1 Chronicles 3:1
Now these were the sons of David, which were born to him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess:
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I.—The sons of David.—This section is parallel to 2Samuel 3:2-5 (comp. 1Chronicles 3:1-4) and 2Samuel 5:14-16 (1Chronicles 3:5-9), with which comp. 1Chronicles 14:3-7.

(1-4) The six sons born in Hebron. The sons and mothers agree with those of the parallel passage in Sam., with the one exception of the second son, who is here called Daniel, but in Samuel, Chileab. The LXX. (2Samuel 3:3) has Δαλουια, which may represent Heb. Delaiah (Iah hath freed), though in our 1Chronicles 3:24 that name is spelt Δαλααια, or Δαλαια. In the present passage the Vatican LXX. has Δαμνιήλ, the Alex. Δαλουνια. Perhaps Daniel is a corruption of Delaiah, as this name recurs in the line of David. Chileab may have had a second name (comp. Uzziah-Azariah, Mattaniah-Zedekiah), especially as Chileab appears to be a nickname, meaning “dog.” (Comp. the Latin Canidius, Caninius, as a family name.)

(1) Amnon.—For his story see 2 Samuel 13

Of Ahinoam.—Literally, to Ahin. (1Samuel 25:43).

The second Daniel of Abigail the Carmelitess.—Better, A second, Daniel, to Abigail, &c. Sam. adds, “wife of Nabal the Carmelite.” (See 1 Samuel 25 for her story.)

1 Chronicles 3:1. Daniel — This son is called Chileab, (2 Samuel 3:3,) but whether he had two names, or there be an error in one of these passages, is not possible to determine. The other alterations in names, which are found in the following verses, may be corrected by the parallel passages in Samuel. As the genealogy of Judah was given first, because the dominion was vested in that tribe, and the Messiah was to descend from it; so, for similar reasons, the genealogy of David is particularly recorded.3:1-24 Genealogies. - Of all the families of Israel, none were so illustrious as the family of David: here we have a full account of it. From this family, as concerning the flesh, Christ came. The attentive observer will perceive that the children of the righteous enjoy many advantages.The sons of David - The writer returns to the point at which he had left the posterity of Ram 1 Chronicles 2:9, 1 Chronicles 2:15, and traces out the family of David - the royal house of the tribe of Judah.

Daniel - See the marginal note and reference.

There are three lists of the sons of David, born in Jerusalem.

2 Samuel 5:14-16 1 Chronicles 3:5-8 1 Chronicles 14:4-7 1. Shammuah Shimeah* Shammuah 2. Shobab Shobab Shobab 3. Nathan Nathan Nathan 4. Solomon Solomon Solomon 5. Ibhar Ibhar Ibhar 6. Elishua Elishama* Elishua 7. a Eliphelet* Elpalet* 8. a Nogah Nogah 9. Nepheg Nepheg Nepheg 10. Japhia Japhia Japhia 11. Elishama Elishama Elishama 12. Eliada Eliada Beeliada* 13. Eliphelet Eliphelet Eliphelet (Differences are marked with an asterick).

A comparison of the three lists serves to show:

(1) that "Shimeah" and the first "Elishama" in the list of this chapter are corruptions;

(2) that David had really 13 sons born in Jerusalem, of whom two - the first Eliphelet and Nogah - probably died in their childhood; and

(3) that Eliada, the twelfth son, was also called Beeliada, the term Baal, "lord," not having (previous to the introduction of the Baal worship) a bad sense, but being regarded as an equivalent with El, "God."


1Ch 3:1-9. Sons of David.

1-3. Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron—It is of consequence for the proper understanding of events in the domestic history of David, to bear in mind the place and time of his sons' birth. The oldest son, born after his father's accession to the sovereign authority, is according to Eastern notions, the proper heir to the throne. And hence the natural aspirations of ambition in Ammon, who was long unaware of the alienation of the crown, and could not be easily reconciled to the claims of a younger brother being placed above his own (see on [358]2Sa 3:1-5).The sons of David, 1 Chronicles 3:1-9. His line to Zedekiah, 1 Chronicles 3:10-16. The successors of Jeconiah. 1 Chronicles 1:17-24.

The Jezreelitess; of that Jezreel in Judah, Joshua 15:56, not of that in Manasseh, Joshua 17:16. The Carmelitess; so called, because she was the wife of Nabal, who dwelt in Carmel, 1 Samuel 25:2, which was in Judah, Joshua 15:55.

Now these were the sons of David,.... The six following born in Hebron, who are reckoned in the same order as in 2 Samuel 3:2, only here the second son is called Daniel, who there goes by the name of Chileab; he had two names, the reason of which see there; and here David's wife, Eglah, is said in the Targum to be Michal, Saul's daughter; see Gill on 2 Samuel 3:5, to which is added an account of his reign both in Hebron and Jerusalem, agreeably to 2 Samuel 5:5. Now these were the sons of {a} David, which were born unto him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second {b} Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess:

(a) He returns to the genealogy of David, to show that Christ came from his stock.

(b) Who in 2Sa 3:3 is called Chileab, born of her that was Nabal's wife the Carmelite.

Ch. 1 Chronicles 3:1-24. The Genealogy of the House of David

1–4 (= 2 Samuel 3:2-5). The Sons born to David in Hebron

1. Daniel] LXX. (B) Δαμνιήλ, (A) Δαλουιά. In 2 Samuel 3:3 Chileab, but LXX. Δαλουιά. The real name of David’s second son remains therefore uncertain.Verses 1-9. - The whole of this chapter is occupied with the descendants of David: the first nine verses of it with his own sons, classified according to the place of their birth, Hebron or Jerusalem; the remaining verses with the line of kings of his house to Jeconiah and Zedekiah (ver. 16), the grandsons of Zerubbabel (ver. 21), and descendants of Shechaniah (ver. 24). To the seven years and six months (2 Samuel 2:11) of David's reign at Hebron six sons belong, each of a different mother. To the thirty and throe years (2 Samuel 5:5; 1 Kings 2:11) of his reign at Jerusalem belong other thirteen sons, viz. four of one mother, Bethshua, and nine of other mothers, whose names are not given. The list of the six Hebron sons, with their mothers, is nearly identical with that of 2 Samuel 3:2-5, although the differences, slight as they are, would of the two indicate our list here rather as not copied than copied thence. The only noticeable difference, however, is in the name of the second son, announced here as Daniel, instead of Chileab, while the Septuagint has Δαλουία. This, together with the circumstance that one word would, as regards the Hebrew characters, comparatively easily convert into the other. renders it probable that it is merely a corrupt text or text obscure at this point which has occasioned the difference. The meaning of the name Daniel, put side by side with what we read in 1 Samuel 24:15, 25:39, suggests strongly that it is the right name of the two. It was a name likely to be given by David to his first child by Abigail. Additional suspicion is thrown on the name Chileab through the three last letters of it, "leab," constituting also the three first of the very next word," of Abigail" (לַאְביִנַיִל) which looks very much like the over-haste of the pen uncorrected. It is remarkable that the Syriac and Arabic versions translate "Caleb," both here and in the parallel passage. For the sons born in Jerusalem we have all three parallel lists at command, and the variations are rather greater. The other two lists are in 2 Samuel 5:14-16; 1 Chronicles 14:4-7. The first of these omits Eliphelet and Nogah (possibly they died young or without issue), and the latter calls Eliphelet Elpalet (אֶלְפֶלֶט). Again, Shimeah and Elishama in our passage must yield, overruled by the consent of the other two, to Shammuah and Elishua. Again, it is to be noticed that the name Eliada (God (אֶל) knoweth), on occasion of its latest occurence (1 Chronicles 14:7), appears as Beeliada (the Lord (בַעַל) knoweth), preserving therein probably its earlier form, viz. that used before a settled bad sense had come to be attached to the word Baal (see 'Speaker's Commentary,' in loc.). The families descended from Caleb through his son Hur. - 1 Chronicles 2:50. The superscription, "These are the sons (descendants) of Caleb," is more accurately defined by the addition, "the son of Hur, the first-born of Ephratah;" and by this definition the following lists of Caleb's descendants are limited to the families descended from his son Hur. That the words וגו בּן־חוּר are to be so understood, and not as apposition to כּלב, "Caleb the son of Hur," is shown by 1 Chronicles 2:19, according to which Hur is a son of Caleb and Ephrath. On that account, too, the relationship of Hur to Caleb is not given here; it is presupposed as known from 1 Chronicles 2:19. A famous descendant of Hur has already been mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:20, viz., Bezaleel the son of Uri. Here, in 1 Chronicles 2:50 and 1 Chronicles 2:51, three sons of Hur are named, Shobal, Salma, and Hareph, with the families descended from the first two. All information is wanting as to whether these sons of Hur were brothers of Uri, or his cousins in nearer or remoter degree, as indeed is every means of a more accurate determination of the degrees of relationship. Both בּן and הוליד in genealogies mark only descent in a straight line, while intermediate members of a family are often omitted in the lists. Instead of בּן־חוּר, בּני־חוּר might have been expected, as two sons are mentioned. The singular בּן shows that the words are not to be fused with the following into one sentence, but, as the Masoretic punctuation also shows, are meant for a superscription, after which the names to be enumerated are ranged without any more intimate logical connection. For the three names are not connected by the w copul. They stand thus: "sons of Hur, the first-born of Ephratah; Shobal...Salma...Hareph." Shobal is called father of Kirjath-jearim, now Kureyet el Enab (see on Joshua 9:17). Salma, father of Bethlehem, the birth-place of David and Christ. This Salma is, however, not the same person as Salma mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:11 and Ruth 4:20 among the ancestors of David; for the latter belonged to the family of Ram, the former to the family of Caleb. Hareph is called the father of Beth-Geder, which is certainly not the same place as Gedera, Joshua 15:36, which lay in the Shephelah, but is probably identical with Gedor in the hill country, Joshua 15:58, west of the road which leads from Hebron to Jerusalem (vide on 1 Chronicles 12:4). Nothing further is told of Hareph, but in the following verses further descendants of both the other sons of Hur are enumerated.
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