Deuteronomy 20:19
Strong's Lexicon
When
כִּֽי־ (kî-)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: 1) that, for, because, when, as though, as, because that, but, then, certainly, except, surely, since 1a) that 1a1) yea, indeed 1b) when (of time) 1b1) when, if, though (with a concessive force) 1c) because, since (causal connection) 1d) but (after negative) 1e) that if, for if, indeed if, for though, but if 1f) but rather, but 1g) except that 1h) only, nevertheless 1i) surely 1j) that is 1k) but if 1l) for though 1m) forasmuch as, for therefore

you lay siege
תָצ֣וּר (ṯā·ṣūr)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - second person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6696: 1) to bind, besiege, confine, cramp 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to confine, secure 1a2) to shut in, beseige 1a3) to shut up, enclose 2) (Qal) to show hostility to, be an adversary, treat as foe 3) (Qal) to form, fashion, delineate

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: 1) to, toward, unto (of motion) 2) into (limit is actually entered) 2a) in among 3) toward (of direction, not necessarily physical motion) 4) against (motion or direction of a hostile character) 5) in addition to, to 6) concerning, in regard to, in reference to, on account of 7) according to (rule or standard) 8) at, by, against (of one's presence) 9) in between, in within, to within, unto (idea of motion to)

a city
עִיר֩ (‘îr)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5892: 1) excitement, anguish 1a) of terror 2) city, town (a place of waking, guarded) 2a) city, town

for an extended
רַבִּ֜ים (rab·bîm)
Adjective - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7227: adj 1) much, many, great 1a) much 1b) many 1c) abounding in 1d) more numerous than 1e) abundant, enough 1f) great 1g) strong 1h) greater than adv 1i) much, exceedingly n m 2) captain, chief

time
יָמִ֨ים (yā·mîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3117: 1) day, time, year 1a) day (as opposed to night) 1b) day (24 hour period) 1b1) as defined by evening and morning in Genesis 1 1b2) as a division of time 1b2a) a working day, a day's journey 1c) days, lifetime (pl.) 1d) time, period (general) 1e) year 1f) temporal references 1f1) today 1f2) yesterday 1f3) tomorrow

while fighting
לְֽהִלָּחֵ֧ם (lə·hil·lā·ḥêm)
Preposition-l | Verb - Nifal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 3898: 1) to fight, do battle, make war 1a) (Qal) to fight, do battle 1b) (Niphal) to engage in battle, wage war 2) (Qal) to eat, use as food

against it
עָלֶ֣יהָ (‘ā·le·hā)
Preposition | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5921: prep 1) upon, on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, beside, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by, on to, towards, to, against 1a) upon, on the ground of, on the basis of, on account of, because of, therefore, on behalf of, for the sake of, for, with, in spite of, notwithstanding, concerning, in the matter of, as regards 1b) above, beyond, over (of excess) 1c) above, over (of elevation or pre-eminence) 1d) upon, to, over to, unto, in addition to, together with, with (of addition) 1e) over (of suspension or extension) 1f) by, adjoining, next, at, over, around (of contiguity or proximity) 1g) down upon, upon, on, from, up upon, up to, towards, over towards, to, against (with verbs of motion) 1h) to (as a dative) conj 2) because that, because, notwithstanding, although

to capture it,
לְתָפְשָׂ֗הּ (lə·ṯā·p̄ə·śāh)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8610: 1) to catch, handle, lay hold, take hold of, seize, wield 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to lay hold of, seize, arrest, catch 1a2) to grasp (in order to) wield, wield, use skilfully 1b) (Niphal) to be seized, be arrested, be caught, be taken, captured 1c) (Piel) to catch, grasp (with the hands)

you must not
לֹֽא־ (lō-)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: 1) not, no 1a) not (with verb-absolute prohibition) 1b) not (with modifier-negation) 1c) nothing (subst) 1d) without (with particle) 1e) before (of time)

destroy
תַשְׁחִ֤ית (ṯaš·ḥîṯ)
Verb - Hifil - Imperfect - second person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7843: 1) to destroy, corrupt, go to ruin, decay 1a) (Niphal) to be marred, be spoiled, be corrupted, be corrupt, be injured, be ruined, be rotted 1b) (Piel) 1b1) to spoil, ruin 1b2) to pervert, corrupt, deal corruptly (morally) 1c) (Hiphil) 1c1) to spoil, ruin, destroy 1c2) to pervert, corrupt (morally) 1c3) destroyer (participle) 1d) (Hophal) spoiled, ruined (participle)

אֶת־ (’eṯ-)
Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 853: 1) sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative

its trees
עֵצָהּ֙ (‘ê·ṣāh)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6086: 1) tree, wood, timber, stock, plank, stalk, stick, gallows 1a) tree, trees 1b) wood, pieces of wood, gallows, firewood, cedar-wood, woody flax

by putting
לִנְדֹּ֤חַ (lin·dō·aḥ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 5080: 1) to impel, thrust, drive away, banish 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to impel 1a2) to thrust away, banish 1b) (Niphal) 1b1) to be impelled 1b2) to be thrust out, be banished 1b2a) banished, outcast (participle) 1b3) to be driven away 1b4) to be thrust away, thrust aside 1c) (Pual) to be thrust into 1c1) thrust (participle) 1d) (Hiphil) 1d1) to thrust, move, impel 1d2) to thrust out, banish 1d3) to thrust away, thrust aside 1e) (Hophal) to be chased, be hunted 1e1) chased, hunted (participle)

an ax
גַּרְזֶ֔ן (gar·zen)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1631: 1) axe

to them,
עָלָיו֙ (‘ā·lāw)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5921: prep 1) upon, on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, beside, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by, on to, towards, to, against 1a) upon, on the ground of, on the basis of, on account of, because of, therefore, on behalf of, for the sake of, for, with, in spite of, notwithstanding, concerning, in the matter of, as regards 1b) above, beyond, over (of excess) 1c) above, over (of elevation or pre-eminence) 1d) upon, to, over to, unto, in addition to, together with, with (of addition) 1e) over (of suspension or extension) 1f) by, adjoining, next, at, over, around (of contiguity or proximity) 1g) down upon, upon, on, from, up upon, up to, towards, over towards, to, against (with verbs of motion) 1h) to (as a dative) conj 2) because that, because, notwithstanding, although

because
כִּ֚י ()
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: 1) that, for, because, when, as though, as, because that, but, then, certainly, except, surely, since 1a) that 1a1) yea, indeed 1b) when (of time) 1b1) when, if, though (with a concessive force) 1c) because, since (causal connection) 1d) but (after negative) 1e) that if, for if, indeed if, for though, but if 1f) but rather, but 1g) except that 1h) only, nevertheless 1i) surely 1j) that is 1k) but if 1l) for though 1m) forasmuch as, for therefore

you can eat their fruit
תֹאכֵ֔ל (ṯō·ḵêl)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - second person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 398: 1) to eat, devour, burn up, feed 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to eat (human subject) 1a2) to eat, devour (of beasts and birds) 1a3) to devour, consume (of fire) 1a4) to devour, slay (of sword) 1a5) to devour, consume, destroy (inanimate subjects - ie, pestilence, drought) 1a6) to devour (of oppression) 1b) (Niphal) 1b1) to be eaten (by men) 1b2) to be devoured, consumed (of fire) 1b3) to be wasted, destroyed (of flesh) 1c) (Pual) 1c1) to cause to eat, feed with 1c2) to cause to devour 1d) (Hiphil) 1d1) to feed 1d2) to cause to eat 1e) (Piel) 1e1) consume

וְאֹת֖וֹ (wə·’ō·ṯōw)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 853: 1) sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative

מִמֶּ֣נּוּ (mim·men·nū)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4480: prep 1) from, out of, on account of, off, on the side of, since, above, than, so that not, more than 1a) from (expressing separation), off, on the side of 1b) out of 1b1) (with verbs of proceeding, removing, expelling) 1b2) (of material from which something is made) 1b3) (of source or origin) 1c) out of, some of, from (partitively) 1d) from, since, after (of time) 1e) than, more than (in comparison) 1f) from...even to, both...and, either...or 1g) than, more than, too much for (in comparisons) 1h) from, on account of, through, because (with infinitive) conj 2) that

You must not
לֹ֣א ()
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: 1) not, no 1a) not (with verb-absolute prohibition) 1b) not (with modifier-negation) 1c) nothing (subst) 1d) without (with particle) 1e) before (of time)

cut them down.
תִכְרֹ֑ת (ṯiḵ·rōṯ)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - second person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3772: 1) to cut, cut off, cut down, cut off a body part, cut out, eliminate, kill, cut a covenant 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to cut off 1a1a) to cut off a body part, behead 1a2) to cut down 1a3) to hew 1a4) to cut or make a covenant 1b) (Niphal) 1b1) to be cut off 1b2) to be cut down 1b3) to be chewed 1b4) to be cut off, fail 1c) (Pual) 1c1) to be cut off 1c2) to be cut down 1d) (Hiphil) 1d1) to cut off 1d2) to cut off, destroy 1d3) to cut down, destroy 1d4) to take away 1d5) to permit to perish 1e) (Hophal) cut off

כִּ֤י ()
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: 1) that, for, because, when, as though, as, because that, but, then, certainly, except, surely, since 1a) that 1a1) yea, indeed 1b) when (of time) 1b1) when, if, though (with a concessive force) 1c) because, since (causal connection) 1d) but (after negative) 1e) that if, for if, indeed if, for though, but if 1f) but rather, but 1g) except that 1h) only, nevertheless 1i) surely 1j) that is 1k) but if 1l) for though 1m) forasmuch as, for therefore

Are the trees
עֵ֣ץ (‘êṣ)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 6086: 1) tree, wood, timber, stock, plank, stalk, stick, gallows 1a) tree, trees 1b) wood, pieces of wood, gallows, firewood, cedar-wood, woody flax

of the field
הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה (haś·śā·ḏeh)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7704: 1) field, land 1a) cultivated field 1b) of home of wild beasts 1c) plain (opposed to mountain) 1d) land (opposed to sea)

human,
הָֽאָדָם֙ (hā·’ā·ḏām)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 120: 1) man, mankind 1a) man, human being 1b) man, mankind (much more frequently intended sense in OT) 1c) Adam, first man 1d) city in Jordan valley

that you should besiege them ?
בַּמָּצֽוֹר׃ (bam·mā·ṣō·wr)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4692: 1) siege-enclosure, siege, entrenchment, siege works 1a) siege 1b) enclosure, siege-works, rampart

Parallel Strong's
Holman Christian Standard Bible
When you lay siege to a city for a long time, fighting against it in order to capture it, you must not destroy its trees by putting an ax to them, because you can get food from them. You must not cut them down. Are trees of the field human, to come under siege by you ?

New American Standard Bible
"When you besiege a city a long time, to make war against it in order to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by swinging an axe against them; for you may eat from them, and you shall not cut them down. For is the tree of the field a man, that it should be besieged by you?

King James Bible
When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an axe against them: for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree of the field [is] man's [life]) to employ [them] in the siege:
Parallel Verses
New International Version
When you lay siege to a city for a long time, fighting against it to capture it, do not destroy its trees by putting an ax to them, because you can eat their fruit. Do not cut them down. Are the trees people, that you should besiege them?

New Living Translation
"When you are attacking a town and the war drags on, you must not cut down the trees with your axes. You may eat the fruit, but do not cut down the trees. Are the trees your enemies, that you should attack them?

English Standard Version
“When you besiege a city for a long time, making war against it in order to take it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an axe against them. You may eat from them, but you shall not cut them down. Are the trees in the field human, that they should be besieged by you?

New American Standard Bible
"When you besiege a city a long time, to make war against it in order to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by swinging an axe against them; for you may eat from them, and you shall not cut them down. For is the tree of the field a man, that it should be besieged by you?

King James Bible
When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an axe against them: for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree of the field is man's life) to employ them in the siege:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When you lay siege to a city for a long time, fighting against it in order to capture it, you must not destroy its trees by putting an ax to them, because you can get food from them. You must not cut them down. Are trees of the field human, to come under siege by you?

International Standard Version
"When you attack a city and have to fight against it for many days, don't destroy its trees by cutting them down with an ax. You may eat from them, but you must not cut them down. Are the trees of the field human beings, that you would come and attack them?

NET Bible
If you besiege a city for a long time while attempting to capture it, you must not chop down its trees, for you may eat fruit from them and should not cut them down. A tree in the field is not human that you should besiege it!

American Standard Version
When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by wielding an axe against them; for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down; for is the tree of the field man, that it should be besieged of thee?

English Revised Version
When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by wielding an axe against them; for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down; for is the tree of the field man, that it should be besieged of thee?

Young's Literal Translation
When thou layest siege unto a city many days, to fight against it, to capture it, thou dost not destroy its trees to force an axe against them, for of them thou dost eat, and them thou dost not cut down -- for man's is the tree of the field -- to go in at thy presence in the siege.






Cross References
Deuteronomy 20:18
That they teach you not to do after all their abominations, which they have done unto their gods; so should ye sin against the LORD your God.

Deuteronomy 20:20
Only the trees which thou knowest that they be not trees for meat, thou shalt destroy and cut them down; and thou shalt build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee, until it be subdued.

Jeremiah 6:6
For thus hath the LORD of hosts said, Hew ye down trees, and cast a mount against Jerusalem: this is the city to be visited; she is wholly oppression in the midst of her.

Deuteronomy 1:1
These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab.

Deuteronomy 20:17
But thou shalt utterly destroy them; namely, the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee:

Deuteronomy 20:16
But of the cities of these people, which the LORD thy God doth give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth:

Deuteronomy 21:1
If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath slain him:

Deuteronomy 21:2
Then thy elders and thy judges shall come forth, and they shall measure unto the cities which are round about him that is slain:
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