1 Corinthians 12:31
But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet show I to you a more excellent way.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(31) But covet oarnestly,—Better, But earnestly seek the better gifts. All this argument is not meant to check ardour and to damp enthusiasm. The Spirit divideth to every man as He wills, but He wills to give to each the best gift that each desires and is capable of receiving. The receptivity which comes with earnest and practical desire is in the case of each individual the determining cause as to what gift the Spirit will give. The last sentence, “And yet show I unto you a more excellent way,” ought to form the opening clause of the next chapter. The “more excellent way” is not some gift to be desired to the exclusion of the other gifts, but a more excellent way of striving for those gifts. You are not to strive for any one gift because it is more highly esteemed, or because it is more apparently useful, or because it is more easily attained. That which will consecrate every struggle for attainment and every gift when attained is LOVE.

12:27-31 Contempt, hatred, envy, and strife, are very unnatural in Christians. It is like the members of the same body being without concern for one another, or quarrelling with each other. The proud, contentious spirit that prevailed, as to spiritual gifts, was thus condemned. The offices and gifts, or favours, dispensed by the Holy Spirit, are noticed. Chief ministers; persons enabled to interpret Scripture; those who laboured in word and doctrine; those who had power to heal diseases; such as helped the sick and weak; such as disposed of the money given in charity by the church, and managed the affairs of the church; and such as could speak divers languages. What holds the last and lowest rank in this list, is the power to speak languages; how vain, if a man does so merely to amuse or to exalt himself! See the distribution of these gifts, not to every one alike, ver. 29,30. This were to make the church all one, as if the body were all ear, or all eye. The Spirit distributes to every one as he will. We must be content though we are lower and less than others. We must not despise others, if we have greater gifts. How blessed the Christian church, if all the members did their duty! Instead of coveting the highest stations, or the most splendid gifts, let us leave the appointment of his instruments to God, and those in whom he works by his providence. Remember, those will not be approved hereafter who seek the chief places, but those who are most faithful to the trust placed in them, and most diligent in their Master's work.But covet earnestly - Greek "Be zealous for" Ζηλοῦτε Zēloute. This word, however, may be either in the indicative mood (ye do covet earnestly), or in the imperative, as in our translation. Doddridge contends that it should be rendered in the indicative mood, for he says it seems to be a contradiction that after the apostle had been showing that these gifts were not at their own option, and that they ought not to emulate the gifts of another, or aspire to superiority, to undo all again, and give them such contrary advice. The same view is given by Locke, and so Macknight. The Syriac renders it, "Because you are zealous of the best gifts, I will show to you a more excellent way." But there is no valid objection to the common translation in the imperative, and indeed the connection seems to demand it. Grotius renders it, "Pray to God that you may receive from him the best, that is, the most useful endowments."

The sense seems to be this, "I have proved that all endowments in the church are produced by the Holy Spirit; and that he confers them as he pleases. I have been showing that no one should be proud or elated on account of extraordinary endowments; and that, on the other hand, no one should he depressed, or sad, or discontented, because he has a more humble rank. I have been endeavoring to repress and subdue the spirit of discontent, jealousy, and ambition; and to produce a willingness in all to occupy the station where God has placed you. But, I do not intend to deny that it is proper to desire the most useful endowments; that a man should wish to be brought under the influence of the Spirit, and qualified for eminent usefulness. I do not mean to say that it is wrong for a man to regard the higher gifts of the Spirit as valuable and desirable, if they may be obtained; nor that the spirit which seeks to excel in spiritual endowments and in usefulness, is improper.

Yet all cannot be apostles; all cannot be prophets. I would not have you, therefore, seek such offices, and manifest a spirit of ambition. I would seek to regulate the desire which I would not repress as improper; and in order to that, I would show you that, instead of aspiring to offices and extraordinary endowments which are beyond your grasp, there is a way, more truly valuable, that is open to you all, and where all may excel." Paul thus endeavors to give a practicable and feasible turn to the whole subject, and further to repress the longings of ambition and the contentions of strife, by exciting emulation to obtain that which was accessible to them all, and "which, just in the proportion in which it was obtained," would repress discontent, and strife, and ambition, and produce order, and peace, and contentedness with their endowments and their lot, the main thing which he was desirous of producing in this chapter. This, therefore, is one of the "happy turns" in which the writings of Paul abounds. He did not denounce their zeal as wicked. He did not attempt at once to repress it. He did not say that it was wrong to desire high endowments. But he showed them an endowment which was more valuable than all the others; which was accessible to all; and which, if possessed, would make them contented, and produce the harmonious operation of all the parts of the church. That endowment was love.

A more excellent way - See the next chapter. "I will show you a more excellent way of evincing your "zeal" than by aspiring to the place of apostles, prophets, or rulers, and that is by cultivating universal charity or love."

31. covet earnestly—Greek, "emulously desire." Not in the spirit of discontented "coveting." The Spirit "divides to every man severally as He will" (1Co 12:1); but this does not prevent men earnestly seeking, by prayer and watchfulness, and cultivation of their faculties, the greatest gifts. Beza explains, "Hold in the highest estimation"; which accords with the distinction in his view (1Co 14:1) between "follow after charity—zealously esteem spiritual gifts"; also with (1Co 12:11, 18) the sovereign will with which the Spirit distributes the gifts, precluding individuals from desiring gifts not vouchsafed to them. But see on [2291]1Co 14:1.

the best gifts—Most of the oldest manuscripts read, "the greatest gifts."

and yet—Greek, "and moreover." Besides recommending your zealous desire for the greatest gifts, I am about to show you a something still more excellent (literally, "a way most way-like") to desire, "the way of love" (compare 1Co 14:1). This love, or "charity," includes both "faith" and "hope" (1Co 13:7), and bears the same fruits (1Co 13:1-13) as the ordinary and permanent fruits of the Spirit (Ga 5:22-24). Thus "long-suffering," compare 1Co 12:4; "faith," 1Co 12:7; "joy," 1Co 12:6; "meekness," 1Co 12:5; "goodness," 1Co 12:5; "gentleness," 1Co 12:4 (the Greek is the same for "is kind"). It is the work of the Holy Spirit, and consists in love to God, on account of God's love in Christ to us, and as a consequence, love to man, especially to the brethren in Christ (Ro 5:5; 15:30). This is more to be desired than gifts (Lu 10:20).

But covet earnestly the best gifts: the word may be translated indicatively: Ye do covet the best gifts; or as we translate it, imperatively: Covet ye; I would have you be covetous to excel in the best gifts, that is, those which will make you most useful and profitable to the church of God.

And yet show I unto you a more excellent way; but yet (saith he) gifts are not the best things, the habits of saving grace are much more valuable than gifts; love to God and your neighbour ought to be by you preferred before gifts. To a discourse of which the apostle thus shortly passeth. But covet earnestly the best gifts,.... Which may be rendered either indicatively as an assertion, "ye do covet earnestly the best gifts": of prophesying and teaching, of doing miracles, healing diseases, speaking with, and interpreting, different tongues and languages; but I can, and do show you something that is better, and more excellent than these: or, by way of interrogation, "do ye covet earnestly the best gifts?" do you zealously affect them, fervently desire them, and emulate one another in your endeavours after them? I have something to observe to you which exceeds them all, and which you would do well to follow after, and eagerly pursue; or imperatively, as an exhortation, as it is rendered by our translators: and by the best gifts may be meant, the best of these external gifts before mentioned; and not those of the highest class, and the more extraordinary, but which are the most useful and beneficial to the church, as preaching or prophesying was: the Corinthians seemed most covetous and desirous of speaking with different tongues; but the apostle shows, in 1 Corinthians 14:1, by divers reasons, that prophesying was preferable, being more serviceable and useful to the church, and so more eligible and to be desired by them, to which he may have regard here: or else by them are meant the internal graces of the Spirit, as faith, hope, and love, which are all of them gifts of God's grace; all useful and valuable, and better than all external extraordinary gifts whatever, which a man might have, and be nothing, be lost and damned; whereas he that believes in Christ, has a good hope through grace, and love in his soul to God, Christ, and his people, though he is destitute of the other gifts, shall certainly be saved; wherefore these are the gifts which men should be solicitous for and covet after, and be greatly concerned to know that they have them, and to be content without the other:

and yet show I unto you a more excellent way: if by the best gifts are designed the above graces of the Spirit, then by "the more excellent way", Christ must be meant, the author and object of these graces; who is the way to the covenant, and to a participation of all the blessings of it, as justification, pardon, adoption, and eternal life; the way into a Gospel church, and to all the ordinances of the Gospel dispensation, as baptism, and the Lord's supper; for faith in him is the prerequisite, and proper qualification for the enjoyment of each of these: Christ is the way of salvation, and the way to the Father, and to heaven and eternal happiness; and an excellent one he is, the more, yea, the most excellent; he is the only way to each of these; he is the new and living way, a plain and pleasant one; and so a safe and secure one, in which all that walk shall certainly be saved: now this way the apostle showed, declared, pointed out in the ministry of the word; it was his chief and principal business, the sum of his doctrine, to make known Christ, and him crucified, as the way, the truth, and the life; to direct souls to him, and to show them the way of salvation by him: but if by the best gifts are meant the more useful ones of those before mentioned, as prophesying, or preaching, then the more excellent way designs grace, special and internal grace; and that either grace in general, regenerating, sanctifying grace, including all sorts of grace; which is the way of a soul's passing from the death of sin to a life of faith and holiness; and is the way to eternal glory, and which gives a meetness for it, and is inseparably connected with it. This is a more excellent way than gifts; for gifts, be they ever so great, may be lost or taken away, through disuse or misimprovement; but grace always remains, can never be lost, nor will ever be taken away, but will issue in everlasting life: men may have the greatest gifts, and yet not be saved, as Judas and others; but he that has the least degree of faith in Christ, hope in him, and love to him, shall be saved by him with an everlasting salvation: or particularly the grace of charity, or love to the saints, may be intended by the more excellent way; which is the evidence of a man's passing from death and life; the new commandment of Christ, and the fulfilling of the law; without which, a man, though he has never such great gifts, he is nothing as a Christian, nor in the business of salvation; and is the greatest of all the graces of the Spirit; and is of such a nature, that when prophecies, tongues, knowledge, and all external gifts shall fail, and even the internal graces of faith and hope shall cease, the one being changed for vision, and the other swallowed up in enjoyment, this will continue; and the rather this grace may be thought to be meant, since the apostle immediately passes to treat it in the next chapter, and prefers it to all gifts, and even graces.

{14} But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.

(14) He teaches those who are ambitious and envious, a certain holy ambition and envy. That is, if they give themselves to the best gifts, and such as are most profitable to the church, and so if they contend to excel one another in love, which far surpasses all other gifts.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Corinthians 12:31. It is not the wish of Paul, by what he has said from 1 Corinthians 12:4 up till now regarding the different gifts of the Spirit, to repress the eager striving after them. But the important question is as to the nature of the gifts and the manner of the striving. Hence: But be zealous after the better gifts of the Spirit,[2025] those which are more essential than others, and have a more absolute value for the highest welfare of the church (1 Corinthians 12:7). The δέ is the autem marking the transition to a new point.

Ζηλοῦτε, again, does not conflict with 1 Corinthians 12:11, because the will of the communicating Spirit is not an arbitrary one, but makes the receptive capacity and the mental tendency of the individual to be elements in its own self-determination. The zealous striving after the better gifts consists therefore negatively in this, that one makes such χαρίσματα, as are less generally necessary and have less value for the church (as e.g. the glossolalia, the reception of which was sought after by many for the sake of show), less the aim towards which he directs his will and cultivates a susceptibility; positively, again, it consists in this, that one makes those better gifts, on the other hand, the object of his ardent desire and the aim of his self-active development, in order to reach in this way the definite degree of receptivity needful to be the organ of the agency of the πνεῦμα in question, and thereby to become, by the free will of the Spirit, partaker of the better gifts.[2026] It is perfectly plain that in this ΖΗΛΟῦΝ supplicatory prayer is also included; but it is arbitrary to limit the conception to it, as does Grotius: “agite cum Deo precibus, ut accipiatis” (comp Heydenreich, Rückert, Hofmann). Equally arbitrary, too, is every departure from the hitherto invariable sense of ΧΆΡΙΣΜΑ; as e.g. Morus and Ewald hold faith, hope, and love to be meant; and Billroth, the fruits arising from love; Flatt, again (comp Osiander), even imports the right use of the gifts which should be striven after. Comp on the contrary, as to the difference in value of the charismata, 1 Corinthians 14:2 ff.

ΚΑῚ ἜΤΙ Κ.Τ.Λ[2030]] and furthermore, yet besides (Luke 14:26; Hebrews 11:36; Acts 2:26; often thus in Greek authors), besides prescribing to you this ζηλοῦτε, I show you (now, from chap. 1 Corinthians 13:1 onwards) a surpassing way,[2031] an exceedingly excellent fashion, according to which this ζηλοῦν of yours must be constituted. By this he means that the striving after the better gifts must always have love as its determining and impelling principle, without which, indeed, the gifts of the Spirit generally would be worthless (1 Corinthians 13:1 ff.), and the κρείττονα unattainable. Love is thus the most excellent way, which that ζηλοῦν ought to keep. Rückert (so also Estius) finds here the meaning: “I show you a far better way still, in which ye may walk, namely, the way of love, which far surpasses all possession of charismata;” and so, too, in substance, Hofmann: “even away beyond the goal of the better charismata I show you a way,” i.e. a way which brings you still further than the ζηλοῦν τ. χαρ. τ. κρ. But Paul surely did not conceive of the striving after the better charismata as becoming unnecessary through love, but rather as necessarily to be connected with love (1 Corinthians 14:1; 1 Corinthians 14:39). Besides, he would logically have required to attach his statement not by καί, but by ἐγὼ δέ or ἀλλά; but even à priori it is improbable that he should have merely set down the weighty ζηλοῦτε δὲ τ. χαρίσμ. τ. κρείττ. in such a naked way, and should have forthwith forsaken it again with the remark that he would now give instructions away beyond the better gifts. Grotius and Billroth connect καθʼ ὑπερβ. with the verb. The former renders: by way of superfluity (so also Ewald); the latter: “after a fashion which, as being the best, is certain of its success.” But the meaning, by way of superfluity (ἐκ περιουσίας, ἐκ τοῦ περισσοῦ), corresponds neither to the N. T. use of the phrase (Romans 7:13; 2 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Galatians 1:13; comp 4Ma 3:18), nor to its use elsewhere in Greek (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1196; Polyb. iii. 92. 10, ix. 22. 8; Lucian, p. merc. cond. 13; Dem. 1411. 14). Moreover, Paul could hardly have considered the following instructions, especially in view of the circumstances of the Corinthians, as given “further by way of superfluity.” It militates against Billroth, again, that the apostle’s thought could not be to recommend the manner of his instruction regarding the way, but only the way itself, as excellent. On the other hand, to take the καθʼ ὑπερβ. ὁδόν together is grammatically correct, since it is a genuine Greek usage to attach adverbs of degree to substantives, and that generally by prefixing them. Bernhardy, p. 338; Buttmann, neut. Gr. p. 83 f. [E. T. 96]; comp on 2 Corinthians 11:23; also on 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 7:35; Stallbaum, a[2034] Plat. Phoed. p. 93 B. We find this connection given in the Vulgate, by Chrysostom and Theophylact (καθʼ ὑπερβ. τουτέστιν ὑπερέχουσαν), Luther, Erasmus, Castalio, Calvin, and most interpreters. Bengel suggestively describes the superlative conception, which is attached to ὁδόν by καθʼ ὑπερβολήν, “quasi dicat: viam maxime vialem.”

[2025] Regarding ζηλοῦν τι, to seek eagerly to attain something, comp. Dem. 500. 2 (ἀρετήν), 504. 8 (δωρεάς), 1461. 9 (τὰ ἀγαθά); Polyb. vi. 25. 11 (τὸ βέλτιον); Wis 1:12 (θάνατον).

[2026] Theophylact aptly says (comp. Chrysostom): ἠνίξατο ἡρέμα, ὅτι αὐτοὶ εἰσι τοῦ τὰ ἐλάττονα λαβεῖν· διὰ γὰρ τοῦ εἰπεῖν· ζηλοῦτε, τὴν παρʼ ἐκείνων σπουδὴν ἀπαιτεῖ καὶ τὴν πλείω ἐπιθυμίαν περὶ τὰ πνευματικά. Καὶ οὐκ εἶπε· τὰ μείζονα, ἀλλὰ τὰ κρείττονα, τουτέστι τὰ ὠφελιμώτερα. Comp. Bengel: “Spiritus dat ut vult, sed fideles tamen libere aliud prae alio possunt sequi et exercere. Deus operatur suaviter, non cogit.” So also de Wette.

[2030] .τ.λ. καὶ τὰ λοιπά.

[2031] Paul has not put the article to ὁδόν, “suspensos nonnihil tenens Corinthios,” as Bengel says, who also observes with fine discernment upon the present δείκνυμι, “jam ardet Paulus et fertur in amorem.”

[2034] d refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.1 Corinthians 12:31 a corrects the inference which an indolent nature or weak judgment might draw from 1 Corinthians 12:29 f., supposing that God’s sovereign ordination supersedes man’s effort. Our striving has a part to play, along with God’s bestowment, in spiritual acquisitions; hence the contrastive δέ. “But (for all that) be zealous after the greater gifts.” A man must not, e.g., be content to “speak with tongues” when he might “prophesy” (1 Corinthians 14:1 ff.), nor to work miracles when beside that he might teach in the “word of wisdom”.—ζηλόω (see parls.) implies in its good sense an ardent, in its bad sense (1 Corinthians 13:4) an emulous pursuit. The greater (μείζονα) gifts are those intrinsically greater, or more beneficial (1 Corinthians 14:5)—conditions usually coincident.

1 Corinthians 12:31 b. Καὶ ἔτι κ.τ.λ. (cf. ἔτι τε καί, Luke 14:26)—“And besides”—adds to the exhortation just given (1 Corinthians 12:31 a) an indication of the way to carry it out; the ζῆλος which aims at the μείζονα χαρίσματα must be that of ἀγάπη. This clause introduces and properly belongs to ch. 13. (W.H[1957]). καθʼ ὑπερβολήν (see parls.) is superlative, not compar.; P. is not pointing out “a more excellent way” than that of seeking and using the charisms of ch. 12. (with such a meaning he should have written Ἔτι δέ: cf. Luke 24:41, etc.), but “a super-excellent way” (une voie souverainement excellente, Gd[1958]) to win them (cf. 1 Corinthians 8:1 b, 1 John 4:7). Δείκνυμι is “to point out” as with the finger.

[1957] Westcott and Hort’s The New Testament in Greek: Critical Text and Notes.

[1958] F. Godet’s Commentaire sur la prem. Ép. aux Corinthiens (Eng. Trans.).

1 Corinthians 12:31 to 1 Corinthians 13:3. § 42. THE WAY TO CHRISTIAN EMINENCE. Carefully and luminously Paul has set forth the manifoldness of the Holy Spirit’s gifts that contribute to common life of the Church. All are necessary, all honourable in their proper use; all are of God’s ordination. Some of the charisms are, however, more desirable than others. But if these “greater gifts” be sought in selfish emulation (as the ζηλοῦτε of 1 Corinthians 12:31 a, taken by itself, might suggest), their true purpose and blessing will be missed; gifts of grace (χαρίσματα) are not for men actuated by the ζῆλος of party spirit and ambition (cf. 1 Corinthians 12:4 f., 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20, Galatians 5:20). While encouraging the Cor[1956] to seek larger spiritual powers, the Ap. must “besides point out” the “way” to this end (1 Corinthians 12:31 b), the way to escape the perils besetting their progress (1 Corinthians 12:4 ff.) and to win the goal of the Christian life (1 Corinthians 12:8-13). Love is the path to power in the Church; all loveless abilities, endowments, sacrifices are, frpm the Christian point of view, simply good for nothing (1 Corinthians 12:1-3).

[1956] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.31. But covet earnestly] So Tyndale. Sue, Wiclif. Sectamini, Calvin. Perhaps, desire eagerly. Literally, be envious, or Jealous of. Aemulamini, Vulg. Cf. Acts 7:9; Acts 17:5, and ch. 1 Corinthians 13:4. It is translated zealously affect in Galatians 4:17-18. It perhaps implies an indirect rebuke of the envy felt by many Corinthians for those who possessed the best gifts. It is as though St Paul had said, “if you are envious at all, be envious for the gifts, not of those who have received them.”

the best gifts] Some copies read the greater gifts (see note on 1 Corinthians 12:4). The best gifts were (see ch. 14.) those which were most calculated to promote the edification of the Church. But they were also precisely those (see next chapter and Galatians 5:22), which so far from being peculiar to the individual, were within the reach of all Christians alike.

Ch. 1 Corinthians 12:31–Ch. 1 Corinthians 13:13. The Excellencies of Love

and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way] Literally, and furthermore I shew you an eminently excellent way, i.e. the way of love, described in the words that follow. This was the secret which could reconcile an ardent desire for the best gifts with contentment with what one had; which could harmonize the various powers of the individual members of the Church for the general good. Calvin complains, and not without cause, of the “inepta capitis sectio” here. The words at the head of this note belong to what follows, rather than to what goes before.1 Corinthians 12:31. Ζηλοῦτε, emulously desire) The Spirit gives as He wills, 1 Corinthians 12:11 : but yet believers may freely follow out, and engage in, one thing in preference to another, ch. 1 Corinthians 14:26. God’s operations are pleasant, not compulsory.—τὰ κρείττονα, the better gifts) according as each gift is more favourable to love. Theology is comparative: ch. 1 Corinthians 14:5; 1 Corinthians 14:19.—ἔτι) [and yet, Engl. Vers.] nay even: so ἔτι τε καὶ, yea even also, Luke 14:26. I not only exhort, but also show the method, and the way or plan [the true mode of viewing the subject].—καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν) This expression attaches to the noun substantive the force of a superlative (Romans 7:13), as if he were to say, the way most way-like [viam maximè vialem].—ὁδὸν, a way) He does not add the article, keeping the Corinthians somewhat in suspense, while he explains the way: דרך, the way of love.—δείκνυμι, I show) The present. Paul is now waxing warm, and is carried on to love. When he has made this ‘showing’ of the way, he returns to the gifts, as the word emulously desire [ζηλοῦτε] repeated indicates, here and at ch. 1 Corinthians 14:1.Verse 31. - Covet earnestly; literally, be zealous for, strongly desire. That which we aim at we usually attain; and we should aim at that which really is, not at that which seems, the most splendid charism. And yet show I unto you a more excellent way. The "more excellent way" is the way of love, which he sets forth in the next chapter, and which lies open to all Christians without distinction. The verse means either, "And further" (besides bidding you aim at the better gifts), "I show you one supreme way of attaining them;" or, "And I show you a still more eminent way." I bid you desire the best gifts, and further show you a truly royal road (viam maxime vialem), a road par excellence, which leads to their attainment. The way of love would lead to them, and it was itself the best of them. "All the way to heaven lies through heaven, and the path to heaven is heaven."



The best (τὰ κρείττονα)

The correct reading is τὰ μείζονα the greater. So Rev.

Yet (ἔτι)

Some construe with more excellent, rendering yet more excellent. So Rev. Others render moreover, and give the succeeding words a superlative force: "and moreover a most excellent way," etc. See on with excellency, 1 Corinthians 2:1.

Way

To attain the higher gifts. The way of love as described in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. "Love is the fairest and best in himself, and the cause of what is fairest and best in all other things" (Plato, "Symposium," 197).

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