Then said Jesus to Peter, Put up your sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father has given me, shall I not drink it?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Put up thy sword into the sheath.—Comp. Note on Matthew 26:52. Here again St. John’s narrative is more vivid and exact. St. Matthew has “place” for “sheath.”
The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?—Comp. Notes on Matthew 20:22; Matthew 26:39. This is the only instance of the occurrence of this familiar imagery in St. John. St. Peter’s act is one of opposition to what Jesus Himself knew to be the will of the Father. There is in the words a tender trustfulness which robs the cup of all its bitterness—“The cup which My Father hath given Me.” They are, as it were, an echo of the prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane, which is not recorded by St. John. It is the Father to whom He has prayed, and solemnly committed the disciples (John 17); the Father whose presence never leaves Him (John 16:32); the Father into whose hands He is about from the cross to commend His Spirit (Luke 23:46).Matthew 26:51-52.
The servant's name was Malchus - His name is mentioned by neither of the other evangelists, nor is it said by the other evangelists who was the disciple that gave the blow. It is probable that both Peter and the servant were alive when the other gospels were written.
Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?—This expresses both the feelings which struggled in the Lord's breast during the Agony in the garden—aversion to the cup viewed in itself, but, in the light of the Father's will, perfect preparedness to drink it. (See on Lu 22:39-46). Matthew adds to the address to Peter the following:—"For all they that take the sword shall perish by the sword" (Mt 26:52)—that is, 'Those who take the sword must run all the risks of human warfare; but Mine is a warfare whose weapons, as they are not carnal, are attended with no such hazards, but carry certain victory.' "Thinkest thou that I cannot now"—even after things have proceeded so far—"pray to My Father, and He shall presently give Me"—rather, "place at My disposal"—"more than twelve legions of angels"; with allusion, possibly, to the one angel who had, in His agony, "appeared to Him from heaven strengthening Him" (Lu 22:43); and in the precise number, alluding to the twelve who needed the help, Himself and His eleven disciples. (The full complement of a legion of Roman soldiers was six thousand). "But how then shall the scripture be fulfilled that thus it must be?" (Mt 26:53, 54). He could not suffer, according to the Scripture, if He allowed Himself to be delivered from the predicted death. "And He touched his ear and healed him" (Lu 22:51); for "the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them" (Lu 9:56), and, even while they were destroying His, to save theirs.See Poole on "Matthew 26:51", and following verses to Matthew 26:54. See Poole on "Mark 14:47", and following verses to Mark 14:49. See Poole on "Luke 22:50". See Poole on "Luke 22:51". With what pretence some, both of the ancient and modern writers, think that Peter did not sin in this action, I do not understand, when our Saviour did not only (as John saith) command him to put up his sword again into its sheath, but also (as Matthew tells us, Matthew 26:52) told him, that all they that take the sword, that is, without commission from God, shall perish with the sword. He used that argument, according to the other evangelists. This evangelist tells us of another,
The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? That is, shall I not freely and cheerfully submit to the will of God in suffering what he willeth me to suffer? The term cup is often in Scripture used to signify people’s measure and proportion of affliction and suffering, which God allots them; (possibly the metaphor is taken from the custom of some nations, to put some kinds of malefactors to death by giving them a cup of poison); See Poole on "Matthew 20:22", See Poole on "Matthew 26:39". It is a good argument to quiet our spirits roiled by any afflictive providences: they are but a cup, and the cup our Father hath given us. Luke 22:51, which no doubt tended greatly to conciliate their minds, and make them easy:
put up thy sword into the sheath: Peter was not a proper person to bear the sword, and use it; it was a very daring attack, and a dangerous one, and was very unnecessary; since Christ could have defended himself, had he thought fit, without Peter's drawing his sword; and besides, for a word speaking, he could have had of his Father more than twelve legions of angels; and it was also contrary to the nature of his kingdom, which was not of this world, nor to be supported and defended in any such manner; and was, moreover, as much as in Peter lay, an hinderance of his sufferings, and of the execution of his Father's will and decree; wherefore he adds,
the cup which my Father hath given me: by the cup is meant, the wrath of God, and punishment due to sin, endured by Christ in his sufferings, and is said to be given him by his Father; because he called him to these sufferings, they were appointed and determined by him; yea, he was even ordered, and commanded by his Father, to drink of this cup; justice mixed it up, and put it into his hands; and he took it as coming from his Father, who delighted in seeing him drink it up, as the stately of his people; and a dreadful one it was, a cup of trembling and astonishment, of curse, and not of blessing, of wrath and fury: the allusion seems to be to the master of the family, who appointed, and gave to everyone their cup:
shall I not drink it? which expresses his, willingness to do it, his eager desire after it, his delight in it, and displeasure at Peter's attempt to hinder him; he being now perfectly reconciled in his human nature to drink it, though it was so bitter a potion: he found it was impossible, considering the decree of God, his own agreement, and the salvation of his people, that it should be otherwise; and besides, it was his Father's will and pleasure, he considered it as coming from him; and therefore cheerfully accepted it, and was, resolved to drink it up, and that nothing should hinder him. The Persic version reads it, "I will not give it to another to drink"; Peter, by this rash action, seeming as if he would have the cup out of Christ's hands, and have drank it himself; which, as it could not be, nor would Christ suffer it, so if he had, it would have been of no advantage to the salvation of his people.Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)John 18:11. Peter’s action, however, was not commended. βάλε … θήκην. “Res evangelica non agitur ejusmodi praesidiis.” Erasmus. θήκη, a receptacle; sometimes ξιφοθήκη; usually κολεός. τὸ ποτήριον … αὐτό. For the figure of the cup, see Ezekiel 23:31-34; Matthew 20:22; Matthew 26:39. Shall I refuse the lot appointed me by the Father?11. Then said Jesus] Jesus therefore (John 18:3) said.
the cup] S. John alone gives these words. On the other hand, the Synoptists alone give Christ’s prayer in the garden (Matthew 26:39, &c.) to which they obviously refer. Thus the two accounts confirm one another. See on John 2:19. For the metaphor comp. Psalm 75:8; Psalm 60:3; Job 21:20; Jeremiah 25:15; Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19, &c. S. Matthew gives another reason for putting up the sword into its place; ‘all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword’ (Matthew 26:52).John 18:11. Τὸ ποτήριον, the cup) Jesus refers to those things which He had said in Matthew 20:22; Matthew 26:39. Therefore John presupposes those particulars which Matthew wrote in the passages just quoted.—οὐ μὴ πίω; shall I not drink it?) It was at this (that He should not drink the cup) that the fighting of Peter was aiming.
 An undesigned coincidence between the two Evangelists; for John had not mentioned previously Jesus, prayer as to “the cup” passing from Him. But he now records the answer to that prayer in the Lord’s present full willingness to drink the cup.—E. and T.Verse 11. - In Christ's reply there is no mention made of the miracle which followed, and yet the narrative is incomplete without it. Something must have restrained the baud and the high priest's own temple-watch from at once arresting Peter, if not the entire group. The characteristic touch, descriptive of our Lord's most Divine compassion, is in itself valuable, but it also accounts for the immunity of Peter. The solemn rebuke of Peter is full of Divine meaning, and is another link with the synoptic narrative of the agony. "Put up," or more literally, Cast the sword into its sheath (κολεός is the classical word; θήκη more generally used of repository, receptacle, sepulcher, etc.); or into its hiding-place; bury it away (τόπος is used in Matthew). Matthew adds a memorable saying, but is silent as to the deep Divine reason of the submission of our Lord to his fate. The cup which the Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? This imagery recalls the Passion, through which we learn from the synoptists that our Lord had passed into a Divine patience and submission to the will of God (Matthew 20:22; Matthew 26:39). The use of this most remarkable phraseology recalls that which John too had heard from his lips in the sweat of his agony, and of which he and Peter were the principal witnesses. The supplementary character of the Gospel, though by no means sufficient to account for all the omissions and additions of this narrative, yet does explain very much. "Jesus is now of his own accord at the disposal of his enemies; his words have put a stop to all further steps taken for his defense" (Moulton). (See Introduction, pp. 106, 107.)
Omit thy, and read, the sword.
Only here in the New Testament. From τίθημι, to put. That into which the sword is put.
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