Romans 16:21
Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(21-23) The companions of St. Paul add their own greetings to the Roman Church.

(21) Timotheus.—Timothy had been sent on in advance from Ephesus (Acts 20:22). He would seem to have gone on into Greece and to Corinth itself (1Corinthians 4:17; 1Corinthians 16:10). He had thence rejoined St. Paul on his way through Macedonia (2Corinthians 1:1), and he was now with him again in Greece.

In the other Epistles (2 Cor., Phil., Colossians , 1 and 2 Thess., and Philem.), when Timothy was present with St. Paul at the time of his writing, he is joined with him in the salutation at the outset. Why his name does not appear in the heading of the present letter we can hardly say. Perhaps he happened to be away at the time when it was begun; or, St. Paul may have thought it well that a church which was entirely strange to him, and to which Timothy too was a stranger, should be addressed in his own name alone.

Lucius.—This may, perhaps, be the Lucius of Cyrene mentioned in Acts 13:1; but the name is too common for anything to be asserted positively.

Jason.—A Jason is mentioned as having received St. Paul and his companions on their first visit to Thessalonica, and getting himself into trouble in consequence (Acts 17:5-9). It would be some slight argument for this identification if the word “kinsmen” were taken in its narrower sense; there would then be a reason why St. Paul should have found hospitality in the house of Jason.

Sosipater.—Possibly “Sopater, the son of Pyrrhus, of Berœa,” mentioned in Acts 20:4 (corrected reading).

Romans 16:21. Timotheus my work-fellow — Or fellow labourer, and Lucius, &c., salute you — Desire that their sincere love and Christian friendship may be testified to you. As Timothy had never been at Rome, he is not named in the beginning of the epistle. Of Paul’s first acquaintance with Timothy, see on Acts 16:1-3. We find a person of the name of Lucius, spoken of Acts 13:1, as one of the prophets of the church at Antioch; but that Lucius, being nowhere mentioned as Paul’s companion in travel, Origen was of opinion that the Lucius here mentioned was Luke the evangelist, whom the apostle called Lucius after the Roman manner, as he called Silas, Silvanus. But we have no proof that Luke was with the apostle at Corinth when he wrote this epistle. Jason is probably the person so called, with whom Paul lodged at Thessalonica, Acts 17:7; and who, on that account, was accused to the magistrates of harbouring seditious persons. Sosipater is the person called Sopater of Berea, Acts 20:4 : he and Jason are probably called the apostle’s kinsmen, merely because they were Jews.16:21-24 The apostle adds affectionate remembrances from persons with him, known to the Roman Christians. It is a great comfort to see the holiness and usefulness of our kindred. Not many mighty, not many noble are called, but some are. It is lawful for believers to bear civil offices; and it were to be wished that all offices in Christian states, and in the church, were bestowed upon prudent and steady Christians.Timotheus - Timothy; to whom the Epistles which bear his name were written. He was long the companion of Paul in his labors; Acts 16:1; 1 Corinthians 16:10; 2 Corinthians 1:1, 2 Corinthians 1:19; Philippians 2:29; 1 Thessalonians 3:2; 1 Timothy 1:2; Hebrews 13:23.

And Lucius - He is mentioned in Acts 13:1, as a prophet and teacher, a native of Cyrene. Nothing more is known of him.

My kinsmen - Romans 16:7.

21. Timotheus, my work-fellow—"my fellow labourer"; see Ac 16:1-5. The apostle mentions him here rather than in the opening address to this church, as he had not been at Rome [Bengel].

and Lucius—not Luke, for the fuller form of "Lucas" is not "Lucius" but "Lucanus." The person meant seems to be "Lucius of Cyrene," who was among the "prophets and teachers" at Antioch with our apostle, before he was summoned into the missionary field (Ac 13:1).

and Jason—See Ac 17:5. He had probably accompanied or followed the apostle from Thessalonica to Corinth.

Sosipater—See Ac 20:4.

As before he saluted divers persons himself, so now he sendeth the salutation of others to the church of Rome. This he doth to show the mutual amity and love that is and ought to be between Christians; though they are divided in respect of place, yet not in respect of affection and goodwill. He begins with

Timotheus, or Timothy, whom he calls his work-fellow, or fellow helper, viz. in preaching and propagating the gospel of Christ. This shows the humility of the apostle, that he dignifies so young a man with this title. This is he to whom he wrote afterwards two Epistles; you may read more of him, Acts 16:1-7, and elsewhere.

Lucius: Origen and some others are of opinion that this was Luke the evangelist, who was the inseparable companion of the apostle Paul, and was with him about this very time, as appears by Acts 20:5; and here he is called Lucius, according to the Roman inflexion. Others think that this was Lucius of Cyrene, of whom you read, Acts 23:1.

Jason; this was Paul’s host at Thessalonica, Acts 17:5,7; the same, as some think, that is called Secundus, Acts 20:4, the one being his Hebrew, the other his Roman name.

Sosipater; the same that is called Sopater of Berea, in Acts 20:4.

My kinsmen: see Romans 16:7. Timotheus my work fellow,.... Now follow the salutations of the friends and companions of the apostle: we may imagine that when this epistle was just concluding, that these his friends being about him, one said, pray send my Christian salutation to our dear friends at Rome, so said a second, and likewise a third, and so on, and Timotheus he began. This is the same person with Timothy, a disciple the apostle met with at Derbe, whose father was a Greek, and his mother a Jewess, and a believer in Christ. This same man he circumcised because of the Jews, and took him along with him, and was his companion in his travels, and very assisting to him in the work of the ministry, in spreading the Gospel, and promoting the interest of Jesus Christ; and therefore he here calls him his "work fellow"; he wrote two epistles to him afterwards when at a distance front him, in which he often calls him his son, his dear and well beloved son, having a great affection for him, because as a son with a father he served with him in the Gospel of Christ:

and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater my kinsmen salute you. This Lucius was either Lucius of Cyrene, who was one of the prophets in the church at Antioch, Acts 13:1, though indeed he is never said to travel with the apostle, or to be at Corinth, from whence this epistle was written; or rather, therefore, as others think, Luke the evangelist, who was a constant companion of the apostle, and was at Corinth with him at this time, as appears from Acts 20:5; Jason no doubt is he of Thessalonica, that received Paul and Silas into his house, and when an uproar was made concerning them, was brought before the rulers of the city, and gave security for them, Acts 17:5. This is a Jewish name, and he himself was a Jew, as is clear from his being a kinsman of the apostle's; his name was "Jeshua" or "Jesus"; so we read of one Jason, the brother of Onias the high priest of the Jews,

"But after the death of Seleucus, when Antiochus, called Epiphanes, took the kingdom,

Jason the brother of Onias laboured underhand to be high priest,'' (2 Maccabees 4:7)

and whose name, as Josephus (a) relates, was Jesus, but he chose to be called Jason, very likely because that was a name among the Greeks, whose fashions he was fond of. Sosipater was Sopater of Berea, who, with others, accompanied the apostle into Asia, Acts 20:4; he also was a Jew, and his Jewish name, as Grotius conjectures, might be Abisha, or rather Abishua, the name of the son of Phinehas the high priest, 1 Chronicles 6:4. Mention is also made of one of this name, Sosipater, in

"12. Howbeit Dositheus and

Sosipater, who were of Maccabeus' captains, went forth, and slew those that Timotheus had left in the fortress, above ten thousand men. 24. Moreover Timotheus himself fell into the hands of Dositheus and

Sosipater, whom he besought with much craft to let him go with his life, because he had many of the Jews' parents, and the brethren of some of them, who, if they put him to death, should not be regarded.'' (2 Maccabees 12:12,24)

These three last were Paul's kinsmen after the flesh, as well as in the spirit; being of the same nation, and perhaps of the same tribe, and it may be of the same family; they are all three mentioned among the severity disciples: Lucius is said to be bishop of Laodicea in Syria, Jason of Tarsus, and Sosipater of Iconium; See Gill on Luke 10:1.

(a) Antiqu. l. 12. c. 5. sect. 1.

{5} Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.

(5) He adds salutations, partly to renew mutual friendship, and partly to the end that this epistle might be of some weight with the Romans, having the confirmation of so many that subscribed to it.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 16:21. Τιμόθ.] It may surprise us that he is not brought forward at the head of the epistle as its joint writer (as in 2 Corinthians 1:1; Php 1:1; Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1), since he was at that time with Paul. But it is possible that he was absent just when Paul began to compose the epistle, and hence the apostle availed himself in the writing of it of the hand of a more subordinate person, who had no place in the superscription (Romans 16:22); it is possible also that the matter took this shape for the inward reason, that Paul deemed it suitable to appear with his epistle before the Roman church, to which he was still so strange, in all his unique and undivided apostolic authority.

Λούκιος] Not identical with Luke, as Origen, Semler, and others held;[50] but whether with Lucius of Cyrene, Acts 13:1, is uncertain. Just as little can it (even after Lucht’s attempt) be ascertained, whether Ἰάσων is the same who is mentioned in Acts 17:5. ΣΩΣΊΠΑΤΡΟς may be one with ΣΏΠΑΤΡΟς, Acts 20:4; yet both names, ΣΩΣΊΠ. And ΣΏΠ., are frequently found in the Greek writers.

ΣΥΓΓΕΝΕῖς] as Romans 16:7; Romans 16:11. Why it should be reckoned ‘more than improbable” (Hofmann) that Paul had at that time three kinsmen in Rome (Romans 16:7; Romans 16:11), and three in his neighbourhood at the time of writing, it is not at all easy to see.

[50] Considered probable also by Tiele in the Stud. u. Krit. 1858, p. 753 ff.—In the Constitt. ap. vii. 46. 2, Lucius is mentioned as the name of the bishop of Cenchreae appointed by Paul.Romans 16:21-23. Greetings of Paul’s companions.21–24. Salutations

21. Timotheus my workfellow] Cp. especially Php 2:19-22 with this brief allusion to this singularly beloved and honoured friend and helper of the Apostle. His name appears in eleven Epistles; Romans , 1 and 2 Cor., Phil., Colossians , 1 and 2 Thessalonians , 1 and 2 Tim., Philem., Hebr.

Lucius] Perhaps the same person as Lucius of Cyrene, (Acts 13:1). He is sometimes identified with St Luke (Lucas); but there is no good evidence for this. The names Lucius and Lucas (Lucanus) are quite distinct.

Jason] Perhaps the same as Jason the Thessalonian; Acts 17:5-7; Acts 17:9.

Sosipăter] Perhaps the same as Sopater the Berœan; Acts 20:4. That Sopater perhaps started from Corinth with St Paul on the journey to Asia there mentioned.

my kinsmen] See on Romans 16:7. Lucius bore a Roman name; Jason and Sosipater, Greek names.Romans 16:21. Συνεργὸς, fellow-labourer) He is placed here before the kinsmen. His name however is not found in ch. Romans 1:1, because he had not been at Rome.Verses 21-24. - L. Greetings from Corinth. Verses 21, 22. - Timotheus my workfellow (Timothy may have joined St. Paul at Corinth before the letter was finally sent, not having been with him when it was begun. For his name is not conjoined with St. Paul's in the opening salutation, as it is in 2 Corinthians 1:1; Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1. Still, it does not of necessity follow that this would have been so in the case of a doctrinal treatise such as this Epistle mainly is), and Lucius (not to be identified with St. Luke), and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you, I Tertius, who wrote this Epistle, salute you in the Lord. It was St. Paul's habit to dictate his letters to an amanuensis (cf. Galatians 6:11; Colossians 4:18; 2 Thessalonians 3:17). Here the amanuensis interposes his own greeting in his own person. Lucius and Jason - Sosipater

For Lucius, see on Acts 13:1. Jason, possibly the Jason of Acts 17:5. Sosipater, possibly the Sopater of Acts 20:4. Both names were common.

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