Numbers 29:7
And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) The tenth day of this seventh month . . . —The law respecting the observance of the great Day of Atonement is contained in Leviticus 16 and Leviticus 23:26-32. The sacrifices prescribed in Numbers 29:8-11, which are the same as those prescribed for the first day of the seventh month, were to be offered in addition to the sin offerings of atonement prescribed in Leviticus 16 and to the daily burnt offerings. (See Notes on Leviticus 16; Leviticus 23:26-32.)

And ye shall afflict your souls.—See Leviticus 16:29. This affliction or humiliation appears to have included in it fasting (comp. Acts 27:9), although the word which denotes fasting is not employed, nor is there any express injunction respecting fasting in the Pentateuch.

Numbers 29:7. And — on the tenth day — a holy convocation — On this day was offered annually their seventh national sacrifice. It was the great day of atonement, a day of special humiliation, fasting, and prayer; concerning the particular ceremonies whereof, see on Leviticus 16:29; and Leviticus 23:27. Afflict your souls — Yourselves, by abstinence from all delightful things, and by compunction for your sins, and the judgments of God, either deserved by you, or inflicted upon you.

29:1-11 There were more sacred solemnities in the seventh month than in any other. It was the space between harvest and seed-time. The more leisure we have from the pressing occupations of this life, the more time we should spend in the immediate service of God. The blowing of the trumpets was appointed, Le 22:24. Here they are directed what sacrifices to offer on that day. Those who would know the mind of God in the Scriptures, must compare one part with another. The latter discoveries of Divine light explain what was dark, and supply what was wanting, in the former, that the man of God may be perfect.The offering on the great Day of Atonement was the same with that just specified. The great ceremonies of the day are described in Leviticus 16. 7-11. ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation—This was the great day of atonement. Its institution, together with the observance to which that day was devoted, was described (Le 16:29, 30). But additional offerings seem to be noticed, namely, the large animal sacrifice for a general expiation, which was a sweet savor unto the Lord, and the sin offering to atone for the sins that mingled with that day's services. The prescriptions in this passage appear supplementary to the former statement in Leviticus. Your souls, i.e. yourselves, by fasting and abstinence from all delightful things, and by compunction and bitter sorrow for your sins, and the judgments of God either deserved by you, or inflicted upon you for your sins. See Leviticus 16:29,30 23:27.

And ye shall have on the tenth day of the seventh month an holy convocation,.... The month Tisri, as before; so the Targum of Jonathan:

and ye shall afflict your souls; or persons; their bodies by fasting, and their souls by repentance and humiliation; for this was a grand fast, as it is called Acts 27:9,

ye shall not do any work therein; see Leviticus 23:28.

And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy {d} convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein:

(d) Which is the feast of reconciliation.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
7. ye shall afflict your souls] An expression which denoted fasting; cf. Numbers 30:13, Psalm 35:13, Isaiah 58:3; Isaiah 58:5. Here it is the great annual fast, still strictly observed by orthodox Jews, on the Day of Atonement; cf. Leviticus 16:29; Leviticus 23:27-29; Leviticus 23:32.

Verse 7. - On the tenth day. The great day of atonement (Leviticus 16:29; Leviticus 23:27 sq.). Numbers 29:7On the day of atonement, on the tenth of the seventh month, a similar festal sacrifice was to be offered to the one presented on the seventh new moon's day (a burnt-offering and sin-offering), in addition to the sin-offering of atonement prescribed at Leviticus 16, and the daily burnt-offerings. For a more minute description of this festival, see at Leviticus 16 and Leviticus 23:26-32.
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