Exodus 29:22
Also you shall take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covers the inwards, and the lobe above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration:
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(22) Thou shalt take of the ram the fat . . . —These were the portions commonly burnt upon the altar in the case of peace offerings. (See Leviticus 3:9-11.) By “the rump” is meant the broad fat tail which characterises Oriental sheep, and which is said to weigh from six to twenty pounds. (Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 10. Comp. Herod. iii. 113; Leo African. 9 p. 293A.)

The caul above the liver.—See Note 2 on Exodus 29:13.

29:1-37 Aaron and his sons were to be set apart for the priest's office, with ceremony and solemnity. Our Lord Jesus is the great High Priest of our profession, called of God to be so; anointed with the Spirit, whence he is called Messiah, the Christ; clothed with glory and beauty; sanctified by his own blood; made perfect, or consecrated through sufferings, Heb 2:10. All believers are spiritual priests, to offer spiritual sacrifices,Door of the tabernacle - Entrance of the tent. See Leviticus 8:3.10-22. And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tabernacle—This part of the ceremonial consisted of three sacrifices: (1) The sacrifice of a bullock, as a sin offering; and in rendering it, the priest was directed to put his hand upon the head of his sacrifice, expressing by that act a consciousness of personal guilt, and a wish that it might be accepted as a vicarious satisfaction. (2) The sacrifice of a ram as a burnt offering (Ex 29:15-18). The ram was to be wholly burnt, in token of the priest's dedication of himself to God and His service. The sin offering was first to be presented, and then the burnt offering; for until guilt be removed, no acceptable service can be performed. (3) There was to be a peace offering, called "the ram of consecration" (Ex 29:19-22). And there was a marked peculiarity in the manner in which this other ram was to be disposed of. The former was for the glory of God—this was for the comfort of the priest himself; and as a sign of a mutual covenant being ratified, the blood of the sacrifice was divided—part sprinkled on the altar round about, and part upon the persons and garments of the priests. Nay, the blood was, by a singular act, directed to be put upon the extremities of the body, thereby signifying that the benefits of the atonement would be applied to the whole nature of man. Moreover, the flesh of this sacrifice was to be divided, as it were, between God and the priest—part of it to be put into his hand to be waved up and down, in token of its being offered to God, and then it was to be burnt upon the altar; the other part was to be eaten by the priests at the door of the tabernacle—that feast being a symbol of communion or fellowship with God. These ceremonies, performed in the order described, showed the qualifications necessary for the priests. (See Heb 7:26, 27; 10:14). Of the priests in their office. Therefore the right shoulder was burnt, which in other sacrifices was given to the priest. Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump,.... The fat which was upon it: the sheep in Arabia and about Judea were remarkable for their large tails; according to Rauwolff (z), they were half a span thick, and one and a half broad, and very fat; and so in Africa and Egypt were rams of large tails often and twenty pounds weight (a); and Aristotle (b) speaks of sheep in Syria that had tails a cubit broad; and Herodotus (c) makes mention of two sorts in Arabia, one sort have tails three cubits long, which if drawn upon the ground would ulcerate, wherefore the shepherds make little carts to bear them upon (d), and the other sort have tails a cubit broad; and Vartomanus (e) relates, how in Arabia are fat sheep whose tails weigh eleven, twelve, seventeen, nay, forty four pounds, and of a cubit long:

and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them: See Gill on Exodus 29:13.

and the right shoulder; what was to be done with it is afterwards observed as well as with the rest:

for it is a ram of consecration; or "of fillings" (f); Jarchi says, the Scripture declares these fillings to be peace offerings, for they minister peace to the altar, and to him that does the service, and to the owners; wherefore the breast was necessarily his that did the service for his portion, and this was Moses, for he ministered in the fillings, and the rest Aaron and his sons ate, for they were the owners.

(z) Travels, p. 221. (a) Leo. African. Descript. Africae, l. 9. p. 753. (b) Hist. Animal. l. 8, c. 28. (c) Thalia sive, l. 3. c. 113. (d) The same is observed in T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 54. 2. & Gloss. in. ib. (e) Navigat. l. 2. c. 5, 9, 15. (f) "impletionum", Montanus, Vatablus, Piscator.

Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a {g} ram of consecration:

(g) Which is offered for the consecration of the high priest.

22. the fat, and] read with Sam. ‘the fat, (even)’: the fat tail, as Leviticus 3:9; Leviticus 7:3 shew, was part of the fat of the animal. So Di. (on Leviticus 8:25), Bä. &c.

the fat tail] Leviticus 3:9; Leviticus 7:3; Leviticus 8:25; Leviticus 9:19†; and probably to be restored in 1 Samuel 9:24 (for the ungrammatical ‘that which was upon it’). What is meant is the large tail of certain species of sheep, still bred in Palestine, and elsewhere, which was esteemed a delicacy. The tail is often so heavy as to need the support of a little cart (Hdt. iii. 113; EB. iv. 4441: see ill. in Jewish Encycl. xi. 50).

the caul] the appendix, as v. 13.

the right thigh] so rightly; not shoulder (RVm. = AV.). In the ordinary peace-offering this was the perquisite of the officiating priest (Leviticus 7:32 f.); here it is burnt ultimately (v. 25) upon the altar. The other parts mentioned were burnt regularly on the altar (Leviticus 3:9-11).

a ram of installation] lit. ‘of filling’ (sc. of hands): cf. the cognate verb in v. 9. ‘Consecration’ is not sufficiently distinctive. So vv. 26, 27, 31, 34; in the ║║, Leviticus 8:22; Leviticus 8:28-29; Lev Exo 8:31; Leviticus 8:33; and Leviticus 7:37†.

22–25. Symbolical investiture of the priests with authority to offer sacrifice. Select portions of the offerings to be placed on their open hands, waved, as they lie there, forwards and backwards before the altar, and finally burnt upon it (Leviticus 8:25-28).Verse 22. - The rump. Rather, "the tail." Oriental sheep have very commonly a broad fat tail, which weighs from six to twenty pounds, and is sometimes laid upon a little cart with two wheels, which the sheep drags after it (Herod. 3:113; Leo African. 9. p. 293 A; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 10; Gesenius ad voc. אליה). There is no doubt that a "tail" of this kind is here meant. The caul. Rather, "the membrane." See the comment on ver 13. The right shoulder. Or "leg," according to some. The difference is not important. Consecration of Aaron and his Sons through the anointing of their persons and the offering of sacrifices, the directions for which form the subject of vv. 1-35. This can only be fully understood in connection with the sacrificial law contained in Leviticus 1-7. It will be more advisable therefore to defer the examination of this ceremony till we come to Leviticus 8, where the consecration itself is described. The same may also be said of the expiation and anointing of the altar, which are commanded in Exodus 29:36 and Exodus 29:37, and carried out in Leviticus 8:11.
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