Job 41:13
Who can discover the face of his garment? or who can come to him with his double bridle?
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(13) Who can discover . . . ?—Rather, Who can strip off his outer garment? i.e., his scales, which are the covering of his skin. Who shall come within his double bridle, i.e., the doubling of his jaw? Who would venture a limb within his jaws? This seems to be the meaning, rather than “Who shall come to him with his double bridle,” forsooth to take him therewith?

Job 41:13. Who can discover — מי גלה, mi gillah, Quis retexit, vel nudavit, Who hath uncovered, or made naked, or hath taken off from him, the face of his garment? — That is, his skin, which covers the whole body, and may be taken off from it like a garment. Who dare attempt to touch even his outward skin? much less dare any venture to endeavour to strip it off, or to give him a deep or deadly wound. Who can come to him with his double bridle? — To put it into his mouth, and lead him by it to thy stable and service, as he might do a horse? Or rather, (because he plainly seems to persist in describing the several parts of the leviathan’s body,) Who can come within his double bridle? or, as Heath translates it, his double row of teeth? namely, his vast jaws, which have some resemblance to a double bridle; whence the Greeks call those parts of the face which reach to the jaws on both sides the bridle. The crocodile’s mouth is exceedingly wide: Pliny says, strongly, “When he gapes, fit totum os, he becomes all mouth.”41:1-34 Concerning Leviathan. - The description of the Leviathan, is yet further to convince Job of his own weakness, and of God's almighty power. Whether this Leviathan be a whale or a crocodile, is disputed. The Lord, having showed Job how unable he was to deal with the Leviathan, sets forth his own power in that mighty creature. If such language describes the terrible force of Leviathan, what words can express the power of God's wrath? Under a humbling sense of our own vileness, let us revere the Divine Majesty; take and fill our allotted place, cease from our own wisdom, and give all glory to our gracious God and Saviour. Remembering from whom every good gift cometh, and for what end it was given, let us walk humbly with the Lord.Who can discern the face of his garment? - literally, "Who can reveal the face, that is, the appearance, of his garment?" This "garment" is undoubtedly his skin. The meaning seems to be, "His hard and rough skin is his defense, and no one can so strip off that as to have access to him." The word rendered "discover" (גלה gâlâh) means "to make naked"; then "to reveal"; and the idea is, that he cannot be made naked of that covering, or deprived of it so that one could attack him.

Or who can come to him with his double bridle? - Margin, "within" Gesenius renders this, "The doubling of his jaws;" that is. his double row of teeth. Umbreit, "His double bit." Noyes, "Who will approach his jaws?" So Rosenmuller. Schultens and Prof. Lee, however, suppose it means that no one can come near to him and "double the bit" upon him, "i. e." cast the bit or noose over his nose, so as to secure him by doubling it, or passing it around him. The former seems to me to be the true meaning. "Into the doubling of his jaws, who can enter?" That is, Who will dare approach a double row of teeth so formidable?" The word rendered "bridle" (רסן resen) means properly a curb or halter, which goes over a horse's nose, and hence, a bit or bridle. But it may be used to denote the interior of the mouth, the jaws, where the bit is placed, and then the phrase denotes the double row of teeth of the animal. Thus, the description of the "parts of defense" of the animal is kept up.

13. discover—rather, "uncover the surface" of his garment (skin, Job 10:11): strip off the hard outer coat with which the inner skin is covered.

with—rather, "within his double jaws"; literally, "bridle"; hence that into which the bridle is put, the double row of teeth; but "bridle" is used to imply that none dare put his hand in to insert a bridle where in other animals it is placed (Job 41:4; 39:10).

Discover, or, uncover, or take off from him.

The face of his garment; the upper or outward part of his garment, or the garment itself; the word face being oft redundant, as Genesis 1:2 23:3, and oft elsewhere. And by the garment is meant the skin, which covers the whole body, and may be taken off from the body like a garment. Who dare attempt to touch his very outward skin? much less dare any venture to approach him to give him a deep or deadly wound.

With his double bridle; to put it into his mouth, and lead him by it to thy stable and service, as thou dost by a horse. Or rather, (because he plainly seems to persist in describing the several parts of his body; of which he speaks both in the foregoing and following words,) who can come within his double bridle, to wit, his vast jaws, which have some resemblance to a double bridle; whence the Greeks call those parts of the face which reach to the jaws on both sides the bridles. Who can discover the face of his garment?.... Or rather uncover it? Not the sea, which Mr. Broughton represents as the garment of the whale; who can strip him of it, or take him out of that, and bring him to land? which, though not impossible, is difficult: but either the garment of his face, the large bulk or prominence that hangs over his eyes; or rather his skin. Who dare venture to take off his skin, or flay him alive? or take off the scaly coat of the crocodile, which is like a coat of mail to him, and which he never of himself casts off, as serpents do?

or who can come to him with his double bridle? either go within his jaws, which, when opened, are like a double bridle; or go near and open his jaws, and put a curb bridle into them, and lead, direct, and rule him at pleasure. This is not to be done either to the whale or crocodile; yet the Tentyritae had a way of getting upon the back of the crocodile; and by putting a stick across its mouth, as it opened it to bite them, and so holding both the ends of it with the right and left hands, as with a bridle, brought them to land, as Pliny (s) relates; and so the Nereides are represented as sitting on the backs of whales by Theocritus (t).

(s) Ut supra. (Plin. l. 8. c. 25.) (t) Idyll. 19.

Who can discover the face {d} of his garment? or who can come to him with his double {e} bridle?

(d) That is, who dare pull off his skin?

(e) Who dare put a bridle in his mouth?

13. The verse reads,

Who hath uncovered the face of his garment?

Or who will enter into his double jaw?

The “face of his garment” seems to mean the upper side or surface of his coat of scales, his armour; and the question is, Who has turned back, or removed this scaly covering? The question seems a general, preliminary one, as the scales are more particularly described in Job 41:15 seq. His “double jaw” is lit. his double bridle, the term “bridle” referring particularly perhaps to the corners of his jaws.

13, 14. The terrible jaws of the animal.Verse 13. - Who can discover the face of his garment? Some critics understand this in a general sense, "Who can lay him open to assault?" Others suggest a more definite meaning," Who can strip off his outer covering?" the scaly coat, that is, which forms his special defence, and expose the comparatively tender skin below? If this were done, he would then be at the hunter's mercy; but who will undertake to do it? Who, again, can come to him with his double bridle? Come, i.e., with a double bridle in his hand, and place it in the monster's jaws. (So Schultens and Professor Lee.) Others translate, "Who will come within [the range of] his double bridle? and understand by "his double bridle" his two rows of teeth - Homer's ἑρκος ὀδόντων (Rosenmuller, Canon Cook, Professor Stanley Leathes, etc.). 6 Do fishermen trade with him,

Do they divide him among the Canaanites?

7 Canst thou fill his skin with darts,

And his head with fish-spears?

8 Only lay thy hand upon him

Remember the battle, thou wilt not do it again!

9 Behold, every hope becometh disappointment:

Is not one cast down even at the sight of him?

The fishermen form a guild (Arab. ṣunf, sunf), the associated members of which are called חבּרים (distinct from חברים). On כּרה על, vid., on Job 6:27. "When I came to the towns of the coast," says R. Akiba, b. Rosch ha-Schana, 26b, "they called selling, which we call מכירה, כירה, there," according to which, then, Genesis 50:5 is understood, as by the Syriac; the word is Sanscrito-Semitic, Sanscr. kri, Persic chirı̂den (Jesurun, p. 178). lxx ἐνσιτούνται, according to 2 Kings 6:23, to which, however, עליו is not suitable. כּנענים are Phoenicians; and then, because they were the merchant race of the ancient world, directly traders or merchants. The meaning of the question is, whether one sells the crocodile among them, perhaps halved, or in general divided up. Further, Job 41:7 : whether one can kill it בּשׂכּות, with pointed missiles (Arab. shauke, a thorn, sting, dart), or with fish-spears (צלצל, so called from its whizzing, צלל, ). In Job 41:8 the accentuation is the right indication: only seize upon him - remember the battle, i.e., thou wilt be obliged to remember it, and thou wilt have no wish to repeat it. זכר .ti t is a so-called imperat. consec.: if thou doest it, thou wilt ... , Ges. 130, 2. תּוסף is the pausal form of תּוסף (once ͂, Proverbs 30:6), of which it is the original form.

The suff. of תּוהלתּו refers to the assailant, not objectively to the beast (the hope which he indulges concerning it). נכזבה, Job 41:9, is 3 praet., like נאלמה, Isaiah 53:7 (where also the participial accenting as Milra, occurs in Codd.); Frst's Concord. treats it as part., but the participial form נקטלה, to be assumed in connection with it, along with נקטלה and נקטלת, does not exist. הגם, Job 41:9, is, according to the sense, equivalent to הלא גם, vid., on Job 20:4. מראיו (according to Ges., Ew., and Olsh., sing., with the plural suff., without a plur. meaning, which is natural in connection with the primary form מראי; or what is more probable, from the plur. מראים with a sing. meaning, as פּנים) refers to the crocodile, and יטּל (according to a more accredited reading, יטּל equals יוּטל) to the hunter to whom it is visible.

What is said in Job 41:6 is perfectly true; although the crocodile was held sacred in some parts of Egypt, in Elephantine and Apollonopolis, on the contrary, it was salted and eaten as food. Moreover, that there is a small species of crocodile, with which children can play, does not militate against Job 41:5. Everywhere here it is the creature in its primitive strength and vigour that is spoken of. But if they also knew how to catch it in very early times, by fastening a bait, perhaps a duck, on a barb with a line attached, and drew the animal to land, where they put an end to its life with a lance-thrust in the neck (Uhlemann, Thoth, S. 241): this was angling on the largest scale, as is not meant in Job 41:1. If, on the other hand, in very early times they harpooned the crocodile, this would certainly be more difficult of reconcilement with v. 31, than that mode of catching it by means of a fishing-hook of the greatest calibre with Job 41:1. But harpooning is generally only of use when the animal can be hit between the neck and head, or in the flank; and it is very questionable whether, in the ancient times, when the race was without doubt of an unmanageable size, that has now died out, the crocodile hunt (Job 7:12) was effected with harpoons. On the whole subject we have too little information for distinguishing between the different periods. So far as the questions of Jehovah have reference to man's relation to the two monsters, they concern the men of the present, and are shaped according to the measure of power which they have attained over nature. The strophe which follows shows what Jehovah intends by these questions.

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