Ephesians 5:4
Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.
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(4) Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting.—The word “filthiness” (unlike the “filthy communication” of the parallel passage in Colossians 3:8) is in itself a general word. But the connection with the words following, and the distinction from those going before, appear to show that St. Paul here uses it for “filthy talking.” He is passing from impurity of the inward soul to impurity in outward expression. Of such foul speaking he appears to distinguish two forms. There is, first of all, “foolish talking,” or the talk of “the fool,” in the worst sense in which that word is used in Scripture (Matthew 5:22; Matthew 23:17), as implying something worse than mere emptiness or blindness—describing the condition of the soul which has “lost its savour” (Matthew 5:13), i.e., has ceased to distinguish what is right or wrong, wise or foolish, noble or base. There is then “jesting,” i.e., properly, the more polished “versatility,” which will find occasion for wit or levity in anything, however sacred, fearing nothing so much as to be dull, and mistaking all seriousness and reserve for dulness. It is notable that in classical Greek the word is sometimes used in a good sense, as a mean between “churlishness” and “obsequiousness,” but yet hovers on the border of that condemnation which Christian gravity here pronounces unhesitatingly. The former kind of foul talking is coarse and brutal; the latter refined and deadly. Of both kinds Greek and Roman literature furnish specimens only too many and too striking.

Which are not convenient.—That is, “which are out of character” in a Christian—a milder repetition (perhaps suggested by the ambiguous meaning of “jesting” noted above) of the indignant declaration in Ephesians 5:3, that it “becomes not saints that these foul things should be even named among them.” They pollute the Christian mind and tongue even in condemning them.

But rather giving of thanks.—The opposition is striking. “The foolish talking and jesting” aim at mirth and play of mind; St. Paul will not austerely condemn, such light-heartedness, but he finds a wholesome and spiritual vent for it in the habitual expression of thankfulness to God, which proceeds from a natural and childlike cheerfulness. Exactly in the same spirit below (Ephesians 5:18-20) he contrasts the excitement of drunkenness with the being “filled with the Spirit . . . giving thanks always for all things.”

5:3-14 Filthy lusts must be rooted out. These sins must be dreaded and detested. Here are not only cautions against gross acts of sin, but against what some may make light of. But these things are so far from being profitable. that they pollute and poison the hearers. Our cheerfulness should show itself as becomes Christians, in what may tend to God's glory. A covetous man makes a god of his money; places that hope, confidence, and delight, in worldly good, which should be in God only. Those who allow themselves, either in the lusts of the flesh or the love of the world, belong not to the kingdom of grace, nor shall they come to the kingdom of glory. When the vilest transgressors repent and believe the gospel, they become children of obedience, from whom God's wrath is turned away. Dare we make light of that which brings down the wrath of God? Sinners, like men in the dark, are going they know not whither, and doing they know not what. But the grace of God wrought a mighty change in the souls of many. Walk as children of light, as having knowledge and holiness. These works of darkness are unfruitful, whatever profit they may boast; for they end in the destruction of the impenitent sinner. There are many ways of abetting, or taking part in the sins of others; by commendation, counsel, consent, or concealment. And if we share with others in their sins, we must expect to share in their plagues. If we do not reprove the sins of others, we have fellowship with them. A good man will be ashamed to speak of what many wicked men are not ashamed to do. We must have not only a sight and a knowledge that sin is sin, and in some measure shameful, but see it as a breach of God's holy law. After the example of prophets and apostles, we should call on those asleep and dead in sin, to awake and arise, that Christ may give them light.Neither filthiness - That is, obscene, or indecent conversation. Literally, that which is shameful, or deformed - αἰσχρότης aischrotēs. The word does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament.

Nor foolish talking - This word - μωρολογία mōrologia - does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament. It means that kind of talk which is insipid, senseless, stupid, foolish; which is not suited to instruct, edify, profit - the idle "chitchat" which is so common in the world. The meaning is, that Christians should aim to have their conversation sensible, serious, sincere - remembering the words of the Lord Jesus, "that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment;" Matthew 12:36.

Nor jesting - εὐτραπελία eutrapelia. This word occurs also nowhere else in the New Testament. It properly means, that which is "well-turned" εὐ eu - well, and τρεπω trepō - to turn); and then that which is sportive, refined, courteous; and then "urbanity, humor, wit; and then jesting, levity" - which is evidently the meaning here. The apostle would not forbid courteousness, or refinement of manners (compare 1 Peter 3:8), and the reference, therefore, must be to that which is light and trifling in conversation; to that which is known among us as jesting. It may be observed:

(1) that "courteousness" is not forbidden in the Scriptures, but is positively required; 1 Peter 3:8.

(2) "Cheerfulness" is not forbidden - for if anything can make cheerful, it is the hope of heaven.

(3) "Pleasantry" cannot be forbidden. I mean that quiet and gentle humor that arises from good-nature, and that makes one good-natured in spite of himself.

Such are many of the poems of Cowper, and many of the essays of Addison in the "Spectator" - a benevolent humor which disposes us to smile, but not to be malignant; to be good-natured, but not to inspire levity. But levity and jesting, though often manifested by ministers and other Christians, are as inconsistent with true dignity as with the gospel. Where were they seen in the conversation of the Redeemer? Where in the writings of Paul?

Which are not convenient - That is, which are not fit or proper; which do not become the character of Christians; notes, Romans 1:28. Christians should be grave and serious - though cheerful and pleasant. They should feel that they have great interests at stake, and that the world has too. They are redeemed - not to make sport; purchased with precious blood - for other purposes than to make people laugh. They are soon to be in heaven - and a man who has any impressive sense of that will habitually feel that he has much else to do than to make people laugh. The true course of life is midway between moroseness and levity; sourness and lightness; harshness and jesting. Be benevolent, kind, cheerful, bland, courteous, but serious. Be solemn, thoughtful, deeply impressed with the presence of God and with eternal things, but pleasant, affable, and benignant. Think not a smile sinful; but think not levity and jesting harmless.

But rather giving of thanks - Thanks to God, or praises are more becoming Christians than jesting. The idea here seems to be, that such employment would be far more appropriate to the character of Christians, than idle, trifling, and indelicate conversation. Instead, therefore, of meeting together for low wit and jesting; for singing songs, and for the common discourse which often attends such "gatherings" of friends, Paul would have them come together for the purpose of praising God, and engaging in his service. Human beings are social in their nature; and it they do not assemble for good purposes, they will for bad ones. It is much more appropriate to the character of Christians to come together to sing praises to God, than to sing songs; to pray than to jest; to converse of the things of redemption than to tell anecdotes, and to devote the time to a contemplation of the world to come, than to trifles and nonsense.

4. filthiness—obscenity in act or gesture.

foolish talking—the talk of fools, which is folly and sin together. The Greek of it, and of "filthiness," occurs nowhere else in the New Testament.

nor—rather, "or" (compare Eph 5:3).

jesting—Greek, "eutrapelia"; found nowhere else in the New Testament: implying strictly that versatility which turns about and adapts itself, without regard to principle, to the shifting circumstances of the moment, and to the varying moods of those with whom it may deal. Not scurrile buffoonery, but refined "persiflage" and "badinage," for which Ephesus was famed [Plautus, A Boastful Soldier, 3.1,42-52], and which, so far from being censured, was and is thought by the world a pleasant accomplishment. In Col 3:8, "filthy communication" refers to the foulness; "foolish talking," to the folly; "jesting," to the false refinement (and trifling witticism [Tittmann]) Of discourse unseasoned with the salt of grace [Trench].

not convenient—"unseemly"; not such "as become saints" (Eph 5:3).

rather giving of thanks—a happy play on sounds in Greek, "eucharistia" contrasted with "eutrapelia"; refined "jesting" and subtle humor sometimes offend the tender feelings of grace; "giving of thanks" gives that real cheerfulness of spirit to believers which the worldly try to get from "jesting" (Eph 5:19, 20; Jas 5:13).

Neither filthiness; obscenity in discourse, filthy communication, Colossians 3:8.

Nor foolish talking; affectation of foolish, vain speech, (whether jocose or serious), unprofitable, to the hearers.

Nor jesting; either the same as the former, as may seem by the disjunctive particle nor, which may be by way of explication; or (which is of kin to it) scurrility in discourse, which is many times, by them that are addicted to it, called by the name of urbanity, or jesting: for all that jesting is not here condemned appears by 1 Kings 18:27 Isaiah 14:11.

Which are not convenient; viz. for saints.

But rather giving of thanks; i.e. to God for mercies received, which will better cheer up and recreate the mind than foolish talking and jesting can. Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting,.... The former of these may include all filthy gestures and behaviour, every indecent habit and attire, and all actions which have a tendency to excite lust; and also all impure words, these discover an impure heart, and are the means of corrupting men's minds and manners; filthy speaking, is a verbal commission of the things that are spoken of; and it may include all impure songs and books, and the reading or hearing of them; this is what the Jews call , "filthiness of the mouth", obscene words; which they say they do not use on feast days, as the Gentiles do (i): "foolish talking" does not so much design every imprudent thing that is said, as that which is wicked, corrupt, unsavoury, light, vain, idle, and unprofitable; and takes in all fabulous stories, and mimicking of fools in words and gestures: and "jesting", when it is with wantonness, and excites unto it, and is inconsistent with truth, and when the Scriptures are abused by it, and not our neighbour's edification, but hurt, is promoted by it, ought not to be used:

which are not convenient; are disagreeable to the will of God, and unsuitable to the characters of the saints, and are very unbecoming them to practise:

but rather giving of thanks; instead of these, as the Syriac version renders it; it is much more suitable and becoming to give thanks to God for temporal and spiritual mercies, and to speak those things which are grateful to good men; this is to use the tongue to much better purpose, than in an obscene, foolish, or jocose way: one of Stephens's copies read, "but only of giving of thanks".

(i) Jarchi in Psal. lxxv. 3. Vid. Vajikra Rabba, sect. 24. fol. 165. 3.

Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor {a} jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.

(a) Jests which men cast at one another: that no lightness is seen, nor evil example given, nor any offence made by evil words or backbiting.

Ephesians 5:4. Αἰσχρότης] abomination, disgraceful conduct, Plat. Gorg. p. 525 A. Most expositors, including Rückert, Meier, Holzhausen, Olshausen (not Matthies and Harless), limit it to disgraceful utterances, but without warrant of linguistic usage (this would be αἰσχρολογία, see Colossians 3:8; Xen. de rep. Lac. v. 6; Aristot. de rep. vii. 17; Polyb. viii. 13. 8, xii. 13. 3); or in the context, in which it is only the following elements that contain the unchristian speaking.

μωρολογία] is the carrying on of insipid, foolish talk. Antig. de Mirab. 126: μωρολωγίας καὶ ἀδολεσχίας, Arist. H. A. i. 11; Plut. Mor. 504 A.

εὐτραπελία] signifies properly ready versatility (from τρέπω and εὖ), urbanity; then specially a witty, jesting manner; and in a bad sense, as here, the witticism of frivolity, scurrilitas. See in general, Wetstein ad loc.; Dissen, ad Pind. p. 180; Krüger on Thuc. ii. 41. 1.

τὰ οὐκ ἀνήκοντα] as that which is unseemly. Comp. Winer, pp. 221, 338 f. [E. T. 610]. It refers only to μωρολογία and εὐτραπελία, since for αἰσχρότης such a characteristic description would be entirely superfluous, and ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εὐχαριστία points back merely to those peccata oris.

ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εὐχαριστία] From the preceding μηδὲ ὀνομαζέσθω ἐν ὑμῖν we have here to supply ἔστω or γινέσθω ἐν ὑμῖν, which is contained therein, in accordance with a well-known brachylogy, Kühner, II. p. 604. εὐχαριστία is, according to standing usage (comp. also Loesner, Obss. p. 345 f.), not gracefulness of speech, as Jerome, Calvin,[255] Salmasius, Cajetanus, Hammond, Semler, Michaelis, Wahl, Meier, and others would take it, which would be εὔχαρι, but giving of thanks, in which case there results a contrast far more in keeping with the Christian character and the profoundly vivid piety of the apostle (comp. Colossians 2:7; Colossians 3:15; Colossians 3:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:18). Gratitude towards God (for the salvation in Christ), expressing itself in their discourse, is to supersede among Christians the two faults before mentioned, and to sanctify their oral intercourse. “Linguae abusui opponitur sanctus et tamen laetus usus,” Bengel. Morus erroneously refers it to thanksgiving towards others;the language of courtesy.”

[255] “Sermones nostros vera suavitate et gratia perfusos esse debere, quod fiet, si miscebimus utile dulci.”Ephesians 5:4. καὶ αἰσχρότης: and filthiness. This is taken by many (Eth., Theophyl., Oec., Rück., Harl., etc.) to refer to indecent talk, which, however, would be expressed by αἰσχρολογία (Colossians 3:8). The context shows it to refer to sins of the flesh, but there is nothing to limit it to sinful speech. It denotes shameless, immoral conduct in general.—καὶ μωρολογία ἢ εὐτραπελία: and foolish talking or [and] jesting. The readings here are somewhat uncertain as regards the particles. The TR has the support of such authorities as [504] [505] [506], Syr.-Harcl., Arm. for καί; [507] [508]*[509], Vulg., Sah., etc., give ; [510] [511]1[512]3[513], Boh., Eth., etc., have καίκαί. The first is accepted by TRV; the second by [514]; the third by WH. The choice is between the first and third, and the balance of evidence is on the whole, although not very decidedly, on the side of καίκαί. The noun μωρολογία is of very rare occurrence. In common Greek it is found only a very few times (Arist., Hist. An., i., 11; Plut., Mor., 504 A); in the NT only this once. Its sense, however, is sufficiently clear.—καὶ εὐτραπελία: and jesting. This is the solitary occurrence of the noun in the NT. It is found, however, in Aristotle (who defines it as πεπαιδευμένη ὕβρις, Eth. Nic., iv., 14), Pindar (Pyth., i., 178), etc. It appears to have meant originally versatility, facetiousness, and to have acquired the evil sense of frivolity or scurrility. Here it is taken by some (e.g., Trench, Ell.) to be distinguished from μωρολογία and to denote, therefore, not the sin of the tongue merely, but the “evil ‘urbanitas’ (in manners or words) of the witty, godless man of the world” (Ell.). This depends so far on the acceptance of the disjunctive as the proper reading, but may be essentially correct. AV and other old English Versions give jesting, except Wicl., who has harlotry, and the Rhem. which gives scurrility.—τὰ οὐκ ἀνήκοντα: things which are not seemly. The article has the pred. force = “as things which are not seemly” (Mey.; cf. Win.-Moult., p. 610). The reading, however, varies. The TR is supported by the great mass of MSS—[515] [516] [517] [518], etc.; but [519] [520] [521] [522], etc., give ἃ οὐκ ἀνῆκεν, which is to be preferred. The clause is in apposition to the preceding; but probably only to the latter two nouns, μωρολογία and εὐτραπελία, as these form the direct contrast to the following εὐχαριστία. cf. τὰ μὴ καθήκοντα of Romans 1:28.—ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εὐχαριστία: but rather giving of thanks. The brachylogy (cf. Jelf, Greek Gram., § 705, 3) requires ἔστω or rather γίνεσθω to be supplied. The εὐχαριστία is understood by some to mean gracious speech (Clem. Al.; also Jer., with a perhaps), or pious, edifying discourse generally (Calv., on the analogy of Colossians 4:6; Proverbs 11:6). Others give it the sense of courteous speech (Mor.). But the idea of gracious speech would be expressed rather by εὔχαρι, and, as Meyer points out, the contrast which would thus result would be less in keeping with “the Christian character and the profoundly vivid piety of the Apostle”. On nothing does he more insist than on the grace of thankfulness, and the expression of it, to God for the gifts of His love to sinful men.

[504] Autograph of the original scribe of א.

[505] Autograph of the original scribe of א.

[506] Codex Porphyrianus (sæc. ix.), at St. Petersburg, collated by Tischendorf. Its text is deficient for chap. Ephesians 2:13-16.

[507] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[508] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[509] Codex Boernerianus (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Dresden, edited by Matthæi in 1791. Written by an Irish scribe, it once formed part of the same volume as Codex Sangallensis (δ) of the Gospels. The Latin text, g, is based on the O.L. translation.

[510] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[511] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[512] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[513] Codex Mosquensis (sæc. ix.), edited by Matthæi in 1782.

[514] Codex Angelicus (sæc. ix.), at Rome, collated by Tischendorf and others.

[515] Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

[516] Codex Boernerianus (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Dresden, edited by Matthæi in 1791. Written by an Irish scribe, it once formed part of the same volume as Codex Sangallensis (δ) of the Gospels. The Latin text, g, is based on the O.L. translation.

[517] Codex Mosquensis (sæc. ix.), edited by Matthæi in 1782.

[518] Codex Angelicus (sæc. ix.), at Rome, collated by Tischendorf and others.

[519] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[520] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[521] Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).

[522] Codex Porphyrianus (sæc. ix.), at St. Petersburg, collated by Tischendorf. Its text is deficient for chap. Ephesians 2:13-16.4. filthiness] Lit. “ugliness, deformity”; vice in its aspect as morally hideous. The Gr. word occurs here only in N.T. In the classics some cognate words bear a special connexion with forms of gross sensuality.

foolish talking] Talk about sin, in the spirit of the “fool” who gloats and jests over his own or his neighbour’s undoing. The word occurs here only in N.T. It and its cognates occur in the classics, but not in grave moral connexions.

jesting] Obviously, by context, in the sense of immoral pleasantry, such as defiles some of the most brilliant pages of pagan literature, not to speak of Christian, so called; and such as terribly impregnates common talk in many strata and circles of society now. It must have been everywhere the fashion at Ephesus. The passage does not deal with the play of humour and wit in general. This is not forbidden in Scripture, and so far as it is the outcome of vigour, gladness, or (in the case of humour) tenderness, it may be quite in harmony with the strict piety of the Gospel. But to remain so it must be watched; and see next note but one.—The Gr. word denotes specially the versatility of clever repartee; but it is wider by usage.

convenient] Better, as R.V., befitting; the French convenable. In older English “convenient” could bear this meaning; but it has lost it. Romans 1:28 and Philemon 1:8 are parallel cases in the A.V.

giving of thanks] as the far more “befitting” expression of the buoyancy of the believing spirit. See Colossians 3:16; James 5:13. Such precepts, out of Scripture, have often been stigmatized as “puritanic,” or the like; but they are nevertheless apostolic. And the nearer the conduct of inner life is brought to apostolic lines of principle the more natural will such precepts be felt to be.Ephesians 5:4. Αἰσχρότης, filthiness) in word, or even in gesture, etc.—μωρολογία, foolish talking) wherein a mere laugh is aimed at even without wit [the salt of profitable discourse, Colossians 4:6].—ἤ εὐτραπελία) or jesting.[77] This is more refined than filthiness or foolish talking; for it depends on the understanding. The Asiatics delighted much in it: and in former times jesting prevailed for some ages, even among the learned. Why so? (Because) Aristotle considered jesting to be a virtue; and they made much use of Plautus. Olympiodorus observes, that Paul rebuked εὐτραπελία, jesting, in such a way that ὥστε οὐδὲ τὰ ἀστεῖα δεκτέον, there is not even a place for urbane conversation (pleasantry).—τὰ οὐκ ἀνήκοντα, the things which are not befitting [convenient]) An epithet [not the predicate]. Supply the predicate, let them be kept out of the way.[78]—εὐχαριστία, thanksgiving) Supply ἀνήκει, is convenient. The holy and yet joyful use of the tongue is opposed to its abuse, Ephesians 5:18-19. The abuse and the use are not compatible with one another.—εὐτραπελία and εὐχαριστία are an elegant Paranomasia:[79] the former disturbs (and indeed the refined jest and subtile humour sometimes offend the tender feelings of grace), the latter exhilarates the mind.

[77] Wahl translates this word, which is found here only in the New Testament, Scurrilitas. Its classic use conveys no idea of censure; Th. εὐ and τρέπω, one who happily accommodates himself to his company: pleasantry, urbanity. In μωρολογία, the foolishness, in αἰσχρολογία, the foulness, in εὐτραπελία, the false refinement of discourse, not seasoned with the salt of grace, are noted.—Trench, Syn. Gr. T.—ED.

[78] Taken by Zeugma out of μηδὲ ὀνομαζέσθω, Ephesians 5:3.—ED.

[79] See Append. A similar sound and form in two nouns, producing a pleasant antithesis.—ED.Verse 4. - And filthiness; αἰσχρότης, implying that such things are disgraceful, ugly, revolting, the opposite of καλός, fair, comely, attractive. And foolish talking or jesting, which are not becoming. This would be well understood in sensual, frivolous Ephesus; a light, bantering, jesting kind of talk, seasoned with double entendres and obscene allusions, very pernicious in its moral effect. There is no reason to suppose that the apostle meant to condemn all play of humor, which is a Divine gift, and which in moderation has its own useful place as a means of refreshing and invigorating the spirit; it was the jesting associated with ribaldry that drew his reproof. But rather giving of thanks. Αὐχαριστία is somewhat similar in sound to εὐτραπελία, jesting: the reason for putting the one in opposition to the other is not very apparent; the meaning seems to be that, in place of giving vent to lively feelings in frivolous talk and jesting, it is better for Christians to do so by pouring out their hearts in thanksgivings to God for all his goodness. Filthiness (αἰσχρότης)


Foolish talking (μωρολογία)

Only here in the New Testament. Talk which is both foolish and sinful. Compare corrupt communication, Ephesians 4:29. It is more than random or idle talk. "Words obtain a new earnestness when assumed into the ethical terminology of Christ's school. Nor, in seeking to enter fully into the meaning of this one, ought we to leave out of sight the greater emphasis which the words fool, foolish, folly obtain in Scripture than elsewhere they have or can have" (Trench).

Jesting (εὐτραπελία)

Only here in the New Testament. From εὐ well or easily, πρέπω to turn. That which easily turns and adapts itself to the moods and conditions of those with whom it may be dealing at the moment. From this original sense of versatility it came to be applied to morals, as timeserving, and to speech with the accompanying notion of dissimulation. Aristotle calls it chastened insolence. The sense of the word here is polished and witty speech as the instrument of sin; refinement and versatility without the flavor of Christian grace. "Sometimes it is lodged in a sly question, in a smart answer, in a quirkish reason, in shrewd intimation, in cunningly diverting or cleverly retorting an objection: sometimes it is couched in a bold scheme of speech, in a tart irony, in a lusty hyperbole, in a startling metaphor, in a plausible reconciling of contradictions, or in acute nonsense.... Sometimes an affected simplicity, sometimes a presumptuous bluntness giveth it being.... Its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language" (Barrow, Sermon xiv., "Against Foolish Talking and Jesting." The whole passage is well worth reading).

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