Traitors, heady, high minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Traitors.—Or, betrayers, probably, as it has been suggested, of their Christian brethren. (Comp. Luke 6:16, where this epithet is used of Judas Iscariot, “which also was the traitor;” and also Acts 7:52, where Stephen, in his Sanhedrin speech, uses this term “betrayers” of the Jews, “of whom—the Just One—ye have been now the betrayers.” In these days of Timothy, and for many a long year, to inform against the believers in Jesus of Nazareth, to give information of their places of meeting in times of persecution, was often a profitable’ though a despicable work.
Heady.—Better rendered, headstrong in words, or thoughts, or actions.
Highminded.—Better translated, blinded by pride. (See 1Timothy 3:6.)
Lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God.—Men who would make any sacrifice to procure a fleeting pleasure, and who would give nothing up in order to do honour to the eternal but invisible God. Need the ministers of the Lord tarry for the last period preceding the return of Messiah for judgment—when a still more awful iniquity shall reign—for examples of these short-sighted mortals? The sorrowful catalogue began with “love of self,” that unhappy vice which excludes all love for others; it closes with that “love of pleasure” which shuts out all love of God.Luke 6:16; Acts 7:52. It means any one who betrays - whether it be a friend or his country. Treason has been in all ages regarded as one of the worst crimes that man can commit.
Heady - The same word in Acts 19:36, is rendered rashly. It occurs only there and in this place in the New Testament. It properly means "falling forwards; prone, inclined, ready to do anything; then precipitate, headlong, rash." It is opposed to that which is deliberate and calm, and here means that men would be ready to do anything without deliberation, or concern for the consequences. They would engage in enterprises which would only disturb society, or prove their own ruin.
High-minded - Literally, "puffed up;" compare the notes at 1 Timothy 3:6, where the same word is rendered "lifted up with pride." The meaning is, that they would be inflated with pride or self-conceit.
Lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God - That is, of sensual pleasures, or vain amusements. This has been, and is, the characteristic of a great part of the world, and has often distinguished even many who profess religion. Of a large portion of mankind it may be said that this is their characteristic, that they live for pleasure; they have no serious pursuits; they brook no restraints which interfere with their amusements, and they greatly prefer the pleasures to be found in the gay assembly, in the ball-room, or in the place of low dissipation, to the friendship of their Creator.
high-minded—literally, "puffed up" with pride, as with smoke blinding them.
lovers of pleasure … God—Love of pleasure destroys the love and sense of God.Traitors; prodotai signifies the betraying of any trust, or a falsehood to any person to whom we are obliged. It is in Scripture applied to Judas, Luke 6:16, and to the Jews that crucified Christ, Acts 7:52. The verb whence it derives is by authors applied to persons, places, and causes: it signifies that in the latter times there should be a general falsehood amongst men; see Matthew 10:21; falsehood towards their superiors, their relation, profession, &c.
Heady; rash, inconsiderate.
High-minded; blown up as bladders with an opinion of their own deserts.
Lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; voluptuous men, not using what God hath given them with a moderate satisfaction and delight in them, but contrary to God’s commandments, and thereby showing that they have more love for the gratification of their sensitive appetite than the pleasing of God.
Heady; rash, daring, bold, and impudent, fit to say and do any thing, though ever so vile and wicked.
High, minded; puffed and swelled up with a vain conceit of themselves, and speaking great swelling words of vanity;
lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God; lovers of sinful pleasures, or the pleasures of sin, which are but for a season, and not God; serving divers lusts and pleasures, and not God; making a god of their belly; sensual idolaters, delighting themselves in their carnal lusts, and not in the service of God.Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)2 Timothy 3:4. προδοται: has no special reference to persecution of Christians.
τετυφωμένοι: See note on 1 Timothy 3:6.4. traitors, heady, highminded] The last triad again descending, false and forward and full of conceit, the spirit of one who ‘with a light heart’ (1) betrays old friends, and (2) rushes headlong on new faiths, and (3) remains to the end impenetrably wrapped in clouds of self-esteem. The second word only occurs Acts 19:36, ‘to do nothing rash’; the third has been explained 1 Timothy 6:4; cf. 1 Timothy 3:6; a purely ‘pastoral’ phrase in N.T., though thoroughly classical. Note the weight and force of the perfect participle closing the list of epithets. Cf. 2 Timothy 2:25. The A.V. ‘highminded’ has entirely changed its meaning, as Romans 11:20 shews, ‘be not highminded, but fear.’ Cf. Lightfoot, Revision of N. T. p. 175; and see note on 1 Timothy 6:17.
lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God] Both compounds only occurring here, like the similar compounds ‘self-lovers’ and ‘money-lovers’ with which the passage opens. The word for ‘pleasures’ is always in a bad sense in N.T., Luke 8:14 ‘choked with … pleasures of this life.’ So James 4:1; James 4:3; 2 Peter 2:13.2 Timothy 3:4. Προπετεῖς) rash, those who are headstrong [Engl. Vers. heady] in acting, etc.—τετυφωμένοι, [high-minded] puffed up) 1 Timothy 6:4, note; as if a person should be so suffocated with smoke (τύφω), that he has no longer power over his mind. Such is the condition to which pride brings men.—φιλήδονοι, lovers of pleasure) An epithet of the Epicureans. Pleasure destroys the love and sense of God. Such are our Epicureans.Verse 4. - Headstrong for heady, A.V.; puffed up for high minded, A.V.; pleasure for pleasures, A.V.; rather for more, A.V. Traitors (προδόται); Luke 6:16; Acts 7:52. It does not mean traitors to their king or country, but generally betrayers of the persons who trust in them, and of the cause of the trust committed to them; perhaps specially, as Bishop Ellicott suggests, of their brethren in times of persecution. Headstrong (προπετεῖς); as in Acts 19:36. Neither "heady" nor "headstrong" gives the exact meaning of προπετής, which is "rash," "hasty," "headlong." "Headstrong" rather denotes obstinacy which will not be influenced by wise advice, but προπετής is the person who acts from impulse, without considering consequences, or weighing principles. Puffed up (τετυφωμένοι); see 1 Timothy 3:6, note. Lovers of pleasure (φιλήδονοι); only here in the New Testament, and not found in the LXX., but occasionally in classical Greek. "Fond of pleasure" (Liddell and Scott). It is used here as an antithesis to lovers of God (φιλόθεοι), which also occurs only here either in the New Testament or the LXX., but is used by Aristotle. Philo, quoted by Bishop Ellicott (from Wetstein), has exactly the same contrast: φιλήδονον... μᾶλλον η}... φιλόθεον. It looks as if the men spoken of claimed to be φιλόθεοι. A somewhat similar paronomasia occurs in Isaiah 5:7, where מִשְׂפַהis opposed to מִשְׁפָט, and צְעָקָה to צְדָקָה.
Precipitate, reckless, headstrong in the pursuit of a bad end under the influence of passion. Only here and Acts 19:36. In lxx, slack, loose, hence foolish, Proverbs 10:14, and dividing or parting asunder, as the lips; of one who opens his lips and speaks hastily or thoughtlessly, Proverbs 13:3. Comp. Sir. 9:18.
Lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God (φιλήδονοι μᾶλλον ἢφιλόθεοι)
Pleasure-lovers rather than God-lovers. Both words N.T.o. olxx.
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