1 Timothy 5:4
But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at home, and to requite their parents: for that is good and acceptable before God.
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(4) But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at home, and to requite their parents (or, nephews).—The Greek word here should be rendered grandchildren; the original meaning of “nephew” (nepotes) has disappeared. Here a warning against allowing the Church to be burdened with a burden which others ought to bear is given, in the form of a pressing reminder to the children or grandchildren of the destitute and desolate widow. It is a solemn and imperative duty for the children to afford all needful succour—a duty not to be evaded by any bearing the Christian name.

For that is good and acceptable before God.—An especial blessing is promised to those who really carry out this too often forgotten duty. (See Ephesians 6:2-3; and also comp. Mark 7:10-11.)

5:3-8 Honour widows that are widows indeed, relieve them, and maintain them. It is the duty of children, if their parents are in need, and they are able to relieve them, to do it to the utmost of their power. Widowhood is a desolate state; but let widows trust in the Lord, and continue in prayer. All who live in pleasure, are dead while they live, spiritually dead, dead in trespasses and sins. Alas, what numbers there are of this description among nominal Christians, even to the latest period of life! If any men or women do not maintain their poor relations, they in effect deny the faith. If they spend upon their lusts and pleasures, what should maintain their families, they have denied the faith, and are worse than infidels. If professors of the gospel give way to any corrupt principle or conduct, they are worse than those who do not profess to believe the doctrines of grace.But if any widow have children - Who would be dependent on her care, and who might themselves contribute to her support.

Or nephews - The word nephew now commonly means the son of a brother or sister. Formerly the English word also meant grandchildren, or descendants of any description. Webster. The Greek word here - ἔκγονα ekgona - has the latter meaning. It denotes those "sprung from or born of;" and then descendants of any kind - sons, daughters, grandchildren. The Greek word would not, in fact, properly include nephews and nieces. It embraces only those in a direct line.

Let them learn first to show piety at home - Margin, "or kindness." That is, let the children and grandchildren learn to do this. Let them have an opportunity of performing their duty toward their aged parent or grandparent. Do not receive such a widow among the poor and dependent females of the church, to be maintained at public expense, but let her children support her. Thus they will have an opportunity of evincing Christian kindness, and of requiting her for her care. This the apostle calls "showing piety" - εὐσεβεῖν eusebein - that is, "filial piety;" piety toward a parent by providing for the needs of that parent in advanced age. The word is commonly used to denote piety toward God, but it is also used to denote proper reverence and respect for a parent. Robinson.

And to requite their parents - To repay them, as far as possible, for all their kindness. This debt can never be wholly repaid, but still a child should feel it a matter of sacred obligation to do as much toward it as possible.

For that is good and acceptable before God - It is a duty everywhere enjoined; compare Matthew 15:5-7 notes; Ephesians 6:1-2 notes.

4. if any widow have children—not "a widow indeed," as having children who ought to support her.

nephews—rather, as Greek, "descendants," or "grandchildren" [Hesychius]. "Nephews" in old English meant "grandchildren" [Hooker, Ecclesiastical Polity, 5.20].

let them—the children and descendants.

learn first—ere it falls to the Church to support them.

to show piety at home—filial piety towards their widowed mother or grandmother, by giving her sustenance. Literally, "to show piety towards their own house." "Piety is applied to the reverential discharge of filial duties; as the parental relation is the earthly representation of God our heavenly Father's relation to us. "Their own" stands in opposition to the Church, in relation to which the widow is comparatively a stranger. She has a claim on her own children, prior to her claim on the Church; let them fulfil this prior claim which she has on them, by sustaining her and not burdening the Church.

parents—Greek, (living) "progenitors," that is, their mother or grandmother, as the case may be. "Let them learn," implies that abuses of this kind had crept into the Church, widows claiming Church support though they had children or grandchildren able to support them.

good and—The oldest manuscripts omit. The words are probably inserted by a transcriber from 1Ti 2:3.

But if any widow have children or nephews: by the widows indeed, mentioned by the apostle, 1 Timothy 5:3, he here showeth that he meant women that not only wanted husbands, but children, or grandchildren or any near kindred that were Christians, and in a capacity to relieve them; but if any widows had any such near relations, the apostle willeth that they should be taught

to shew piety at home; ton idion oikon eusebein, word for word, to worship their own house, or to be religious or godly toward their own house; that is, to show a respect or pagan homage to their own house. For worship is nothing but a respect, honour, or homage paid to another in consideration of his or her excellency and superiority; only the use of this word, which is the Greek word generally used to express religion and godliness by, lets us know that religion and godliness is vainly pretended to any that have of this world’s goods, and relieve not those from whom they are descended, (for the word ekgona signifies persons descended from another, whether in the first generation or not), if they be in want, and stand in need of their assistance.

And to requite their parents: nor is this an act of charity, but justice, a just requital of our parents for their care of us, and pains with us in our education.

For that is good and acceptable before God; and this is good, just, decent, and commanded by God, and acceptable in the sight of God, for the precept:

Honour thy father and mother, is the first commandment with promise, Ephesians 6:2. By the way, that precept is excellently expounded by this text, both as to the act commanded, which this text teacheth is to be extended to maintenance as well as compliments; and as to the object, viz. all those as to whom we are ekgona, descended from, whether immediate parents, yea or no.

But if any widow have children or nephews,.... Such are not widows indeed; they are not desolate, or alone, or without persons to take care of them; their children or nephews should, and not suffer the church to be burdened with them. Wherefore it follows,

let them learn first to show piety at home; which some understand of the widows, who, instead of casting themselves upon the church for a maintenance, or taking upon them the office of a deaconess, to take care of others, should continue in their own families, and bring up their children and nephews in like manner as they have been brought up by their parents, which will be more pleasing and acceptable unto God; but it is better to interpret it of their children; and so the Ethiopic version expresses it, "let the children first learn to do well to their own house", or family. It is the duty of children to take care of their parents in old age, and provide for them, when they cannot for themselves: this is a lesson they ought to learn in the first place, and a duty which they ought principally to observe; they should not suffer them to come to a church for relief, but first take care of them themselves, as long as they are in any capacity to do it; and these should be their first care before any others; so to do is an act of piety, a religious action, a pious one; it is doing according to the will and law of God, and is well pleasing to him:

and to requite their parents; for all the sorrow, pain, trouble, care, and expenses they have been at in bearing and bringing them forth into the world, in taking care of them in their infancy, in bringing them up, giving them an education, providing food and raiment for them, and settling them in the world; wherefore to neglect them in old age, when incapable of providing for themselves, would be base ingratitude; whereas to take care of them is but a requital of them, or a repaying them for former benefits had of them:

for that is good and acceptable before God; it is good in itself, and grateful, and well pleasing in his sight; it is part of the good, and perfect, and acceptable will of God; and which, as other actions done in faith, is acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

{3} But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety {4} at home, and {5} to requite their parents: {6} for that is good and acceptable before God.

(3) Widow's children and nephews must take care of their parents according to their ability.

(4) The first reason, because that which they bestow upon their parents, they bestow it upon themselves.

(5) Another, because nature itself teaches us to repay our parents.

(6) The third: because this duty pleases God.

1 Timothy 5:4-8. There are two opposing views regarding the explanation of this section. (1) The view upheld by the majority of recent commentators, de Wette, Wiesinger, van Oosterzee, Plitt, which is as follows. Paul is giving Timothy instructions to support the “real” widows. From these he distinguishes (1 Timothy 5:4 being in contrast with 1 Timothy 5:3) the widow who has children or grandchildren, because they are able and ought to care for her. With μανθανέτωσαν we should supply as subject τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα, and we should understand by τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον and τοῖς προγόνοις the widowed mother or grandmother. 1 Timothy 5:5 contrasts again with 1 Timothy 5:4; καὶ μεμονωμένη explains the signification of ἡ ὄντως χήρα. The predicate ἤλπικε κ.τ.λ. denotes the life-work which the “right,” i.e. the forsaken, widow has to fulfil, her fulfilment of it being a necessary condition of receiving support. 1 Timothy 5:6 declares negatively what conduct the apostle expects from an ὄντως χήρα, and to such conduct Timothy (1 Timothy 5:7) is to exhort them. At 1 Timothy 5:8, Paul returns to 1 Timothy 5:4, τις referring to the widows’ relations, and τῶν ἰδίων καὶ μάλιστα [τῶν] οἰκείων to the widows themselves.—(2) The view upheld by most older and some recent commentators, especially Matthies and Hofmann, which is as follows. After enjoining on Timothy to honour the “real” widows, Paul first directs the widows who have children or grandchildren (still uncared for), to show these all loving care, and thereby recompense the love shown to themselves by their parents. The subject of μανθανέτωσαν is τις χήρα (as a collective idea); τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον are the children or grandchildren, and οἱ πρόγονοι the dead parents of the widow. 1 Timothy 5:5 describes the “real” widow as one who in her loneliness leads a life pious and consecrated to God; and as a contrast to this we have the picture of a wanton widow in 1 Timothy 5:6. In 1 Timothy 5:8, again (1 Timothy 5:4), widows who have relations needing their care are again reminded of the duty of this care.[172]

Each of these views has its difficulties. Against the second view, the supporters of the first maintain the following points:—(1) that as 1 Timothy 5:4 is in contrast with 1 Timothy 5:3, and 1 Timothy 5:5 in contrast again with 1 Timothy 5:4 (δέ), the χήρα spoken of in 1 Timothy 5:4 cannot be regarded as belonging to the ὄντως χήραις; and (2) that as εὐσεβεῖν (1 Timothy 5:4) applies more naturally to the conduct of children towards their mother (or grandmother) than vice versâ, and as the thought: the widow is by her care for her children to make recompense for the care shown to herself by her parents, is “somewhat far-fetched” (de Wette), the ὄντως χήρα can only mean the widow with no relations for whom it is her duty to care.

But the first view has also its difficulties. If we adopt it, we find it strange that the apostle should not have written simply αὐτήν for τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον, and αὐτῇ for τοῖς προγόνοις, all the more that οἱ πρόγονοι is a name for “progenitors.” Further, πρῶτον, which Wiesinger translates inaccurately by “before all,” does not get its full force. It is arbitrary to understand by τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα, grown-up children, especially as the expression τέκνα ἔχειν makes the children appear dependent on the mother (comp. 1 Timothy 3:4; Titus 1:6). De Wette says regarding 1 Timothy 5:5 : The author would have more clearly said: “Remind a true and forsaken widow to whom thou dost give support, that it falls upon her to show an example of confidence in God and of continual prayer;” but we can hardly think that the apostle would have expressed this thought in such an uncertain way. Even the three repetitions of the same thought in 1 Timothy 5:4; 1 Timothy 5:8; 1 Timothy 5:16, is at least very strange. Finally, the idea of money-support, on which this view lays all stress, is purely imported. These difficulties are too considerable for us to regard the first view as right in spite of them.[173]

De Wette and Wiesinger are certainly right in regarding 1 Timothy 5:4 as contrasted with 1 Timothy 5:3, and 1 Timothy 5:5 with 1 Timothy 5:4, as well as in thinking that the word μεμονωμένη sets forth the apostle’s mark of the ὄντως χήρα; but they are not justified in inferring that in 1 Timothy 5:4 he is speaking of a widow with relations who can take care of her. Why, in that case, should the apostle in 1 Timothy 5:5 have said regarding the ὄντως χήρα, that she was to προσμένειν ταῖς δεήσεσι καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς, and to do so νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας, for all this is in no way opposed to what is said in 1 Timothy 5:4? The προσμένειν leads us to suppose that the apostle was thinking of a widow who had not to care for relations.

The right view will accordingly be this. After exhorting Timothy to honour the “real” widows (see on 1 Timothy 5:3), Paul distinguishes from these ὄντως χήραις, in the first place, the one who is not forsaken, but has children or grandchildren (not grown up); and he lays it on her as a duty not to neglect them. Then he describes the conduct of the “real” or forsaken widow, who has therefore no ἴδιον οἶκον, showing what beseems her in her position in life as a Christian widow; so that he is contrasting the widow who works diligently for her own, and the lone widow who continues day and night in prayer. As opposed to the latter (or even to both), he mentions in 1 Timothy 5:6 the χήρα σπαταλῶσα, who is, however, to be considered as dead, because her conduct is in entire contradiction with her widowed state. Then there is a natural transition to the exhortation in 1 Timothy 5:7, which gives the apostle an opportunity for uttering, in 1 Timothy 5:8, a general maxim in order to impress once more on the widow with relations to care for, the exhortation in 1 Timothy 5:4.—1 Timothy 5:4. τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα] ἔκγονα here (in connection with τέκνα) means the “grandchildren” (τέκνα τέκνων, Hesychius).[174] In classical usage, ὁ ἔκγονος is usually the son (ἡ ἔκγονος, the daughter), but also the grandson; τὰ ἔκγονα denotes properly posterity (comp. Wisd. 40:15, 44:11, 45:13, 47:22; synonymous with τὸ σπέρμα).

μανθανέτωσαν] The subject for this verb might be taken from the object in the protasis; but the formation of the sentence is more correct, if we take the subject of the protasis (τις χήρα) to be the subject here also. Τις χήρα is then a collective idea, and takes the plural. Winer, too (p. 586 [E. T. p. 787]), supports this opinion.

πρῶτον] viz., before they give themselves up to the care of the church for them, with special reference to what follows: χήρα καταλεγέσθω, 1 Timothy 5:9, or better perhaps: “before she makes work for herself outside the house” (Hofmann).

τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον εὐσεβεῖν] The term οἶκον likewise shows that he is speaking not of the things which the children are to do for their widowed mother (or grandmother), but of the things which the widows as mothers are to do for the children; because the mother or grandmother does not necessarily belong to the οἶκος of a grown-up son or grandson, whereas the children not grown up necessarily belong to the οἶκος of the widowed mother. The meaning therefore is: they are not to forsake their house, i.e. their children or grandchildren. The term εὐσεβεῖν is used to show that the house is a temple to whose service they are to devote themselves. Matthies inaccurately translates: “practise piety in regard to one’s own house.” Οἶκον is not the accusative of reference, but purely an objective accusative; comp. Acts 17:23, and Meyer on the passage. “To honour one’s house” is therefore equivalent to serving it with pious heart;[175] Luther’s translation: “rule divinely,” is not to the point.

καὶ ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγόνοις] According to the context, the meaning is this: the widows by the εὐσεβεῖν of their house, i.e. by their pious care for their children and grandchildren, are to recompense the love shown to themselves by their parents. Chrysostom: ἀπῆλθον ἐκεῖνοι (οἱ πρόγονοιοὐκ ἠδυνήθῃς αὐτοῖς ἀποδοῦναι τὴν ἀμοιβὴν· ἐν τοῖς ἐκγόνοις ἀμειβοῦ· ἀποδίδου τὸ ὀφείλημα διὰ τῶν παίδων. Though this thought is peculiar, it is neither ingenious (de Wette) nor far-fetched (Wiesinger).

ἀμοιβή, in the N. T. ἅπαξ λεγόμ.; ἀμοιβ. ἀποδιδόναι, Euripides, Orestes, 467.

οἱ πρόγονοι, in contrast with the previous τὰ ἔκγονα: the progenitors; in the N. T. only here and 2 Timothy 1:3. It would be against usage to understand by it the (widowed) mother or grandmother who is still alive.

τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι ἀπόδεκτον κ.τ.λ.] comp. 1 Timothy 5:4. ἔκγονα: offspring ought to be the best rendering of this. It has a wider connotation than children and narrower than descendants.

μανθανέτωσαν: It ought not to be necessary to say that the subject of this verb is τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα, only that Chrys. Theod. Vulg. and [268] agree in referring it to the class χῆραι. (“Requite them in their descendants, repay the debt through the children,” Chrys.; “Discat primum domum suam regere.” See critical note.) Similarly Augustine says of his mother Monica, “Fuerat enim unius viri uxor, mutuam vicem parentibus reddiderat, domum suam pie tractaverat” (Confessiones, ix. 9). This can only be regarded as a curiosity in exegesis.

[268] The Latin text of Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.

πρῶτον: The first duty of children is filial piety. οἶκον, which is usually correlative to parents rather than children, is used here “to mark the duty as an act of family feeling and family honour” (De Wette, quoted by Ell.).

εὐσεβεῖν (domum pie tractare, [269]82) with a direct accusative is also found in reff. Ellicott supplies an appropriate illustration from Philo, de Decalogo, § 23, “where storks are similarly said εὐσεβεῖν and γηροτροφεῖν”.

[269] Speculum

προγόνοις: When the term occurs again, 2 Timothy 1:3, it has its usual meaning forefather. It is usually applied to forbears that are dead. Here it means parents, grandparents, or great-grandparents that are living; and this use of it was probably suggested by ̓́κγονα, a term of equally vague reference. Plato, Laws, xi. p. 932, is quoted for a similar application of the word to the living.

τοῦτο γάρ, κ.τ.λ.: Besides being enjoined in the O.T., our Lord taught the same duty, Mark 7:16-23 = Matthew 15:4-6. See also Ephesians 6:1-2.

4. children or nephews] Rather, grandchildren, ‘nephews’ no longer having this meaning as in the time of Jeremy Taylor, who says, ‘If naturalists say true, that nephews are often liker to their grandfathers than to their fathers.’

to shew piety] The deeper meaning given to this word above, 1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 3:8, &c., is not lost here, though it be practical godliness. Our Lord’s own teaching on this very subject, Matthew 15:3-6, is just this word, ‘writ large.’

to shew piety at home] More accurately towards their own house. If it is a little strained to speak of the children learning to shew piety towards their own house when the care of parents or grandparents is meant, it is much more strained to speak of aged widows requiting their parents by the care of their own children or grandchildren. ‘Let the children learn,’ then it should run. In answer to Bp Wordsworth’s objections to this, notice (1) that the Apostle’s whole subject is Christian duty towards widows, (2) that the repetition in 1 Timothy 5:16 is only in keeping with other repetitions of the passage, (3) that the word ‘learn’ here has a clause dependent upon it and so differs in sense from 1 Timothy 5:13, 1 Timothy 2:11, and 2 Timothy 3:7, where it is absolute. The plural verb is used, although the subject to be supplied is in the neuter, according to the common N.T. use in the case of persons: e.g. Matthew 10:21, ‘children shall rise up.’ So the plural verb should be read, 2 Timothy 4:17, ‘that all the Gentiles might hear.’ Winer, § 58, 3.

to requite their parents] Lit., ‘to give due returns to their forbears,’ using the old Scotch word, which, as Fairbairn says, exactly corresponds in its including parents and grandparents.

For the phrase ‘to give due returns’ which only occurs in N. T. here but is thoroughly classical, cf. Eur. Or. 467, where Orestes speaks of Tyndareus ‘who reared me, kissed me, carried me about,’ and then of ‘the base returns that I requited him’ in slaying his reputed daughter Clytemnestra.

good and acceptable] With R.V. following ms. authority, we should read acceptable alone; the addition has been made from 1 Timothy 2:3.

1 Timothy 5:4. Μανθανέτωσαν, let them learn) i.e. let the sons learn; and rather the grandsons, for in the correlative progenitors (τοῖς προγόνοις) alone are mentioned. There is an elegant Metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent; the consequent is, that the widows should remain with their relations (viz. their sons or grandchildren).—πρῶτον τὸν ἴδιον, first their own) before they are put into any public office (duty).—οἷκου εὐσεβεῖν, to treat their family with dutiful affection) We have the same word with the accusative, Acts 17:23. The reason (ground) for the dutiful conduct enjoined, is evident from the end of the verse.—ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγόνοις, to requite their progenitors [parents, Engl. Vers.]) Some think that the duty of widows who have families, is here intended; and Pricæus compares with this passage that of Augustine regarding his mother Monica, She had requited her parents, she had treated her family with pious affection, 1 Timothy 1:9, Confess, 100:9. That saying of the Roman censors in reference to old bachelors is quite in accordance with this: Nature writes in you the law, as of being born, so also of begetting; and your parents, by supporting you, have bound you, if you have any shame, to pay the debt of bringing up grandchildren (for them).—Val. Max., l. 2, c. 4. But the word μανθανέτωσαν, let them learn, and its plural number, shows that the matter under discussion, is the duty of children and grandchildren. Therefore the widow in 1 Timothy 5:5, who has no children, is opposed to the widow who has children, because the former has no one from whom she can receive requital, and she therefore has her hopes placed solely in God.

Verse 4. - Hath for have, A.V.; grandchildren for nephews, A.V.; towards their own family for at home, A.V.; this for that, A.V.; acceptable in the sight of for good and acceptable before, A.V. and T.R. Grandchildren (ἔκγονα; only here in the New Testament, but common in the LXX. and in classical Greek); descendants, children or grandchildren (as on the other hand, πρόγονοι in this verse includes grandparents as well as parents). In Latin nepotes, "descendants;" nos neveux (in French), "our descendants;" and so the English word "nephews" (derived from nepos, through the French neveu) properly means, and is commonly so used in all old English writers, as e.g., in Holinshed (Richardson's Dictionary), "their nephews, or sons' sons, which reigned in the third place." Locke's phrase, "a nephew by a brother," seems to show the transition to the modern use of "nephew." But as the old meaning of "nephews" is now obsolete, it is better to substitute "grandchildren," as in the R.V. Let them learn. Clearly "the children or grandchildren" is the subject. To show piety towards (εὐσεβεῖν). In the only other passage in the New Testament where this word occurs, Acts 17:23, it has also an accusative of the person - "whom ye worship." In classical Greek also εὐσεβεῖν τινα is used as well as εἰς, or περὶ, or πρὸς τινα.. Their own family, of which the widowed mother or grandmother formed a part. The force of τὸν ἴδον οῖκον, "their own family," lies in the implied contrast with the Church. As long as a widow has members of her own house who are able to support her, the Church ought net to be burdened (see ver. 16). To requite (ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδίδοναι); literally, to give back the return or exchange due. Ἀμοιβή is only found here in the New Testament, but is not uncommon in the LXX., and is much used in the best classical authors. The πρόγονοι had nourished and cared for them in their childhood; they must requite that care by honoring and supporting them in their old age. This is acceptable (ἀπόδεκτον); only here in the New Testament or LXX., and rarely if ever in classical Greek. The same idea is expressed in 1 Timothy 1:15, by πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος, and in 1 Peter 2:19, 20, by χάρις Τοῦτο χάρις παρὰ Θεῷ, "This is acceptable with God." 1 Timothy 5:4Nephews (ἔκγονα)

N.T.o. Often in lxx. Nephews, in the now obsolete sense of grandsons or other lineal descendants. Derived from Lat. nepos. Trench (Select Glossary) remarks that nephew was undergone exactly the same change of meaning that nepos underwent, which, in the Augustan age, meaning grandson, in the post-Augustan age acquired the signification of nephew in our present acceptation of that word. Chaucer:

"How that my nevew shall my bane be."

Legend of Good Women, 2659.

'His (Jove's) blind nevew Cupido."

House of Fame, 67.

Jeremy Taylor: "Nephews are very often liken to their grandfathers than to their fathers."

Let them learn

The subject is the children and grandchildren. Holtzmann thinks the subject is any widow, used collectively. But the writer is treating of what should be done to the widow, not of what she is to do. The admonition is connected with widows indeed. They, as being utterly bereft, and without natural supporters, are to be cared for by the church; but if they have children or grandchildren, these should assume their maintenance.

First (πρῶτον)

In the first place: as their first and natural obligation.

To show piety at home (τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον εὐσεβεῖν)

More correctly, to show piety toward their own family. Piety in the sense of filial respect, though not to the exclusion of the religious sense. The Lat. pietas includes alike love and duty to the gods and to parents. Thus Virgil's familiar designation of Aeneas, "pius Aeneas," as describing at once his reverence for the gods and his filial devotion. The verb εὐσεβεῖν (only here and Acts 17:23) represents filial respect as an element of godliness (εὐσέβεια). For τὸν ἴδιον their own, see on Acts 1:7. It emphasizes their private, personal belonging, and contrasts the assistance given by them with that furnished by the church. It has been suggested that οἶκον household or family may mark the duty as an act of family feeling and honor.

To requite (ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι)


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