Esther 9:1
Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them, (though it was turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
IX.

(1) Drew near.—Arrived, came, as in Esther 8:17.

Esther 9:1. The king’s commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution — At the close of the last chapter we left two royal edicts in force, both given at the court at Shushan, one bearing date the thirteenth day of the first month, appointing, that on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, then next ensuing, all the Jews should be killed; and another bearing date the twenty-third day of the third month, empowering the Jews, on the day appointed for their slaughter, to draw the sword in their own defence, and make their part good against their enemies, as well as they could. Great expectation there was, no doubt, of this day, and the issue of it. The Jews’ cause was to be tried by battle, and the day fixed for the combat by authority. Their enemies resolved not to lose the advantages given them by the first edict, in hope to overpower them by numbers. The Jews relied on the goodness of their God, and justice of their cause, and resolved to make their utmost efforts against their enemies. The day comes, at length, and here we learn that it was a day of victory and triumph to the Jews, both in the city of Shushan, and in all the rest of the king’s provinces. In the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them — That day which was selected by Haman, with great industry and art, as the most lucky day, and which their enemies had undoubtedly often thought of, and threatened them with; when, notwithstanding the later edict, they expected to have power over them by virtue of the former, they made assaults upon them accordingly, forming themselves into bodies, and joining in confederacy against them.9:1-19 The enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them by the former edict. If they had attempted nothing against the people of God, they would not themselves have suffered. The Jews, acting together, strengthened one another. Let us learn to stand fast in one spirit, and with one mind, striving together against the enemies of our souls, who endeavour to rob us of our faith, which is more precious than our lives. The Jews, to the honour of their religion, showed contempt of wordly wealth, that they might make it appear they desired nothing except their own preservation. In every case the people of God should manifest humanity and disinterestedness, frequently refusing advantages which might lawfully be obtained. The Jews celebrated their festival the day after they had finished their work. When we have received great mercies from God, we ought to be speedy in making thankful returns to him.Drew near - Or, "arrived," or "reached the time" specified Esther 3:13; Esther 8:12. CHAPTER 9

Es 9:1-19. The Jews Slay Their Enemies with the Ten Sons of Haman.

1. in the twelfth month, … on the thirteenth day of the same—This was the day which Haman's superstitious advisers had led him to select as the most fortunate for the execution of his exterminating scheme against the Jews [Es 3:7].The Jews slay their enemies, Esther 9:1-9, with the ten sons of Haman, Esther 9:10. Ahasuerus, at the request of Esther, granteth another day of slaughter, Esther 9:12-19. The days of Purim made festival, Esther 9:20-32.

In that day which was selected by Haman with great industry and art, as the most lucky day, and which their enemies had ofttimes formerly thought of, and no doubt threatened the Jews with it.

No text from Poole on this verse.

Now in the twelfth month, that is the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same,.... Of which see Esther 3:13,

when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution; even both his commandments and decrees, the one empowering the enemies of the Jews on that day to destroy them, and the other empowering the Jews to act both defensively and offensively against their enemies:

in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them; by virtue of the first decree of the king; and notwithstanding the second, they might hope to have it because of their superior numbers:

though it was turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them; it proved the reverse, partly through the second decree in favour of the Jews, and partly through the fear of them that fell upon their enemies; because the court was on their side, and the officers everywhere, and especially their God filled them with courage, and their enemies with terror.

Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them,

(though it was {a} turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)

(a) This was by God's great providence, who turns the joy of the wicked into sorrow, and the tears of the godly into gladness.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1. when the king’s commandment] Beginning with these words, and extending to the end of this long verse, is a series of clauses, thus postponing the actual narrative. The writer’s motive for this lengthened protasis may well be the literary effect of suggesting thereby the suspense which prevailed during the intervening period.

Chap. Esther 9:1-10. Overthrow of the Jews’ enemies

The story, omitting the intermediate months of preparation, now passes to the date fixed by the decree for the Jews’ overthrow.Verse 1. - To have power over them. Or, "to get the mastery over them" (comp. Daniel 6:24, where the same word is used). Had rule. Or, "had the mastery." These letters were prepared in the same manner as those of Haman (Esther 3:12-15), on the 23rd day of the third month, the month Sivan, and sent into all the provinces. "And it was written according to all that Mordochai commanded." They were sent to the Jews and to the satraps, etc., of the whole wide realm from India to Ethiopia (see Esther 1:1), while those of Haman had been issued only to the satraps, etc. The rest coincides with Esther 3:12. ויּכתּב, and he (Mordochai) wrote. To show the speed with which the letters were despatched, (messengers) "on horseback, on coursers, government coursers, the sons of the stud," is added to הרצים בּיד. רכשׁ is a collective, meaning swift horses, coursers; comp. 1 Kings 5:8. אחשׁתּרנים (Esther 8:11 and Esther 8:14) answers to the Old-Persian kschatrana, from kschatra, government, king, and means government, royal, or court studs. So Haug in Ewald's bibl. Jahrb. v. p. 154. The older explanation, mules, on the other hand, is founded on the modern Persian estar, which, to judge from the Sanscrit avatara, must in ancient Persian have been apatara. רמּכים, ἁπ. λεγ. from רמּך, answering to the Syriac remakaa', herd, especially a herd of horses, and to the Arabic ramaka, stud, is explained by Bertheau as a superlative form for the animal who excels the rest of the herd of stud in activity, perhaps the breeding stallion, while others understand it of the stud in general. The contents of the edict follow in Esther 8:11 and Esther 8:12 : "that the king allows the Jews in every city to assemble and to stand for their life (i.e., to fight for their lives, comp. Daniel 12:1), to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish all the power (חיל, military power) of the people and province that should assault them, children and women, and to plunder their property, upon a certain day," etc. The appointed time is thus stated as in Esther 3:13. The Jews were thus authorized to attack and destroy all enemies who should assault them on the day appointed for their extermination. Esther 8:13 coincides with Esther 3:14, with this difference, that the Jews are to be ready on this day to avenge themselves on their enemies. Esther 8:14 also is similar to Esther 3:15, except that the expression is strengthened by an addition to הרצים as in Esther 8:10, and by that of דּחוּפים, urged on, to מבהלים, hastened, to point out the utmost despatch possible.
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