Lange Commentary on the Holy Scriptures
This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.VI
Prophecy of grievous times, and warning against dangerous, false teachers
1, 2This know1 also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men2 shall [will] be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemous, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy. 3Without natural affection,3 truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are 4good, Traitors, heady, high-minded [puffed up?] lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; [,] 5Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away. 6For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and 7lead captive4 silly women5 laden with sins, led away with divers lusts; Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. 8Now as Jannes and Jambres6 withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. 9But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL
2Tim 3:1. This know also (comp. 1 Tim. 4:1). The Apostle passes on now to a new part of his Epistle, which proceeds regularly on to 2Tim 4:5. Just as, in the first chapter, he directed a glance over Timothy’s past life, and, in the second chapter, communicated to him weighty hints and doctrines for the present, so now he turns towards the future, while at the same time he once yet again enjoins upon him, for his consideration, the admonitions already given, through reference to the speedy approach of troublous times. As in 1 Tim. 4:1, he had foretold in what style the falling away from the faith would reveal itself, so now he announces the outward immorality which would be coupled with this falling away, notwithstanding the preservation of the Christian name and of Christian forms. What the Apostle here communicates is not a mere subjective supposition, but wholly, as in 1 Tim. 4:1, the fruit of a revelation of the Spirit.—In the last days, ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις. Not a statement, in a general way, of the Christian era, as, e.g., Acts 2:17; Heb. 1:1, but in particular of the last days of this era, which precede immediately the last, personal Parousia of the Lord (1 Peter 1:5; 2 Peter 3:3). The Apostle also directs the attention of Timothy expressly to a world-period still future, the germs of which, nevertheless, were then visible (see 2Tim 3:6, 9), though it must not be forgotten that he expected the return of the Lord as nigh at hand.—Perilous times shall come, ἐνστήσονται; not = imminebunt, but = aderunt, days of which the word (Eph. 5:16), “Ubi vix reperias, quid agas,” shall be applicable in full force.
2Tim 3:2. For men shall be, &c. Such men as the Apostle here describes, there have been at all times, and the Apostle does not say that they will be then such for the first time, nor that all men without exception shall be such, but he describes (exceptis excipiendis) the moral-spiritual physiognomy of the times which he beholds approaching, in which the beneficent influence of the gospel upon the heart, the household, and the daily life will be less seen than in the apostolic age.—Lovers of their own selves, φίλαυτοι (ἅπαξ λεγόμ.). Original cause of all wickedness, so that they make their own I the centre of their thinking, feeling, willing, and doing.—Covetous, φιλάργυροι; wholly like the Pharisees (Luke 16:14; comp. 1 Tim. 3:3).—Boasters, ἀλάζονες; noisy self-assertors, like criers in the markets, who rove about everywhere. Ambrose, insolentes.—Proud, ὑπερήφανοι; who not only plume themselves at all times upon their own advantages, but also look down contemptuously upon others.—Blasphemers, βλάσφημοι (1 Tim. 1:13); used specially in reference to God, employed here more generally.—Disobedient to parents (comp. Rom. 1:30), where, in like manner, several of the corruptions here named are stated. The rejection of lawful authority is also, in Jude 8, a distinguishing trait of the antichristian way of doing, and is here, moreover, adduced as the source of the sins now to be mentioned.—Unthankful, ἀχάριστοι; men who will know nothing of thanks for heavenly or for earthly benefits (comp. 1 Tim. 1:9; Luke 6:35).—Unholy, ἀνόσιοι; profane, irreligious, to whom nothing holy is holy.
2Tim 3:3. Without natural affection, ἄστοργοι; not only sine affectione (Vulg.), but sine affectione naturali (comp. Rom. 1:31).—Truce-breakers, ἄσπονδοι; “as well those who will make no compact, as those also who do not hold to a compact they have made—breakers of agreements;” Huther.—False accusers, διάβολοι (1 Tim. 3:11; Titus 2:3).—Incontinent, ἀκρατεῖς; who cannot control themselves (comp. 1 Cor. 7:5).—Fierce, ἀνήμεροι; untamed, wild.—Despisers of those that are good, ἀφιλάγαθοι; for the opposite, see Titus 1:8. Εχθροὶ παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ; Theophylact.
2Tim 3:4. Traitors, προδόται; not openly (which would conflict with 2Tim 3:5), but men with whom neither truthfulness nor faith is found.—Heady, προπετεῖς; rash, fickle (Acts 19:36), men under the influence of their prejudices, who do not act according to high principles, but by the pressure of circumstances.—High-minded, τετυφωμένοι (comp. 1 Tim. 3:6; 6:4), beclouded wholly through vain self-delusion.—Lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God, φιλήδονοι μᾶλλον ἤ φιλόθεοι; who pursue pleasure more than they ask after God (comp. 1 John 2:15; Rom. 16:18; Phil. 3:18).
2Tim 3:5. Having a form of godliness, ἔχοντες μόρφωσιν εὐσεβείας. Μόρφωσις stands here as antithesis to substance (Wiesinger); and also, observing, in thorough pharisaic style, the forms of the service of God with the neglect of the essence of the thing.—But denying the power thereof (viz., τ.εὐσεβείας), τὴν δὲ δύναμιν αὐτῆς ἠρνημένοι; so that they not only miss the power of godliness, but wilfully reject it (comp. the delineation of false prophets, Matt. 7:15–20). With these last traits, in a measure the summary of all the preceding, into which they resolve themselves as into a higher unity, the Apostle ends this large register of sins.—From, such turn away, καὶ τούτους ἀποτρέπου. He says, therefore, without any qualification, Ἀποτρέπεσθαι; occurring here only = ἐκτρέπεσθαι, aversari (1 Tim. 6:20). When we compare this unqualified admonition with the requisition to gentleness which is given in 2Tim 2:24–26, in respect of the erring, it becomes clear that the Apostle had in his mind there entirely different men from those here. But if one ask how he could warn against such men with so great assurance, it becomes obvious, from 2Tim 3:6, that he already recognized their προδρόμοι and spiritual kith in the immediate neighborhood of Timothy.
2Tim 3:6. For of this sort, &c. Such will these persons be, for that can be seen from their forerunners already at hand.—Which creep into houses, ἐνδύνοντες εἰς τὰς οἰκίας. It is known within what narrow limits, in the East, mutual intercourse between the sexes was confined. The evil-minded persons here designated would venture, so much the less, to carry on their designs publicly, since they not only had an evil conscience, but would, besides, endeavor to preserve the appearance of godliness most carefully (2Tim 3:5).—And lead captive silly women, γυναικάρια; designation of a measurably contemptible class of females; the slighting expression denotes their weakness, and the ease with which they are led astray Αἰχμαλωτίζειν, strictly to make captive in war; here, to bind to one with body and soul. Calvin: “Dicit, eas captivas duci, propterea quod variis artificiis ejusmodi pseudo prophetæ eas sibi obnoxias reddunt, partim curiose omnia rimando, partim blandiendo.”—Laden with sins, σεσευρωμένα ἁμαρτίαις (comp. Rom. 12:20); cumulatæ peccatis, and are thereby so inconstant that they lend an ear readily to false teachers, who promise them rest through the enticing discourse of a wisdom concealed yet from others.—Led away with divers lusts. ἀνόμενα ἐπιθυμίαις ποικίλαις. Over against the awakened conscience stands ever the governing sinful passion, which seeks satisfaction in a system set forth and lauded by unprincipled teachers (2Tim 3:1–5). As the Lord already accused, in His day, the Pharisees, and those learned in the Scripture, of a like thinking and acting (Matt. 13:14), especially in respect of widows, so also was it the business of the false teachers, in the days of Paul, to operate, before all, upon women. They were most easily led; at the same time, also, they were instruments for the gratification of the sensual desires of their corrupters; and when once they became bound, body and soul, to their cause, they could soon, in their turn, win new adherents. From different testimonies of the church-fathers, made with allusion more or less explicit to this word of the Apostle, it appears that the ancient heretics availed themselves especially of this instrumentality in the furtherance of their designs. In this respect, the passage of Jerome, in his letter to Ctesiphon, is classical: “Simon Magus hæres in condidit adjutus auxilio Helenæ meretricis; Nicolaus Antiochenus, conditor omnium immunditiarum, choros duxit fæmineos; Marcion quoque Romano præmisit mulierem ad majorem lasciviam, Apelles Philemonem comitem habuit; Montanus Priscam et Maximillam primum auro corrupit, deinde hæresi polluit; Arius, ut orbem deciperet, sororem principio ante decepit. Donatus Lucillæ opibus adjutus est, Elpidium cæcum Agape cæca duxit, Priscilliano juncta fuit Galla.”—“Simon Magus founded his heresy by the help of Helena, a prostitute; Nicolaus of Antioch, the founder of all impurities, led about troops of women; Marcion also sent in advance a woman to Rome for his greater pleasure; Apelles had Philumena for a companion; Montanus first corrupted Prisca and Maximilla with gold, and then polluted them with heresy; Arius, that he might deceive the world, deceived first the sister of his prince; Donatus was aided by the fortune of Lucilla; the blind Agape led the blind Elpidius; Galla was allied to Priscillian.”—[But Jerome himself sought and enjoyed especially the association of women. If it be true that heresiarchs have been aided by them, it is equally true that they have rendered, in all ages of the Church, valuable assistance in all good work.—E. H.]—Silly women (γυναικάρια = little women [perhaps, according to the modern phrase, small specimens of the sex.—E. H.]).
2Tim 3:7. Ever learning, and never able to come, &c. A fine irony, which renders the Apostle’s inward hatred of this sham-holy life all the more conspicuous. Because learning is not the actual design in the intercourse of these women with the false teachers named here, but only the means and excuse for the gratification of their sinful, bad desire, they never come to an end with it.—And never able to come to the knowledge of the truth, because moral receptivity, the disposition of the heart, which, according to John 7:17, is granted, fails them wholly. Calvin: “Discunt, ut sunt curiosæ, deinde animo inquieto, sed ita, ut nihil unquam certi nec veri assequantur. Hoc autem præposterum est studium, cui non respondet scientia. Quamquam videntur sibi tales egregie sapere, sed nihil est, quod sciunt, dum veritatem non tenent, quæ fundamentum est omnis scientiæ.”
2Tim 3:8. Now as Jannes and Jambres. Paul shows, by an example, still more particularly the relation in which known misguided minds had placed themselves towards Christian truth. Jannes and Jambres, according to the Jewish tradition, were the chiefs of the Egyptian magicians, who tried their arts over against the wonders of Moses, and thereby held Pharaoh back from faith in the word, and from obedience of the command of God. According to the legend, they were brothers (the names were written variously; e.g., Ἰωάννης instead of ̓Ιαννῆς, and Μαμβρῆς instead of ̓Ιαμβρῆς), sons of Balaam, first the teachers, afterwards the opponents of Moses, and who perished also in the Red Sea during the pursuit of the Israelites (see Wetstein on the place). As to the question how the Apostle could have come into possession of the statements here given, Origen answered that he had derived it from a liber secretus. Theodoret, on the other hand, that he had become acquainted with it from Jewish tradition, and from revelation of the Holy Ghost. It is worthy of remark, that not only Jewish, but also heathen writers (Pliny and Numenius), mention both names; whence we may properly conclude that this tradition must have been pretty generally diffused, and from these grounds may also assume that Paul, as he elsewhere quotes Greek authors and cites proverbial expressions, so also he derived something for once out of the not always muddy source of Jewish tradition; which, moreover, he does not use, while he appeals to it, to prove anything doubtful, but only to represent his meaning more distinctly through reference to traditionary names and actions, the correctness of which may, in other respects, remain uncertain, When he says, Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, ὅν τρόπον, it is not indispensably necessary thence to conclude that the false teachers, who were opposing themselves, made use of the same means as Jannes and Jambres; but it can just as well signify that they did the same with like furiousness. We cannot, however, pronounce the former view utterly incredible, when we think of Simon Magus, of Elymas the sorcerer, of the vagabond devils-conjurers amongst the Jews, and of the deceiving magical art practised from of old at Ephesus (comp. Acts 19:19). Amid the wide extension of Chaldæan wisdom and art in those days, and taking into account the immoral character of the false teachers here branded, it is probable à priori that they would not have been ashamed of such instrumentalities, which were eminently fitted to work upon the senses and the fantasy, and also found a powerful support in the superstition of the multitude.—Men of corrupt minds, κατεφθαρμένοι τὸν νοῦν (comp. 1 Tim. 6:6). The Apostle has in his mind not the darkening of the understanding, but the moral baseness of their disposition.—Reprobate concerning the faith, ἀδόκιμοι περὶ τὴν πίστιν; who are not, in respect of the faith, in condition to stand the tests (Titus 1:16)—the natural result of the moral disorder which was delineated in the immediately preceding words. Over against this temporary supremacy of error and of sin, the Apostle has occasion to remind both himself and Timothy that this power will not last forever.
2Tim 3:9. But they shall proceed no farther. This positive assurance does not at all contradict the opposite warning (2Tim 2:16), and the prophecy that follows (2Tim 3:13). Here the Apostle speaks of the outward result; there, on the other hand, of the intrusive advance from bad to worse. Not without reason did Luther often apply these words to the priests of Rome. Bengel: “Non proficiunt amplius, quamquam ipsi et eorum similes proficiant in pejus.” The history of most heresies actually teaches that error constantly spreads, but that the eyes of many are thereby opened so much the quicker. Comp. Conybeare and Howson on this place. We must expect this here, no less than with the Egyptian magicians, just because absurdity and unrighteousness so often overstep all bounds.—For their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was (comp. Ex. 8:18, 19; 9:11).
DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL
1. As Peter and John, so also the Apostle Paul, towards the close of his life, becomes prophet, and announces the remote destinies and the future of the Church. The apostolical Charisma completes itself in the prophetic. The general delineation of the crimes in the last days, which the Saviour Himself (Matt. 24.) has given, is not mechanically repeated, but is enriched with a number of new traits. It is here also revealed that the optimistic view of the World, which expects but a continuous triumph of humanism, an advance steadily to a higher freedom, culture, and dignity in the future, cannot stand before the tribunal of Scripture.
2. It is a remarkable revelation of the divine Nemesis, that they who, with the denial of the faith, begin not seldom with the beautiful phrase, that they are zealous for morality, and wish to maintain the morals of the gospel, while they reject dogma, just upon this road advance gradually to the most decided immorality. He who digs out the tree, cannot also enjoy the fruit. Emancipation from all authority theoretically, leads practically to the promulgation of the rights of the flesh.
3. It is a remark as demonstrable as it is humiliating, that as the truth, so also error and sin have found ever a powerful support in the weaker sex (comp. 1 Tim. 2:14). There lies in the womanly character the foundation, as for the highest development of the power of faith, so also for the highest revelation of the power of sin (comp. Re2Tim 3:17.). Josephus also states that the Pharisees especially had found much support amongst the women (“Antiq.,” 17, 2). Compare the account, moreover, of the rich Fulvia of Rome, who was induced, by two Jewish impostors, to furnish a considerable sum of gold, under the supposition that it was for the temple at Jerusalem (18, 3).
4. The opposition of the Egyptian magicians against Moses was in no wise the fruit merely of human cunning and deception, but was the work of dæmonic powers out of the kingdom of darkness, which, as a new period for the kingdom of God began with Israel’s redemption, revealed its force in increased measure, and employed the magicians as its instruments.
5. “The battle of wickedness against the truth is from the beginning; the whole world-history is a struggle between the kingdoms of light and of darkness. Jannes and Jambres are a type of all seducers and deceivers, as Moses is a type of all faithful witnesses of the truth. How does hostility to the truth manifest itself? At first, the truth and its witnesses are rendered suspicious, and there is complaint of falsehood and error. Then, a counterpart of the truth is set up—a phantom, which is decked out with all deceiving attire. At last, the witnesses for the truth are attacked with persecution;” Heubner.
6. Just because error becomes more scandalous the longer it lasts, do its defenders find it impossible to carry it on permanently. Its triumph becomes its overthrow. Error is a palace of ice, which at last must melt and tumble down necessarily, when but one ray of the sunlight of truth penetrates it.
7. If the sins here designated be, in and of themselves, so abominable, they are still worse when they are revealed in a preacher of the gospel. The word of Baxter to his brethren is of force here: “When Satan has led you to destruction, then surely he employs you to lead others to destruction. Oh, what a victory does he think he has won, when he has made a preacher corrupt and faithless, when he has entangled him in the snares of covetousness, or of some offence. He will boast against the whole Church, and say: ‘These are your holy preachers! You see how it ends with their strictness, and whither they come with it!’ He will boast against Christ Himself, and say: ‘These are your heroes! I can make Thy best servants false to Thee—Thine own stewards deceive Thee,’ ” &c.
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL
True love does not conceal danger, but warns against it.—In how far can the doctrine (Eccl. 7:10), even in the sphere of Christianity, avail in respect of the ever-increasing sin and misery of the future?—The higher the sun rises, so much the more does it lift vapors from the earth.—Egoism the source of all evil.—The relation in which children are accustomed to place themselves towards their parents, is also a sign of the time, and a measure for judgment of their inner sentiment towards God.—The difference and the agreement of false prophets in the differing centuries of Christianity.—The show and the power of godliness: (1) How often does the one take on outwardly the form of the other; (2) how it is possible to distinguish each from the other.—Whence comes it that the errors of a false Gnosis have, at all times, found so much sympathy in many women’s hearts?—The blending of religiosity with refined sensuousness.—Resistance of the truth: (1) Its weapons; (2) its sworn comrades; (3) its stubbornness; (4) its final fate.—Also even in the sphere of error, nothing new under the sun (Eccl. 1:9, 10).—The truth triumphs often late, but nevertheless surely at last.—The power and the impotence of error.
STARKE: SPENER: Self-love is twofold: (1) A proper and divinely commanded (Matt. 22:39); (2) an unrighteous and sinful.—False accusers are hateful in name and deed; they are diaboli, devils, and have the devil’s trick.—To be rash, and to rush on, to the injury of another, belongs to the corrupted being of the world.—Show, pomp, and ostentation of Christianity enough, but there is dearth of what is best.—What is shell, without kernel?—One cannot get rid utterly of bad people, otherwise one must leave the world; enough that one knows their wickedness, and abstains from their scandalous ways, and avoids as much as possible their society (1 Cor. 5:10).—HEDINGER: The more dangerous it is for women in the world, so much the more must they keep watch over themselves, and implore God for assistance amid temptations (Ps. 143:10).—[Comp. MONOD’S famous Sermons, “La femme,” Sermons, troisième Série, Paris, 1859.—E. H.]—Let no one think, when he has carried on his rascality for a long while, that he will go forever without hindrance and punishment.—Errors and false doctrines have indeed the show of truth, but the mask is easily torn off them (1 Tim. 4:1–6).—CRAMER: If the magicians of Pharaoh could not hinder the purpose of Moses, God will carry on His work indeed, notwithstanding the devil still blocks its way so often.
HEUBNER: How does the Christian judge of his own time?—The Christian understands his own age best.—Never can one vice remain alone.—The corrupt heart makes itself averse to the good.—When the most powerful agencies for improvement are at work, then, by the rejection of them, must the result be a correspondingly scandalous deterioration.—On the part of many, employment with religion is a sort of pastime and amusement; dispositions so formed always rove, and never come home.—To a true faith belongs a true upright heart.—The fate of the old enemies of the truth gives consolation to the friends of truth.
LISCO: Of the false teachers of the last days: (1) Of their moral corruption; (2) of their frightful end.—Of the tares in the Lord’s Church.—(Fastday Sermon): Of the shadow-side of life, which we recognize in the light of the gospel.
2Tim 3:1—[γίνωσκε. γινώσκετε is the reading adopted by Lachmann, after A. G. Huther inclines to this. The usual reading is retained by Tischendorf, is in the Sin., and is defended by our author.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:2.—[Cod. Sin. omits the article before ἄνθρωποι.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:3.—[ἄστοργοι; omitted in Cod. Sin.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:6.—[αἰχμαλωτεύοντες. The weight of authority is in favor of αἰχμαλωτίζοντες, adopted by Griesbach, Lach mann, Tischendorf, Huther, Wordsworth, &c—E. H.]
2Tim 3:6.—The article τὰ of the Recepta is mot genuine.
2Tim 3:8.—[Vulg., Mambres.—E. H.]
But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,VII
Warm praise of Timothy on account of his better disposition, and incitement to continue therein
10But thou hast fully known7[followed] my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, long-suffering, charity, patience, 11Persecutions, afflictions, which came upon me at Antioch, at Iconium,8 at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me. 12Yea, and all that will [desire to] live godly9 [piously] in Christ Jesus shall [will] suffer persecution. 13But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived.10 14But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; [,] 15And that from a child thou hast known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation 16through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God,11 and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof,12 for correction, for instruction in righteousness: [,] 17That the man of God may be perfect [complete], thoroughly furnished unto [for] all good works [every good work].
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL
2Tim 3:10. But thou, &c., Σὺ δέ. But thou; with these words the Apostle returns to Timothy, not to praise him unnecessarily, but to appeal to Timothy himself, as to a witness, that his teacher and friend had walked an entirely different path from that of those false teachers. The recurrence to the example furnished him by the Apostle (2Tim 3:10–13) serves to introduce also the exhortation to enduring fidelity (2Tim 3:14–17).—Thou hast fully known my doctrine, παρηκολούθη σ α ς (after A. C. F. G.; Tischendorf has, after D. E. I. K., and others, παρηκολούθη κ α ς, as in 1 Tim. 4:6); either, thou hast attended to my doctrine, &c., as an eye-witness (or in thought), or, Thou hast followed my doctrine, &c., as if it were a pattern. The latter most probably. “The Apostle’s διδασκαλίαι, &c., are regarded as the leaders by which Timothy allowed himself to be directed in the course of his life—guiding stars, as it were, which he followed;” (Huther).—Manner of life, τῇ ἀγωγῇ (comp. Esther 2:20); general designation of the rule of conduct pursued by Paul, the ratio vivendi et agendi (Luther: “My way”).—Purpose, τῇ προθέσει (comp. Acts 11:23); the decided resolution of the heart to remain true to the high calling of his life.—Faith, long-suffering, charity, patience. There is nothing incongruous in the thought that Timothy also had suffered for the cause of Christ, but under this suffering, true to the example of Paul, had been as little discouraged as to allow himself to be allured into resistance. The mention of the ὑπομονή gives the Apostle occasion for a still more definite communication respecting the circumstances in which this Christian virtue had particularly served his turn.
2Tim 3:11. Persecutions, afflictions, &c. (comp. 2 Cor. 11:24–28; Col. 1:24, and other places).—Which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra (comp. Acts 13:50; 14:19). The question has been asked, why the Apostle selected just these pages from the journal of the history of his sufferings. The reason is obvious. In those regions Timothy was known from childhood; there had he first met the Apostle; there had he received the first impression of his word and work; and perhaps the lofty spirit of Paul’s faith, which he evinced under these persecutions, had co-operated in the conversion of Timothy. Besides this also, before all, towards the end of his course, the recollection of the first deeds and sufferings of the servant of Christ came forcibly into the foreground.—What persecutions I endured, οἵους διωγμοὺς ὑπήνεγκα; no exclamation (Erasmus, Flatt, Mack, Heydenreich), but a simple relative proposition in proof of his ὑπομονή, but at the same time a transition to the humble glorifying of God.—But out of (them) all the Lord delivered me (comp. 2Tim 4:17, 18). Calvin: “Consolatio, quæ temperat afflictionum acerbitatem, quod scil. prosperum finem habent. Ergo perinde hoc valet, ac si dixisset: expertus es, deum mihi nunquam defuisse, ita non est, quod dubites, meo exemplo ipsum sequi.”
2Tim 3:12. yea, and all … suffer persecution. Just as the Apostle desires to avoid the appearance even of regarding his persecutions for the cause of the Lord as anything entirely exceptional, on account of which he might be not a little proud, he adds the observation, to what has already been said, that in the kingdom of God, on the contrary, the rule is of force for all, to enter into glory through suffering, and that therefore Timothy also, if he desired it even, would not be able to avoid this suffering, unless he wished wholly to deny his calling. Although it is not improbable that he utters this prophecy of distress especially in view of the approaching καιροὶ χαλεποί (comp. 2Tim 3:13), his word need not be at all restricted thereto. He proclaims persecution for all that will live godly in Christ Jesus.Θέλοντες used here, with emphasis, of the governing determination to follow after godliness in spite of all hindrances. The words have the sense, all who resolve, who are discreet therein, to live piously, &c. (see WINER, Gramm., p. 541). The Christian life is represented here designedly as a life of godliness, with a side glance at the immoral life and endeavor of the false teachers. But that no other godliness than that which springs forth from the roots of a living faith is here under consideration, is sufficiently clear from the additional clause, in Christ Jesus.
2Tim 3:13. But evil men and seducers, &c. Once again the Apostle comes back to what has been said, 2Tim 3:1–9, as well to refer to one of the immediate causes of the predicted persecutions, 2Tim 3:12, as also to remove from Timothy the possible misconception that he would be able to disarm wholly the enemies of the truth by a godly walk and endurance.—Evil men and seducers, γόητες; here no species of the general genus πονηροὶ ἄνθρωποι, but a more specific designation of these latter, in proof that he speaks expressly of those bad men whom he had described before, and, 2Tim 3:8, had compared with Egyptian magicians. (Upon these Goëtæ generally, see LECHLER, “Acts,” p. 103.) It is a very flat explanation to translate the word, without farther signification, only in the sense of deceivers.—Shall wax worse and worse (see upon 2Tim 2:16; 3:9).—Deceiving and being deceived, πλανῶντες καὶ πλανώμενοι; occupied continually in deceiving, and in error. He who leads others in the way of error, remains himself, by no possibility, in the right way.
2Tim 3:14. But continue thou, &c. Here also, as in 2Tim 3:10, is Timothy placed, in a complimentary way, over against the false teachers, but at the same time is warned emphatically to continue to walk in the way already struck upon.—But continue thou in the things, εʼν οἷς = ἐν τούτοις,ἅ ἔμαθες (comp. John 8:31; Matt 24:13).—Which thou hast learned and hast been assured of. The last word is added, because, without this subjective conviction of the heart, it would not have been possible for Timothy to hold out in the things he had learned, amid so many persecutions. Πιστόω = confirmo, πιστοῦν τινα; to convince any one of anything, to furnish him with authentic knowledge (the Vulgate incorrectly: quæ tibi credita sunt; and Luther: “And to thee is entrusted”). The Apostle will simply state that the thing learned was the possession of Timothy not objectively only, but subjectively also. Still one, but one touching (intime) recollection, he now adds: Knowing of whom thou hast learned them; in other words, Thou knowest that thou hast not learned the truth from an unknown and suspicious quarter, but from a quarter which deserves thy highest confidence. If the Recepta, παρὰ τίνος, be the genuine reading, then we must not, with some interpreters, think of Christ, but of Paul exclusively, as the teacher of Timothy (comp. 2Tim 3:10). If, on the other hand, with Tischendorf and others, we adopt the reading in the plural, παρὰτινων, according to the rule, lectio difficilior præferenda, then this reminder is related to 2Tim 1:5, and recalls to the memory of Timothy the religious instruction of Lois and Eunice, the benefit of which he had received so early, and the power and value of which it was impossible for him now to mistake. In no event, in the meanwhile, are we to think here of the πολλοὶ μάρτυρες (2Tim 2:2).
2Tim 3:15. And that from a child, &c. A second motive, which runs parallel with the first, and concludes with an encomium upon Holy Scripture itself (2Tim 3:16, 17). That, ὅτι; not to be understood in the sense of because (Vulg., Luther), but to be conjoined with εἰδώς; “which particle is used to denote not merely knowledge, but also reflection;” (De Wette).—From a child up, ἀπὸ βρέφους (comp. 2Tim 1:5).—Thou hast known the holy Scriptures. [“The word ἱερά, sacred, is to be distinguished from ἅγια, holy, sancta. The former word, ἱερά, expresses the reverence with which these writings were regarded. It bespeaks the sacredness of the Scriptures in the general esteem and veneration of the Jewish and Christian churches; and as separated from all common writings. Cf. HORAT., A. P. 397: “Secernere sacra profanis;” Wordsworth, in loco.—E. H.] The Holy Scriptures here are exclusively those of the Old Testament, not at all these of the New Testament (upon an alleged citation of Luke in 1 Tim. 5:18, see upon this place). As memoranda of the especial revelation of God to His chosen people, they are called elsewhere, ἡ γραφή, γραφαὶ ἃγιαι, &c Upon their division at that time, amongst the Jews, see upon Luke 24:44.—Which are able to make thee wise unto salvation.Σοφίσαι, used in a somewhat different sense in 2 Peter 1:16 also, is here not to be understood of elementary, mere foundation-laying instruction, but of practical knowledge, penetrating ever deeper and deeper. Δυνάμενα must not be construed as Præteritum (Bengel: quæ poterant), but as Præsens. It signifies not only what the Holy Scriptures did in the youth of Timothy, but also what they are able to accomplish continuously. To make wise unto salvation, εἰς σωτηρίαν, is to make so wise that one becomes actually, for one’s self, a partaker of the Messianic σωτηρία. The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant do this indeed, not in a magical-mechanical, but in an ethical-psychological way; and therefore Paul adds, through faith which is in Christ Jesus; i.e., by means of faith, if indeed the faith in Christ Jesus be in thee. The Apostle names an indispensably necessary subjective condition for the right use of the Old Testament, through the absence of which, it is much to be feared that the use of it will not leave behind the wished-for fruit. Not every one can be made wise unto salvation by the writings of the Old Covenant, but only every one who believes in Christ. Faith in Christ is, as it were, a torch, by the light of which we can first read aright and understand the dim colonnades and mysterious inscriptions in the ancient venerable temple of the Old Covenant. [“Observe that the Apostle doth not say that these Scriptures were of themselves sufficient to make Timothy wise to salvation, but only that with ‘faith in Christ Jesus’ they were sufficient for that end;” Whitby, in loco. “Or may not the due appreciation of the Scriptures collectively be more safely relied on as the result and consequence of the belief in Christ …?” S. T. Coleridge.—“Das Ansehen der heiligen Schrift kann nicht den Glauben an Christum begründen, vielmehr muss dieser schon vorausgesetzt werden um der heiligen Schrift ein besonderes Ansehen einzuräumen;” SCHLEIERMACHER, Glaubenslehre, § 128.—The two foregoing extracts refer to Canonical Scripture as we recognize it. “Do we receive the Holy Scripture first, as authority in matters to be believed, and therefore Christ? Or do we receive Chrst first, and therefore the Scriptures? The question is not, whether we must know anything of Scripture, whether we must receive any of its statements, whether we must accept its witness for Christ prior or subsequent to faith in Him; but it is, whether we shall receive it as coming, in some special sense, from God, as bearing His mark, as vested with some authority, prior or subsequent to faith in our Lord. Commonly, the order now insisted upon by preachers and apologists for the gospel is, the Holy Scriptures first, and therefore Christ. I believe in the reversal of this order, and maintain, Christ first, and therefore the Scriptures;” Sermon on the “Order in Things to be Believed.”—E. H.]
2Tim 3:16. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God. [“Every portion of Scripture, being inspired (i.e., because it is inspired), is also profitable;” Wordsworth on the place.] Although the article is wanting here, nevertheless, by virtue of the connection, it is not to be doubted a moment that the Apostle is speaking decidedly and exclusively of the γραφή of the Old Covenant, as of a well-completed whole. All Scripture is to be taken in the same sense as πᾶσα οἰκοδομή (Eph. 2:21), the whole building; πᾶσα πατρία (Eph. 3:15), the whole race; πᾶσα ἀναστροφή (1 Peter 1:15), the whole conversation. In no case can the absence of the article in a word so frequently used as γραφή surprise us, since it is employed, in fact, almost as a proper name. The Apostle speaks also of the collection of the Old Testament Scriptures, without excepting any portion either directly or indirectly, although he will not have attributed, naturally, to all the books of this collection an equal value. Had he wished to say only: Each Scripture which is given by God is useful also (De Wette), he would not only have written something very vague and of little importance, but also he would have lost sight of the whole distinction between sacred and profane Scripture, which in this place, least of all, could have been his purpose.—Given by inspiration of God, Θεόπνευστος; first attribute of Scripture, whereupon further, in a breath, the other praise follows, καὶ ὠφέλιμος,κ.τ.λ. Luther incorrectly: All Scripture, given by God, is useful, &c.; Bengel, better: “Θεόπν. Esther pars, non subjecti, sed prædicati quam enim scripturam dicit Paulus, per se patet.” It is just as arbitrary to leave out καὶ, as it is to translate it here by also (Heinrichs). That an inspired composition was also useful, was intelligible of itself indeed; but it is evidently here the design of the Apostle to give his witness to Scripture by a general commendation, and to direct the attention of Timothy to it for (in view of) the time when Paul would no longer be here. “Etiam post Pauli obitum Timotheus eo magis ad Scripturam alligatur. Non ad sese unum Paulus adstringit Timotheum, sed eum quamlibet adultum in fide filium Scripturas jubet adhibere. Hoc perpendere, debent, qui doctoribus suis, quorum discipline semel innutriti erant, ita se addicunt, ut extra eorum circulum nihil e scriptura deinceps oblatum admittant;” Bengel.—Given by inspiration of God, Θεόπνευστος; to be taken, like ἔμπνευστος, and others, in a passive sense (see WINER, p. 88) = diviniter inspirata, breathed through and inspired by God; so that the Divine Spirit makes up its principle (comp. 2 Peter 1:21). For the behoof, further, of the right conception of the matter, the passages of the classical writers, where they make mention of the divine afflatus, are to be compared; e.g., the known word of Cicero, “Nemo vir magnus sine aliquo afflatu divino unquam fuit.” De Nat. Deo, ii. 66, &c., quoted by De Wette upon this place.—And is profitable for doctrine, πρὸς διδασκαλίαν; for theoretical instruction in everything in the sphere of religion, which without it would remain unknown to us.—For reproof, πρὸς ἔλεγχον (or ἐλεγμόν) (comp. Titus 2:15; 1 Tim. 5:20); for the reproving conviction of all that is unholy and ungodly in man.—For correction, πρὸς ἐπανόρθωσιν (ἅπαξ λεγόμ.) = emendatio; strictly, the placing right again.—For instruction, πρὸς παιδείαν, ad institutionem (comp. Titus 2:12). The Holy Scripture of the Old Testament remains the instruction-book for the new man in Christ Jesus.—In righteousness, τὴν (sc, παιδείαν) ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ; a more precise exhibition of the sphere of life in which the just-named παιδεία moves, namely, that of unfeigned godliness.
2Tim 3:17. That the man of God, &c.; statement not of the aim of Scripture in general, but of the design of the just-named instruction, which indeed is secured only through the Scripture. The man of God (1 Tim. 6:11); a special description of Timothy (see the place) here, of the Christian generally, as of a man who is born of God through the Holy Ghost, and is affiliated with God. For every Christian who makes the prescribed use of the Scripture, aims at the instruction it imparts, there is the same high goal.—Perfect, ἄρτιος (ἃπαξ λεγόμ.) = τέλειος (Col. 1:28); strictly, fitting.—Thoroughly furnished unto all good works (comp. Eph. 2:10); in other words: Aptus ad omne bonum opus peragendum. Usually the word ἔργον ἀγαθόν is construed here in an official relation (Bengel: “Genera talium operum enumerantur” 2Tim 3:16); but there is nevertheless no reason for confining the meaning of the Apostle in such narrow limits. He wishes to say, in a wholly general manner, what instruction by the Scripture will secure for every believer, continuous, growing, inward capacity and readiness for the accomplishment of everything pleasing to the Lord.
DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL
1. Paul, also in this portion of his communication to Timothy, himself an example of a true and conscientious pastor. “Ars artium est regimen animarum.” Saying of Gregory the Great in his cura pastoralis.
2. It is an inestimable privilege, when one feels free, as Paul, to refer not only to his word, but also to his example. This can he only, who, with the same fidelity as the great Apostle, knows how to surrender himself to the principle, that with the preacher even everything must preach.
3. The history of the sufferings and of the deliverance of Paul, is in many respects typical for subsequent ministers of the word.
4. The education of Timothy is a convincing proof of the blessing of family devotion to God Church and school must be inwardly united, if they will work upon the heart for faith and conversion. There is no more effectual agency for the unchristianizing of a State, than the banishment of the Holy Scriptures from the schools, in consideration of in differentists, deists, and Jews, as is the case now, e, g., in Holland [and likely to become the case in the United States. A very serious matter for the Christian people of this country. We are organized under a Constitution which guarantees liberty of conscience. There are some millions of our citizens who are conscientiously opposed to the use of the Bible in the public schools. The Constitution was framed by Protestants; but the unforeseen character of the immigration has demanded, and demands now, an utterly unforeseen application of our organic laws. Positive Christianity cannot therefore be taught in the public schools of the country, under the sanction of the Constitution.—E. H.]
5. There was a time when the Old Testament was placed unhesitatingly side by side with the New, and the theologian confirmed religious truths promiscuously by a number of citations from both, as the jurist appealed to the Corpus Juris. Through the influence of the Schleiermacher-theology, on the other hand, an undervaluation of the Old Testament has come up, which likewise has brought no blessing upon the Church. For the development of modern theology, much will depend upon the relation in which it will place itself to the Scriptures of the Old Covenant. The Apostle gives us here (2Tim 3:15) a valuable hint for the right decision, which is as far removed from an undervaluation, as from an overestimate of it.
6. Upon this statement of the Apostle (2Tim 3:15–17) is founded the churchly doctrine of the perspicuitas ct sufficientia sacræ Scripturæ. What is said here actually of the Old Testament, can be affirmed with far higher propriety of the New; and the Roman Catholic prohibition of the Bible has difficulty in maintaining itself against such convincing testimonies (comp. John 5:39; Luke 16:31, and other places). It is worthy of remark, that Paul, in view of death, has likewise given such a testimony concerning Scripture. Certainly it is proof that he, the Apostle of liberty, bowed unqualifiedly and humbly before the well-understood authority of the word of God. It is as if he foresaw the whole calamity which departure from the words of Scripture would one day bring upon the Church of the Lord. A faithful and honest adherence to Scripture is the best Palladium for the Church against rationalism, mysticism, and Romanism.
7. The dogma of the inspiration of Scripture belongs also to those which urgently demand a new treatment and development. [John Sterling, according to the late Archdeacon Hare, “grew to regard an intelligent theory of inspiration, and of the relation of the Bible to the faith which it conveys, as the most pressing want of our Church. That it is a most pressing one, is indeed certain; and such it has long been acknowledged to be by those who meditate on theology.” (HARE, “Mem.,” p. 130.). This is only one voice; but the echoes of it are audible in every quarter. It may be doubted if the subject admit of reduction to dogmatic form. What the authority of the sacred Scripture is, may be readily stated; what its inspiration is, will inevitably be stated under a variety of forms—certainly until men will, by common consent, observe the difference between inspiration and an infallible intelligence in the person inspired. I look, therefore, to an “intelligent theory” rather than to a satisfactory setting forth, under new forms, of the dogma of inspiration.—E. H.] While the notion of a purely mechanical inspiration, according to which the sacred writers were nothing more than scribæ et actuarii Spiritus Sancti, simply without volition, has been properly relinquished as untenable, very little has as yet been done, comparatively, for the development of the conception of Scripture as an organic whole, by which as well the divine as the human side must be distinctly set forth. An article by RICHARD ROTHE, Zur Dogmatik, in the Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1859 [and published in book form, Zur Dogmatik, 1863], contains valuable hints. Our passage has always been regarded correctly, in this respect, as classical, since what the Apostle here says of the Old Testament is still more emphatically true of the New. We must nevertheless acknowledge that this passage alone is not sufficient to found a theory of inspiration upon, since the relation of human activity to the disposing power of the Spirit of God in the composition of Holy Scripture is not stated in words, and the question, whether we must consider here an inspiration of words, or of things, remains wholly unanswered. A correct theory of inspiration will not rest upon this or the other passage of Scripture, but can truly and vitally result only from a consideration of the object which is the product of Divine inspiration. The Baconian observation—method (induction) carries us farther here, than the atomistic procedure of those who, in their critical zeal, cut up Scripture into a number of pieces, but who, amid this, have no eye for the complete unity of Scripture, and who do not observe the forest, in their preference for particular trees. One can consult farther, upon this disputed point, the dogmatic writings of Twesten, Martensen, Nitzsch, Lange, and others, and also particularly what always remains a significant work, even when one cannot follow in all respects the views of the author: GAUSSEN, Theopneustie ou inspiration plenière des saintes Écritures, as well as also the weighty letters of FRED. DE ROUGEMONT, Christ et ses Témoins, Paris, 1856, 2 vols. Furthermore, the sterling French productions of P. Jalaguyer, Merle d’Aubigné, not to mention others of late years. Among the ablest advocates for the authority and inspiration of Holy Writ against modern unbelief in the Dutch Reformed Church, the name of Isaac da Costa (1860) deserves always to be held in honor. We need also here the “non nova, sed nove” of Vincentius of Lirins.
8. The quadruplex usus of the Sacred Scripture of the Old Covenant, is confirmed by the Apostle’s own example, who, in his writings, often, employs the Old Testament for all these different ends. For doctrine, he makes use, e.g., of the history of Abraham (Gen 15:6), in the discussion of the doctrine of justification, Rom. 4. For reproof, as often as he puts to shame his opponents by citations from the Old Testament, e.g., Rom. 9–11. For correction, e.g., 1 Cor. 10:1–10. For instruction (comp. Heb. 12:7), Rom. 15:4. Amongst all the Apostles, no one deserves in a higher degree than Paul the honorable title of a doctor biblicus. The manner and way in which he has considered, employed, and quoted the Old Testament, alone would deserve to constitute the subject-matter of a special inquiry.
9. “Holy Scripture is the treasury and armory of the Christian Church. It meets every need of the children of God. Each irresolute, struggling Christian, powerless in doubt, must lay the blame upon himself if he do not employ this source of strength and of life;” Heubner.
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL
Timothy a pattern of true devotion: (1) To the example of Paul; (2) to the words of Holy Scripture.—Well for the teacher who has a disciple like Timothy, but well also for the scholar who has a leader like Paul.—The path of suffering of the Apostle Paul a revelation: (1) Of the power of sin which pursued him; (2) of the greater power of faith which sustained him; (3) of the omnipotence of the Lord who delivered him out of all.—The way of suffering the way of glory for every disciple of Christ: (1) An old way; (2) a difficult way; (3) a safe way; (4) a blessed way.—Fanaticism and intentional deception are usually most closely connected in false teachers.—“Hold fast that which thou hast learned” (text for confirmation address).—The overestimation and the undervaluation of the Old Testament are both condemned by Paul.—The blessings of a God-fearing education.—The value, the authority, and the right use of Holy Scripture.—The bread of life, by means of which the new man shall grow up.—The effect of the word of truth a convincing proof of its heavenly origin.—The entire pericope (2Tim 3:14–17) pre-eminently adapted for discourses at Bible-celebrations or Reformation-sermons.—The value of the Sacred Scripture especially for the evangelical Church.
STARKE: CRAMER: If there be many corrupting and evil babblers, there are notwithstanding, here and there, also truthful and good teachers.—Let the former go, follow the latter.—Wilt thou be pious, and have good days only? Thou errest. Consider ! So it has been good for no saint; here do battle, there rest.—HEDINGER: If one be persecuted, he must not therefore conclude at once that he is a hypocrite or godless.—To have been led away, does not exculpate, yet has the seducer the greater sin, although both are ruined.—OSIANDER: He who will teach others rightly, and will himself live rightly, must beforehand learn rightly.—LANGII Op.: Let each Christian consider that, by virtue of his baptis mal covenant, he must be a man of God, who does not live unto himself, nor unto the world, but with denial of self and of the world, unto God.—The perfection of a Christian shows itself amid the imperfection therein, that he apply sincerely and continually the received divine power of grace not only for one and for another, but for all good works (Heb. 13:21).
HEUBNER: Are we able to bear witness before God, that we, for Christ’s sake, would suffer persecution? then have we in so far forth abundant consolation (Matt. 5:11).—There is no standing still in evil.—Is there a more melancholy spectacle than a man who ever sinks deeper and deeper?—An actual conviction, not a more outwardly received opinion, alone gives courage in preaching.—It is especially the mother’s duty to make the children acquainted with the Bible.—The Bible should be the proper storehouse for the clergy.—LISCO: As the walk, so the reward.—Search the Scripture.—Of the power of the Divine word.—The word of God an indispensable teacher, a severe ruler, and a genuine helper to salvation.—THOLUCK: Seven remarkable sermons upon Holy Scripture, as means of grace, according to the leading of this text, in the fourth volume of his “Sermons,” 1843, pp. 48–139.—VAN OOSTERZEE, Sermon on 2Tim 3:14–17. Upon the value and right use of Holy Writ: (1) Its value (2Tim 3:16, 17); (a) Its origin; (b) its uses; (c) its power; (2) its use (2Tim 3:14, 15; (a) Search the Scriptures early; (b) use them believingly; (c) remain true to them always.
THOLUCK: “A Book that has had such a past as the Bible, will have also a future.”
2Tim 3:10.—[See the exposition. Lachmann reads, παρηκολούθησας; so likewise the Cod. Sin. Wordsworth agrees with Tischendorf, and reads παρηκολούθηκας, perf.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:11.—[The spelling here in the Cod. Sin. is peculiar: ἀντιοχίᾳ,εἰκονίῳ.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:12.—[Cod. Sin., ζῆν εὐσεβῶς, instead of the usual order; so also A., Orig.—E. H.]
2Tim 3:14.—With A. C. F. G., and others, τίνων, instead of τίνος, must be read. Also Lachmann, Tischendorf, Cod. Sin.
2Tim 3:16.—[Vulg., “Omnis Scriptura divinitus inspirata utilis est,” &c. Murdock’s Syriac-English Version: “Al scripture that was written by the Spirit is profitable,” &c. Origen once (quoted by Huther), θεόπνευστος οὖσα, ὠφἐλιμος ἐστι. Bishop Pearson: “All scripture was given,” &c. (“Creed,” Am. ed., p. 490). Wordsworth’s critical note upon this passage is simply amazing. See the place, vol. ii., p. 477. He renders: “Every portion of Scripture being inspired (i.e., because it is inspired), is also profitable,” and makes it apply not only to the Old Testament, but also to all the books of the New Testament, which were written before A. D. 67.—The following, by the late Henry Nelson Coleridge, who edited Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit,” may interest the reader (pp. 96, 97): “The English version is: ‘All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable,’ &c. And in this rendering of the original, the English is countenanced by the established version of the Dutch Reformed Church: ‘Alle de Schrift ist van Godt ingeven, en de is mittigh,’ &c. And by Diodati: ‘Tutta la Scrittura è divinamente inspirata, ed util,’ &c. And by Beza: ‘Tota Scriptura divinitus est inspirata, et utilis,’ &c.—The other rendering is supported by the Vulgate: ‘Omnis Scriptura, divinitus inspirata, utilis est ad,’ &c. By Luther: ‘Denn alle Schrift, von Gott eingegeben, ist nütze zur,’ &c. And by Calmet: ‘Toute l’Ecriture, qui est inspirée de Dieu, est utile,’ &c. And by the common Spanish translation: ‘Toda Escritura, divinamente inspirada, es util para enseñar,’ &c. This is also the rendering of the Syriac (Peach.), and the Arabic version, and is followed by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and most of the Fathers. See the note in Griesbach. Tertullian represents the sense thus: ‘Legimus, Omnen Scripturam, ædificatione habitem, divinitus inspirari,’ De Habit. Mal., c. 3. Origen has it several times, θεόπνευστος οὖσα, ὠφἐλιμός ἐστι, and once as in the received text.”—E. H.]
2Tim 3:16.—[Lachmann reads ἐλεγμόν, after A. C. G., instead of ἔλεγχον; so, too, Sin. The meaning is the same.—E. H.]