Jeremiah 26:9
Why hast thou prophesied in the name of the LORD, saying, This house shall be like Shiloh, and this city shall be desolate without an inhabitant? And all the people were gathered against Jeremiah in the house of the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) Why hast thou prophesied in the name of the Lord . . .?—The threat that the house in which they gloried should be as the old sanctuary of Ephraim, over whose fall they had exulted, was as the last drop that made the cup of wrath and bitterness run over. They had chanted their psalms, which told how that God “forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, even the tent which He had pitched among men” (Psalm 78:60). They could not bear to hear that a like fate was impending over them.

26:7-15 The priests and prophets charged Jeremiah as deserving death, and bore false witness against him. The elders of Israel came to inquire into this matter. Jeremiah declares that the Lord sent him to prophesy thus. As long as ministers keep close to the word they have from God, they need not fear. And those are very unjust who complain of ministers for preaching of hell and damnation; for it is from a desire to bring them to heaven and salvation. Jeremiah warns them of their danger if they go on against him. All men may know, that to hurt, or put to death, or to show hatred to their faithful reprovers, will hasten and increase their own punishment.The charge against Jeremiah was that of prophesying falsely, for which the penalty was death Deuteronomy 18:20. They assumed that it was absolutely impossible that Jerusalem ever could become like Shiloh.

Against Jeremiah - unto Jeremiah. They regularly constituted themselves a congregation to take part in his trial.

8. priests—The captain (or prefect) of the temple had the power of apprehending offenders in the temple with the sanction of the priests.

prophets—the false prophets. The charge against Jeremiah was that of uttering falsehood in Jehovah's name, an act punishable with death (De 18:20). His prophecy against the temple and city (Jer 26:11) might speciously be represented as contradicting God's own words (Ps 132:14). Compare the similar charge against Stephen (Ac 6:13, 14).

They charge him with being a false prophet, speaking false things in the name of God; their pretence seemeth to have been from the promises of God; such as that, Psalm 132:13,14, For the Lord hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation. This is my rest for ever: here will I dwell; for I have desired it. Which they interpreted into such a sense, as if they could not by their sin drive God away from them, and therefore Jeremiah must prophesy falsely against the will of God before revealed. This caused a seditious tumult of the people in the temple, which alarmed the civil magistrates.

Why hast thou prophesied in the name of the Lord,.... Made use of his name in declaring a falsehood, as they would have it; this was the crime: had he said what he thought fit to say in his own name, they suggest it would not have been so bad; but to vent his own imaginations in the name of the Lord, this they judged wicked and blasphemous, and deserving of death; especially since what he said was against their city and temple:

saying, this house shall be like Shiloh; forsaken and destroyed; that is, the temple:

and this city shall be desolate without an inhabitant? so they wrested his words; for this he did not say, only that it should be a curse to all the nations of the earth:

and all the people were gathered against Jeremiah in the house of the Lord; besides those that were in the temple that heard him, others, upon a rumour that he was apprehended by the priests, and prophets, and people in the temple, got together in a mob about him: or, they were "gathered to" (e) him; to hear what he had to say in his own defence; and it appears afterwards that they were on his side, Jeremiah 26:16.

(e) "ad Jeremiam", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Cocceius, Schmidt.

Why hast thou prophesied in the name of the LORD, saying, {f} This house shall be like Shiloh, and this city shall be desolate without an inhabitant? And all the people were gathered against Jeremiah in the house of the LORD.

(f) Because of God's promises to the temple, Ps 132:14 that he would forever remain there, hypocrites thought this temple could never perish and therefore thought it blasphemy to speak against it, Mt 26:61, Ac 6:13 not considering that this was meant of the Church where God will remain forever.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Verse 9. - Were gathered against; rather, assembled themselves unto; i.e. constituted themselves into a legal qahal, or assembly (see on ver. 17). Jeremiah 26:9The behaviour of the priests, prophets, and princes of the people towards Jeremiah on account of this discourse. - Jeremiah 26:7-9. When the priests and prophets and all the people present in the temple had heard this discourse, they laid hold of Jeremiah, saying, "Thou must die. Wherefore prophesiest thou in the name of Jahveh, saying, Like Shiloh shall this house become, and this city shall be desolate, without inhabitant? And all the people gathered to Jeremiah in the house of Jahveh." This last remark is not so to be understood, when compared with Jeremiah 26:7 and Jeremiah 26:8, as that all the people who, according to Jeremiah 26:7, had been hearing the discourse, and, according to Jeremiah 26:8, had with the priests and prophets laid hold on Jeremiah, gathered themselves to him now. It means, that after one part of the people present had, along with the priests and prophets, laid hold on him, the whole people gathered around him. "All the people," Jeremiah 26:9, is accordingly to be distinguished from "all the people," Jeremiah 26:8; and the word כּל, all, must not be pressed, in both cases meaning simply a great many. When it is thus taken, there is no reason for following Hitz., and deleting "all the people" in Jeremiah 26:8 as a gloss. Jeremiah's special opponents were the priests and prophets after their own hearts. But to them there adhered many from among the people; and these it is that are meant by "all the people," Jeremiah 26:8. But since these partisans of the priests and pseudo-prophets had no independent power of their own to pass judgment, and since, after Jeremiah was laid hold of, all the rest of the people then in the temple gathered around him, it happens that in Jeremiah 26:11 the priests and prophets are opposed to "all the people," and are mentioned as being alone the accusers of Jeremiah. - When the princes of Judah heard what had occurred, they repaired from the king's house (the palace) to the temple, and seated themselves in the entry of the new gate of Jahve, sc. to investigate and decide the case. The new gate was, according to Jeremiah 36:10, by the upper, i.e., inner court, and is doubtless the same that Jotham caused to be built (2 Kings 15:35); but whether it was identical with the upper gate of Benjamin, Jeremiah 20:2, cannot be decided. The princes of Judah, since they came up into the temple from the palace, are the judicial officers who were at that time about the palace. the judges were chosen from among the heads of the people; cf. my Bibl. Archol. ii.149
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