (1 Occurrence)
... 2. The Siloam Aqueduct: Opposite to the main part of Silwan is the "Virgin's Fount,"
ancient GIHON (which see), whose waters are practically monopolized by the ...
/s/shiloah.htm - 17k

Siloah (1 Occurrence)
... 2. The Siloam Aqueduct: Opposite to the main part of Silwan is the "Virgin's Fount,"
ancient GIHON (which see), whose waters are practically monopolized by the ...
/s/siloah.htm - 17k

Shelah (18 Occurrences)
... 2. The Siloam Aqueduct: Opposite to the main part of Silwan is the "Virgin's Fount,"
ancient GIHON (which see), whose waters are practically monopolized by the ...
/s/shelah.htm - 24k

Zion (169 Occurrences)
... scholars, mainly on the following grounds: (1) The near proximity of the site to
the only known spring, now the "Virgin's Fount," once called GIHON (which see ...
/z/zion.htm - 49k

Field (390 Occurrences)
... the walls of the Birket Hamam el Batrah, inside the walls; the former was considered
the "Upper Pool" and is traditionally called the "Upper Pool" of Gihon. ...
/f/field.htm - 44k

Fuller's (4 Occurrences)
... the walls of the Birket Hamam el Batrah, inside the walls; the former was considered
the "Upper Pool" and is traditionally called the "Upper Pool" of Gihon. ...
/f/fuller's.htm - 11k

Siloam (4 Occurrences)
... 2. The Siloam Aqueduct: Opposite to the main part of Silwan is the "Virgin's Fount,"
ancient GIHON (which see), whose waters are practically monopolized by the ...
/s/siloam.htm - 21k

Concordance
Gihon (6 Occurrences)

Genesis 2:13
The name of the second river is Gihon: the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 1:33
The king said to them, "Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride on my own mule, and bring him down to Gihon.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 1:38
So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride on king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Kings 1:45
Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon. They have come up from there rejoicing, so that the city rang again. This is the noise that you have heard.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 32:30
This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper spring of the waters of Gihon, and brought them straight down on the west side of the city of David. Hezekiah prospered in all his works.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 33:14
Now after this he built an outer wall to the city of David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, even to the entrance at the fish gate; and he encircled Ophel with it, and raised it up to a very great height: and he put valiant captains in all the fortified cities of Judah.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Gihon

Gihon: A River in Egypt

Gihon: Hezekiah Brings the Waters of the Upper Pool by an Aqueduct Into the City of Jerusalem

Gihon: Pools Near Jerusalem

Related Terms

Enrogel (4 Occurrences)

En-rogel (4 Occurrences)

Shiloah (1 Occurrence)

Siloah (1 Occurrence)

Shelah (18 Occurrences)

Zion (169 Occurrences)

Field (390 Occurrences)

Fuller's (4 Occurrences)

Siloam (4 Occurrences)

Eden (19 Occurrences)

Cush (31 Occurrences)

Kidron (11 Occurrences)

Ride (31 Occurrences)

Conduit (5 Occurrences)

Bethesda (1 Occurrence)

Mule (9 Occurrences)

Hinnom (11 Occurrences)

Ophel (6 Occurrences)

Valley (187 Occurrences)

Brook (75 Occurrences)

Zadok (50 Occurrences)

Nathan (42 Occurrences)

Jerusalem (782 Occurrences)

Spring (122 Occurrences)

Zoheleth (1 Occurrence)

Kerethites (9 Occurrences)

Undertook (14 Occurrences)

Uproar (33 Occurrences)

Outlet (3 Occurrences)

Jehoi'ada (50 Occurrences)

Gigantic (1 Occurrence)

Gilalai (1 Occurrence)

Watercourse (6 Occurrences)

Winds (35 Occurrences)

Flows (14 Occurrences)

Fish-gate (3 Occurrences)

That's (8 Occurrences)

Rang (4 Occurrences)

Resounds (2 Occurrences)

Rebuilt (47 Occurrences)

Resounded (5 Occurrences)

Encircled (17 Occurrences)

Escorted (6 Occurrences)

Encircling (6 Occurrences)

Dragon (20 Occurrences)

Directeth (9 Occurrences)

Millo (9 Occurrences)

Pools (15 Occurrences)

Pelethites (7 Occurrences)

Pelethite (7 Occurrences)

Prospereth (12 Occurrences)

Pel'ethites (7 Occurrences)

Benai'ah (43 Occurrences)

Blocked (5 Occurrences)

Bulwarks (22 Occurrences)

Cheering (4 Occurrences)

Compasseth (8 Occurrences)

Channeled (1 Occurrence)

Cherethites (11 Occurrences)

Cher'ethites (10 Occurrences)

Cherethite (8 Occurrences)

Source (16 Occurrences)

Surrounds (8 Occurrences)

West (110 Occurrences)

Prospered (35 Occurrences)

Entire (119 Occurrences)

Closed (47 Occurrences)

Benaiah (44 Occurrences)

Rejoicing (90 Occurrences)

Compassed (52 Occurrences)

Higher (73 Occurrences)

Fenced (61 Occurrences)

Walled (63 Occurrences)

Stationed (49 Occurrences)

Beneath (73 Occurrences)

Noise (126 Occurrences)

Military (44 Occurrences)

Directed (75 Occurrences)

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