From Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)From Jordan eastward.—This verse defines the border land which Hazael ravaged, and, in fact, occupied. It was the land east of the Jordan, that is to say, all the land of Gilead, which was the territory of Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh.
From Aroer.—Aroer, now ‘Arâ‘îr, on the Arnon, was the southern limit of Gilead, which extended northward to Mount Hermon, and included Bashan. “Even (both) Gilead and Bashan,” is added to make it clear that the whole of the land east of the Jordan, and not merely Gilead in the narrower sense, was conquered by Hazael. These conquests of Hazael were characterised by great barbarity. (Comp. Amos 1:3-5, and Elisha’s prediction of the same, 2Kings 8:12, supra.) Ewald thinks Hazael took advantage of the internal troubles at the outset of the reign to effect his conquests. But a man of Jehu’s energy must soon have established domestic tranquillity.Joshua 22:1-9. It was more accessible from Damascus than the region west of the river.
Aroer - There were several places of this name. The one here mentioned is the most famous (compare Deuteronomy 2:36 note).
Even Gilead and Bashan - The writer had previously called the whole territory "Gilead;" now he distinguishes it, more accurately, into Gilead, the southern, and Bashan, the northern region 1 Kings 4:13, 1 Kings 4:19.
all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Moabites; the country on the other side Jordan, given to these tribes by Moses, at their request, which were before the kingdoms of Sihon and of Og:From Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)33. Gilead] This country lay between Bashan on the north, and Moab and Ammon on the south. It was of a mountainous character, and was chosen by the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh because it was so well adapted for the pasturage of their numerous flocks. These tribes were all included at this time in Hazael’s conquest, and so the phrase ‘cut Israel short’ was fully borne out, for one quarter of the whole ten tribes was thus taken from her.
Aroer] This city was on the south boundary of the tribe of Reuben, which was the southernmost of the three trans-Jordanic tribes. Thus it marks the extreme limit in that direction of the conquests here mentioned, while Bashan marks that on the north. Nothing was left to Israel, east of the Jordan, for Bashan was the northern part of the land assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh.
Arnon] This torrent bed, full of water in the rainy season, but dry in summer, after the character of all the clefts in the east of Jordan, is wrongly described by ‘river’ of A.V. In R.V. it is rendered valley of Arnon. It formed the border between Israel and Moab.
Bashan] This district, which like Gilead was mountainous, lay between Gilead and Mt Hermon. It was well wooded also. ‘The oaks of Bashan’ are frequently mentioned, and so are the cattle, the ‘fat bulls of Bashan’. The loss of such a district must have been very fatal to Israel. After this notice Bashan, which in the early days is often spoken of in connexion with Og, the king whom the Israelites vanquished on entering the land, disappears from the Bible history. Hazael’s conquest was never recovered.Verse 33. - From Jordan eastward. The territory west of the Jordan was not attacked at this time. Hazael's expeditious were directed against the trans-Jordanic region, the seats of the three tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh. This tract was far easier of access than the other, and was more tempting, being the richest part of Palestine. The region comprised all the land of Gilead - i.e. the more southern region, reaching from the borders of Moab on the south to the Hieromax or Sheriat-el-Mandhur upon the north, the proper land of the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and [a portion of] the Manassites - together with Bashan, the more northern region, which belonged wholly to Manasseh - from Aroer (now Arair), which is by the river Arnon - the Wady-el-Mojeb, which was the boundary between Israel and Moab (Numbers 21:13, 24), both in the earlier and (Isaiah 16:2) in the later times - even Gilead and Bashan. There is other evidence, besides this, that Hazael was one of the most warlike of the Syrian kings. We find him, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II., mentioned as a stubborn adversary of the Assyrian arms. In the seventeenth campaign of Shalmaneser, a great battle was fought between the two monarchs. Hazael brought into the field more than twelve hundred chariots, but was defeated, and obliged to retreat, his camp falling into the hands of the enemy ('Records of the Past,' vol. 5. p. 84). Four years later Shalmaneser invaded Hazael's territory, and took, according to his own account (ibid., p. 35), four cities or fortresses belonging to him. He does not claim, however, to have made him a tributary; and By his later annals it is evident that he avoided further contest, preferring to turn his arms in other directions. (On Hazael's campaign in Philistia, and designs against Jerusalem, see the comment upon 2 Kings 12:17, 18,) Ezra 6:11; Daniel 2:5, and Haevernick in loc.). - Thus Jehu exterminated Baal from Israel. This remark in 2 Kings 10:28 forms the introduction to the history of Jehu's reign, with which the last epoch in the history of the ten tribes begins.
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