Revelation 11:13
And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.
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(13) And the same hour . . .—Better, And in that hour there was (took place) a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and, there were slain in the earthquake names of men seven thousand: and the rest became affrighted, and gave glory to the God of the heaven. The hour of their triumph is the hour of a retributive warning on the city where they were slain convulsion, with the overthrow of dwellings and the death of seven thousand men. Is it accidental that the number is the same as the number of those who had not bowed to Baal? (1Kings 19:18.) Rejected reformation avenges itself in revolution, and the city which might have been purified by the word is purged by the spirit of judgment (Isaiah 4:4); good is effected, even through fear; some are saved though as by fire; and, unlike those who repented not (Revelation 9:21), they give glory to the God of heaven. The visible Church of Christ is stirred; there is a reaction from the spirit of worldliness.

11:3-13 In the time of treading down, God kept his faithful witnesses to attest the truth of his word and worship, and the excellence of his ways, The number of these witnesses is small, yet enough. They prophesy in sackcloth. It shows their afflicted, persecuted state, and deep sorrow for the abominations against which they protested. They are supported during their great and hard work, till it is done. When they had prophesied in sackcloth the greatest part of 1260 years, antichrist, the great instrument of the devil, would war against them, with force and violence for a time. Determined rebels against the light rejoice, as on some happy event, when they can silence, drive to a distance, or destroy the faithful servants of Christ, whose doctrine and conduct torment them. It does not appear that the term is yet expired, and the witnesses are not a present exposed to endure such terrible outward sufferings as in former times; but such things may again happen, and there is abundant cause to prophesy in sackcloth, on account of the state of religion. The depressed state of real Christianity may relate only to the western church. The Spirit of life from God, quickens dead souls, and shall quicken the dead bodies of his people, and his dying interest in the world. The revival of God's work and witnesses, will strike terror into the souls of his enemies. Where there is guilt, there is fear; and a persecuting spirit, though cruel, is a cowardly spirit. It will be no small part of the punishment of persecutors, both in this world, and at the great day, that they see the faithful servants of God honoured and advanced. The Lord's witnesses must not be weary of suffering and service, nor hastily grasp at the reward; but must stay till their Master calls them. The consequence of their being thus exalted was a mighty shock and convulsion in the antichristian empire. Events alone can show the meaning of this. But whenever God's work and witnesses revive, the devil's work and witnesses fall before him. And that the slaying of the witnesses is future, appears to be probable.And the same hour - In immediate connection with their triumph.

Was there a great earthquake - "An earthquake is a symbol of commotion, agitation, change; of great political revolutions, etc. See the notes on Revelation 6:12. The meaning here is, that the triumph of the witnesses, represented by their ascending to heaven, would be followed by such revolutions as would be properly symbolized by an earthquake.

And the tenth part of the city fell - That is, the tenth part of that which is represented by the "city" - the persecuting power. A city would be the seat and center of the power, and the acts of persecution would seem to proceed from it; but the destruction, we may suppose, would extend to all that was represented by the persecuting power. The word "tenth" is probably used in a general sense to denote that a considerable portion of the persecuting power would be thus involved in ruin; that is, that in respect to that power there would be such a revolution, such a convulsion or commotion, such a loss, that it would be proper to represent it by an earthquake.

And in the earthquake - In the convulsions consequent on what would occur to the witnesses.

Were slain of men seven thousand - Mart., as in the Greek, "names of men" - the name being used to denote the people themselves. The number here mentioned - seven thousand - seems to have been suggested because it would bear some proportion to the tenth part of the city which fell. It is not necessary to suppose, in seeking for the fulfillment of this, that just seven thousand would be killed; but the idea clearly is, that there would be such a diminution of numbers as would be well represented by a calamity that would overwhelm a tenth part of the city, such as the apostle had in his eye, and a proportional number of the inhabitants. The number that would be slain, therefore, in the convulsions and changes consequent on the treatment of the witnesses, might be numerically much larger than seven thousand, and might be as great as if a tenth part of all that were represented by the "city" should be swept away.

And the remnant were affrighted - Fear and alarm came on them in consequence of these calamities. The "remnant" here refers to those who still remained in the "city" - that is, to those who belonged to the community or people designed to be represented here by the city.

And gave glory to the God of heaven - Compare Luke 5:26; "And they were all amazed, and they glorified God, and were filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange things today." All that seems to be meant by this is, that they stood in awe at what God was doing, and acknowledged his power in the changes that occurred. It does not mean, necessarily, that they would repent and become truly his friends, but that there would be a prevailing impression that these changes were produced by his power, and that his hand was in these things. This would be fulfilled if there should be a general willingness among mankind to acknowledge God, or to recognize his hand in the events referred to; if there should be a disposition extensively prevailing to regard the "witnesses" as on the side of God, and to favor their cause as one of truth and righteousness; and if these convulsions should so far change public sentiment as to produce an impression that theirs was the cause of God.

13. "In that same hour"; literally, "the hour."

great earthquake—answering to the "great earthquake" under the sixth seal, just at the approach of the Lord (Re 6:12). Christ was delivered unto His enemies on the fifth day of the week, and on the sixth was crucified, and on the sabbath rested; so it is under the sixth seal and sixth trumpet that the last suffering of the Church, begun under the fifth seal and trumpet, is to be consummated, before she enters on her seventh day of eternal sabbath. Six is the number of the world power's greatest triumph, but at the same time verges on seven, the divine number, when its utter destruction takes place. Compare "666" in Re 13:18, "the number of the beast."

tenth part of the city fell—that is, of "the great city" (Re 16:19; Zec 14:2). Ten is the number of the world kingdoms (Re 17:10-12), and the beast's horns (Re 13:1), and the dragon's (Re 12:3). Thus, in the Church-historical view, it is hereby implied that one of the ten apostate world kingdoms fall. But in the narrower view a tenth of Jerusalem under Antichrist falls. The nine-tenths remain and become when purified the center of Christ's earthly kingdom.

of men—Greek, "names of men." The men are as accurately enumerated as if their names were given.

seven thousand—Elliott interprets seven chiliads or provinces, that is, the seven Dutch United Provinces lost to the papacy; and "names of men," titles of dignity, duchies, lordships, &c. Rather, seven thousand combine the two mystical perfect and comprehensive numbers seven and thousand, implying the full and complete destruction of the impenitent.

the remnant—consisting of the Israelite inhabitants not slain. Their conversion forms a blessed contrast to Re 16:9; and above, Re 9:20, 21. These repenting (Zec 12:10-14; 13:1), become in the flesh the loyal subjects of Christ reigning over the earth with His transfigured saints.

gave glory to the God of heaven—which while apostates, and worshipping the beast's image, they had not done.

God of heaven—The apostates of the last days, in pretended scientific enlightenment, recognize no heavenly power, but only the natural forces in the earth which come under their observation. His receiving up into heaven the two witnesses who had power during their time on earth to shut heaven from raining (Re 11:6), constrained His and their enemies who witnessed it, to acknowledge the God of heaven, to be God of the earth (Re 11:4). As in Re 11:4 He declared Himself to be God of the earth by His two witnesses, so now He proves Himself to be God of heaven also.

And the same hour; that is, about the same time, when the Spirit of life from God entered into the witnesses, and they were again restored.

Was there a great earthquake; by earthquake doubtless is here meant a great confusion in the world, and shaking of nations by differences one with another, and wars: See Poole on "Revelation 6:12".

And the tenth part of the city fell; by the city is doubtless meant the great city before named, spiritually called Sodom and Egypt; elsewhere, Babylon; by which Rome is to be understood. What is meant by the tenth part of it falling, is not so well agreed; some by it understanding many kingdoms falling off from its jurisdiction; others, a great part of its tribute or dominion.

And in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: these words seem to intimate that the restoration of the witnesses shall not be without opposition, and that the opposition shall not be great; seven thousand is a small number to fall in such a quarrel: but the papal party shall appear to have cheated the world so with their impostures, and so to have imposed upon them, that the world shall grow sick of them, and when the time comes for God to put a final period to them, the number shall be but few that adventure for them.

And the remnant were affrighted; others shall be affrighted, either from their own consciences, or from the stupendous dispensations of Divine Providence in the fall of the great city.

And gave glory to the God of heaven; and give glory to God, by confessing their errors, and turning to an ingenuous and sincere acknowledgment of the truth. Instead of worshipping saints, and angels, and images, worshipping the true and living God of heaven and earth only. And the same hour was there a great earthquake,.... Or the same day, as the Complutensian edition, and some copies, read; that is, at the time of the resurrection and ascension of the witnesses, as there was at the resurrection of Christ; and is to be understood of a very great commotion in the civil affairs of kingdoms and nations within the Roman jurisdiction, as there was when Rome Pagan was near its ruin, Revelation 6:12.

And the tenth part of the city fell. Mr. Daubuz interprets the "earthquake" of the irruption of the Ottomans upon the Grecian empire, and the "tenth" part of the city, of the Greek church, and the falling of it, of its loss of liberty, and falling into slavery; but something yet to come is here intended. By "the city" is meant the city of Rome, the great city, mentioned in Revelation 11:8; and by "the tenth part" of it may be designed either Rome itself, which as it now is, according to the observation of some, is but a tenth part of what it was once; so that the same thing is meant as when it is said, "Babylon is fallen, is fallen", Revelation 14:8, or it may design the tithes and profits which arise from the several kingdoms belonging to the jurisdiction and see of Rome, which now will fall off from those who used to share them, upon this new and spiritual state of things; the Gospel daily gaining ground, and enlightening the minds of men, and freeing them from the slavery they were held in; or else the ten fold government of the Roman empire, or the ten kings that gave their kingdoms to the whore of Rome, and are the ten horns of the beast, on which she sits, who will now hate her, and burn her flesh with fire; or rather one of the ten kingdoms, into which the Roman western empire was divided. Dr. Goodwin seems inclined to think that Great Britain is intended, which having been gained over to the Popish party, will now fall off again: but I rather think the kingdom of France is meant, the last of the ten kingdoms, which rose up out of the ruins of the Roman empire, which will be conquered, and which will be the means of its reformation from Popery.

And in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand; the meaning is, that in the commotions, massacres, tumults, and wars which will be throughout the empire, such a number of men will be slain; which is either put for a greater number; a certain for an uncertain, as in Romans 11:4; and perhaps in reference to the account there; otherwise seven thousand is but a small number to be slain in battle; or as it is in the original text, "the names of men seven thousand". Now it is observed by some, that the smallest name of number belonging to men is a centurion, or captain of an hundred men; and supposing that to be meant, then seven thousand names of men will imply, that in an hour, or about a fortnight's time, may be slain throughout all Europe, in battles and massacres, about seven hundred thousand men, which is a very large number: or names of men may signify men of name, of great renown, as in Numbers 16:2; and then if seven thousand men of name, officers in armies, should be slain, how great must be the number of the common soldiers? Some have thought, that ecclesiastical dignities, or men distinguished by names and titles, such as cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests, &c. and the whole rabble of the antichristian hierarchy, which will now fall, and be utterly demolished, are intended:

and the remnant were affrighted; who were not slain in this earthquake; these will be affected with the judgments of God upon others, and be made sensible of their danger, and of their deliverance, which will so work upon them, as to reform them from Popery:

and gave glory to the God of heaven; will acknowledge the justice of God, and the righteousness of his judgments upon those that were slain, and his goodness to them who are spared; will confess their transgressions and sins they have been guilty of; and give the glory of their deliverance, not to their idols and images, but to the true God, whose religion they now embrace; for this respects the large conversions among the Popish party to the true religion, under the influence of the grace of God, through the preaching of the Gospel, which will now be spread throughout the world.

{24} And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, {25} and {e} gave glory to the God of heaven.

(24) Bergomensis said, in 1301, This year a blazing star foretelling great calamity to come, appeared in heaven: in which year during the feast of St. Andrew, a great earthquake occurred as never before: it continued for many days, and overthrew many stately houses. This he said of the year following the Jubilee: which John many ages before, expressed word for word.

(25) They were indeed broken with present astonishment of mind, but did not earnestly repent as they ought to have done.

(e) Glorified God by confessing his name.

Revelation 11:13. At the same time a great earthquake destroys the tenth part of the city, slays seven thousand inhabitants, and thus effects the conversion of the rest.

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ, viz., that in which what is reported in Revelation 11:12 occurred.[2908] With the glorification of the witnesses coincides the vengeance upon their enemies, and those of the Lord.

ΣΕΙΣΜῸς ΜΈΓΑς. That the earthquake is intended just as literally as in Revelation 6:12,[2909] and is not some dreadful event to be discerned only from the fulfilment of the prophecy,[2910] and that, in general, nothing allegorical is here said, follows from the further description of the effect of the earthquake; the tenth part of the city is thrown down, and seven thousand men (ὀνόματα ἀνθρ., cf. Revelation 3:4) are slain (ἈΠΕΚΤΆΝΘΗΣΑΝ, in the same sense as the other plagues).[2911] If the numerical specifications be regarded as something else than concrete forms, which by a certain measure make perceptible the idea of a relatively small injury,[2912] we enter the province of conjecture. Ebrard wishes to “refer the tenth part of the city to the tenth part of the fourth world-power, over which the antichrist is to extend his dominion.”[2913] But, as by this arbitrary introduction of a prophecy so unlike this as that in ch. 17, the antichristian character of the number ten is inferred, an embarrassment to the text is occasioned, since it designates the antichristian men slain by the number seven, a divine number. Yet here Ebrard aids with the conjecture, that this number may indicate “the servile imitation of divine relations of number on the part of the antichristian realm.”

καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ, κ.τ.λ. Upon this large remainder of the inhabitants of the city, the Divine visitation is, therefore, not fruitless.[2914]

ἜΔΩΚΑΝ ΔΌΞΑΝ. A mark of conversion, Revelation 16:9; Jeremiah 13:16.[2915]

Τῷ ΘΕῷ ΤΟῦ ΟὐΡΑΝΟῦ. The expression, derived from the later books of the O. T.,[2916] occurs in the N. T. only here and Revelation 16:11.[2917] It is caused here by Revelation 11:13.[2918] Without further reference, De Wette explains it: “the true, supreme God.” But by the very fact that God carries his two witnesses to heaven, he shows himself as God of heaven.

[2908] De Wette.

[2909] Cf. also Matthew 27:51; Matthew 28:2, where a similar inner connection of the earthquake with the death and resurrection of the Lord occurs.

[2910] Ebrard.

[2911] Cf. Revelation 6:8, Revelation 8:11, Revelation 9:18.

[2912] Cf. Revelation 6:8, Revelation 8:7 sqq., where the fourth or third are affected by a plague. So Ewald, De Wette, Lücke.

[2913] Daniel 7:24. Cf. Revelation 17:12 sq.

[2914] Cf., on the other hand, Revelation 9:20.

[2915] Beng.

[2916] Ezekiel 1:2; Nehemiah 1:4 sq.; Daniel 2:18.

[2917] De Wette.

[2918] Cf. Beng.

For the comprehension of the entire section, Revelation 11:1-13, the text gives a completely secure standpoint by designating “the holy city” in which “the temple of God” stands, and which “the Gentiles shall tread under foot,” Revelation 11:1-2, by the most unambiguous words as the city “where Christ was crucified,” Revelation 11:8. Already what is said in Revelation 11:1-2, suggests only Jerusalem; but the words of Revelation 11:8 ὅπου

ἐσταυρώθη, are in themselves so simple, and have besides, by means of the historical aor., such immovable firmness in their reference to the definite fact of the crucifixion of the Lord, that no exposition can correspond with the text that conflicts with the norm given by Revelation 11:8 and Revelation 11:1-2. And if the difficulties of exposition from the standpoint given by the context—viz., concerning the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3 sqq.), and the relation of Revelation 11:13 and Revelation 11:1-2, to the Lord’s prophecies concerning the destruction of Jerusalem—were still greater than they are, without doubt the solution of the difficulties can be found only in the way indicated by the text itself. Highly characteristic of the force with which the text, especially by Revelation 11:8, defends itself against the allegorical interpretation, are the concessions of the allegorists themselves. C. a Lap allegorizes like the older Protestants; but in order to avoid altogether the results of Protestant allegorizing, which regards the great city as Papal Rome, he mentions that Revelation 11:8 allows us to think only of Jerusalem, and, therefore, in no way of Rome. Hengstenb., who interprets the entire section (Revelation 11:1-13) allegorically of the secularized church, opens his observations on Revelation 11:8 with the words: “The great city is Jerusalem.” Tinius[2919] does not know how to defend the allegorical interpretation as Rome, otherwise than by the conjecture that the contradictory words ὅπου καὶ ὁ κύριος αὐτων ἐσταυρώθη were interpolated![2920]

[2919] Die Off. Joh.—Allen verständlich gemacht, Leipz., 1839.

[2920] Cf. De Wette.

If by allegorizing, the prophecy be once withdrawn from the firm historical basis upon which, by Revelation 11:8 and Revelation 11:13. On earthquakes as a punishment for sin, cf. Jos. Ant. ix. 10, 4 = Zechariah 14:5, and (for Sodom) Amos 4:11. The beast, as in 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12, gets off scatheless in the meantime, though his tools are punished or terrified into reverence (Jonah 3:5-10).—ὀνόματα ἀ. Briggs ingeniously conjectures that this is a clumsy version of אנשׁי שׁמות = men of name or fame (cf. 1 Chronicles 5:24, Numbers 16:2). From this point till Revelation 16:19 and Revelation 20:9 Jerusalem seems to be ignored among the wider political oracles, except incidentally at Revelation 14:20 (see note), where another erratic block from the same or a similar cycle of eschatological tradition breaks the surrounding strata of prediction.

The ample and proleptic style of the next passage shows that the author has left his source in order to resume matters with (Revelation 11:14-18) the seventh trumpet-blast or third woe, which ushers in the final stage (1 Corinthians 15:52) of the divine purpose (10:7 = 12–20). But what immediately follows is, by anticipation, a celestial reflex of the last judgment which is characteristically deferred till “the various underplots of God’s providence” (Alford) are worked out. The announcement of it starts an exultant song of praise in heaven.13. of men] Lit., names of men, as the margin: cf. Revelation 3:4, and Acts 1:15 there quoted.

seven thousand] Possibly this number is taken as approximately a tenth part of the population of Jerusalem. The city, which can never have extensive suburbs, being surrounded by ravines, can never hold a larger permanent population than 70,000; but in its highest prosperity it may have held as many, and perhaps it may again.

gave glory] Here and in Revelation 14:7, Revelation 16:9 these words seem to imply the confession of sin, as in Joshua 7:19, and probably St John 9:24. It was the predicted work of Elijah to “turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers:” this will be fulfilled by his posthumous success, uniting the original stock of God’s People to the branches that now grow out of it (Romans 11:17, &c.).

the God of heaven] Seems to have been the way the Jews spoke of their God to heathens, see Jonah 1:9 : Ezra 1:2 (which was probably written under Daniel’s or other Jewish influence), Revelation 5:11, Revelation 6:10. This accounts for the way that in later times heathens conceived of their religion. Nil praeter nudes et caeli numen adorant (Juv. XIV. 97).Revelation 11:13. Ὀνόματα ἀνθρώπων χιλιάδες ἑπτά) A frequent apposition: δώδεκα χιλιάδες ἐσφραγισμένοι, ch. Revelation 7:5-6; τρεῖς χιλιάδας παραβολὰς, 1 Kings 4:32; ψυχὰς ἀνδρῶν ἑκατὸν χιλιάδας, 1 Chronicles 5:21.—καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ, and the remnant) who survived from the decimation; [that is, sixty-three thousand men. A most ample conversion!—V. g.] Baal Turim (as Lightfoot teaches in his Chron. of the New Testament, on John 3) on Numbers 24:8, upon these words, “He shall consume the nations His enemies, and shall break their bones,” remarks, that the letter צ is gifted with a certain peculiar sign [significancy], which shows beforehand that He will root out the seven nations (namely, of the Canaanites), and in time to come (לעתיר לבוא) the remaining sixty-three nations, that is, all the nations of the world. This passage of the Apocalypse softens the sadness of the omen.[113]—ἔδωκαν δόξαν, they gave glory) A mark of their conversion: Jeremiah 13:16.—τῷ Θεῷ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, to the God of heaven) He is called the Lord of the earth, Revelation 11:4, when He declares His authority on the earth by the two witnesses against the disobedient: He is called the God of heaven, when He not only gives rain from heaven, after a most disastrous drought, but also shows His majesty in heaven, by taking up the two witnesses into heaven.

[113] ἔμφοβοι ἐγενοντο, were affrighted) This is more desirable to be heard of than the other: in whose case no change takes place, and who do not at all reverence God: Psalm 55:19. Compare also Revelation 16:9.—V. g.Verse 13. - And the same hour was there a great earthquake. In the visions of the seals it is set forth, under the sixth seal, how the destruction of the world is accompanied by earthquakes, etc.; the fear of the wicked is portrayed, and the preservation of the just takes place at the same time. Here, under the sixth trumpet, we have the same events shown forth, the triumph of the godly being mentioned first, though the rest happens "in that same hour." This is the conclusion of the sixth judgment, the consequence of the non repentance mentioned in Revelation 9:21. The intervening narrative (Revelation 10:1-11:12) serves to show that opportunities of knowing God's will are given to men, as well as warnings of judgment in ease of disobedience. Vers. 13 of Revelation 11. might follow Revelation 9:21, but for the desire of the seer to demonstrate the long suffering goodness and mercy of God. And the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand. Both the Authorized Version and the Revised Version have in the margin, "names of men, seven thousand," and some writers make much of the expression. Thus Alford says, "As if the name of each were recounted;" and Wordsworth, "Persons known and distinguished." But, in truth, the phrase is a Hebraism, to which we can attach no special significance (cf. Acts 1:15; Revelation 3:4). Whatever may he the system of interpretation adopted, this passage presents many difficulties. The whole account appears to relate to the judgment day, and it is therefore more peculiarly prophetic than many parts of the Apocalypse, and for that reason its meaning must needs be more or less obscure. The account in this verse informs us that a part (a tenth) of the city (that is, of the wicked) suffers destruction; that the number so destroyed is described as seven thousand; that the rest (nine tenths), in fear, recognize the power of God, to which they had hitherto refused attention. What is the final fate awarded to the nine tenths we are not told. We have, therefore, to inquire the meaning of the numbers given. Now, it seems inherently impossible to interpret these numbers literally, and, moreover, as we have repeatedly seen, it is not the habit of the writer of the Apocalypse to indicate exact numbers. We must, therefore, try to discover the symbolical meaning which St. John attached to these expressions, the qualities rather than the quantities which he intended to signify. In the Bible the tenth part invariably signifies the tithe - the portion due from the community to God or to the ruler (cf. Genesis 28:22; Leviticus 27:32; Numbers 18:21; 1 Samuel 8:15, 17). it seems probable that this was the idea intended to be conveyed, viz. that God was now exacting his due, that men who had refused to recognize what was due from them to God were now forced to recognize his sovereignty by the exaction for punishment of a tithe, and as an evidence that all are under his sway. But, it may be objected, are not all the wicked punished at the judgment? This verse really seems to hint at a possibility of some course by which, even at the last moment, a chance of escape may be presented to men. But it does not distinctly state this; it seems, indeed, purposely to leave the fate of the rest of the ungodly untold. All it does assert is that God comes to the wicked as a Conqueror or a King, and exacts what is due to himself. But, further, why are seven thousand men slain? Again interpreting symbolically, seven involves the idea of completeness (see on Revelation 1:4; 5:1, etc.). A thousand signifies a large number, though not an infinitely large number, for which we have "thousands of thousands," etc. This number, therefore, informs us that God's vengeance overtakes a large number, and that that number is complete, none escaping who deserve to be included. Perhaps this is mentioned as a precaution against any possibility of mistake in the interpretation of the "tenth part." It is as though St. John would say, "In that hour God exacted vengeance, demanding what was due to his justice; but do not imagine that that vengeance reached only a small part of mankind. It was far extending and complete, though I do not attempt to define its exact limits, which cannot be known until the judgment day itself shall reveal everything." And the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven. The rest gave glory, being, perhaps (though not necessarily), repentant (cf. Joshua 7:19; John 9:24; Revelation 4:9; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:9). Possibly we have here a hint of God's uncovenanted mercies (vide supra), though there is nothing sufficiently definite to encourage men to postpone the day of repentance. No mention is made of the ultimate fate of "the remnant." "The God of heaven," in contrast to things of the world, upon which their affections had been hitherto set (cf. Revelation 16:11). In these two places alone of the New Testament is this expression found; but it is not uncommon in the Old Testament (cf. Ezra 1:2; Nehemiah 1:4; Daniel 2:18). Earthquake

See on Revelation 6:12.

Of men (ὀνόματα ἀνθρώπων)

Lit., names of men. See on Revelation 3:4.

Gave glory to the God of heaven

The phrase signifies not conversion, nor repentance, nor thanksgiving, but recognition, which is its usual sense in scripture. Compare Joshua 7:19 (Sept.). John 9:24; Acts 12:23; Romans 4:20.

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