1 Chronicles 29:22
And did eat and drink before the LORD on that day with great gladness. And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and anointed him unto the LORD to be the chief governor, and Zadok to be priest.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(22) And did eat and drink.—And they ate and drank. (Comp. the account of the feasting at David’s coronation, 1Chronicles 12:39-40.)

And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time.—The first time is briefly noticed in 1Chronicles 23:1. (Comp. the full account, 1Kings 1:32-40.)

And anointed him unto the Lord to be the chief governor.And anointed (him; perhaps the suffix has fallen out) for Jehovah as prince (nāgîd, 1Chronicles 27:16; 1Kings 1:35).

Anointed.Judges 9:15; 2Samuel 2:4. The expression “for Jehovah” seems to mean, according to His will. (Comp. 1Chronicles 28:5.) Or perhaps we should render, anointed him as prince, and Zadoh as priest, to Jehovah. The king was Jehovah’s vicegerent, as Zadok was His priest. The theocratic nature of the Israelite monarchy is again insisted upon. (Comp. 1Chronicles 17:14; 1Chronicles 28:5.)

And Zadok to be priest.—A remarkable notice, peculiar to the Chronicles. Among other things, it vividly illustrates the almost sovereign dignity of the high priest’s office; it also explains the deposition of Abiathar (comp. 1Kings 1:32; 1Kings 2:26) as having been already contemplated by David.

1 Chronicles 29:22. And did eat and drink before the Lord — Before the ark, in the courts or places as near to it as they conveniently could: or, as in God’s presence, in a solemn and religious manner, praising God for this great mercy, and entreating his blessing on this great affair. They made Solomon king the second time — The first time was, when he was made king during Adonijah’s conspiracy, (1 Kings 1:34,) on which occasion it was done in great haste, and in the presence of only a few of David’s servants; but now in the presence of all the great men of Israel, the princes of the tribes, the captains of thousands and hundreds. And anointed him to be the chief governor — After the death of David. Perhaps, however, David now resigned the government of the kingdom to him, as he knew he had not long to live. And Zadok to be priest — It must be remembered that the high-priest had his vicegerent who might officiate in his stead. So that this action of theirs, the anointing Zadok, did not actually constitute him high- priest, but only settled the reversion of it upon him and his line after Abiathar’s death; even as David’s making Solomon king, and their anointing Solomon to be the chief governor here, did not put him into actual possession of the kingdom, but only gave him a right to it after the present king’s death: hence, notwithstanding this anointing, Abiathar continued to exercise his office till Solomon thrust him out, 1 Kings 2:27.

29:20-25 This great assembly joined with David in adoring God. Whoever is the mouth of the congregation, those only have the benefit who join him, not by bowing down the head, so much as by lifting up the soul. Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord. Solomon's kingdom typified the kingdom of the Messiah, whose throne is the throne of the Lord.King the second time - Solomon's first appointment was at the time of Adonijah's rebellion (marginal reference). As that appointment was hurried and, comparatively speaking, private, David now thought it best formally to invest Solomon a second time with the sovereignty, in the face of all Israel. For a similar reason a second and public appointment of Zadok alone to the high priest's office took place. Abiathar was not as yet absolutely thrust out; but it may be doubtful whether he was ever allowed to perform high priestly functions after his rebellion 1 Kings 1:7; 1 Kings 2:27. 22. before the Lord—either in the immediate vicinity of the ark, or, perhaps, rather in a religious and devout spirit, as partaking of a sacrificial meal.

made Solomon … king the second time—in reference to the first time, which was done precipitately on Adonijah's conspiracy (1Ki 1:35).

they … anointed … Zadok—The statement implies that his appointment met the popular approval. His elevation as sole high priest was on the disgrace of Abiathar, one of Adonijah's accomplices.

Before the Lord, i.e. before the ark, in courts or places as near to it as they conveniently could. Or, as in God’s presence, in a solemn and religious manner, praising God for this great mercy, and begging his blessing upon this great affair.

The second time. This is called the second time in reference to the first time, which was either,

1. When he was made king during Adonijah’s conspiracy, of which see 1 Kings 1:34, &c. And so this was done after David’s death, and not upon that day, when this feasting and solemnity lasted, as the words at first view seem to insinuate, this being related in the same verse, and immediately after the relation of the feast. But there are examples of things done at distant times put together in one verse, as Acts 7:15, So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, i.e. first he, and afterwards our fathers. So here, They did eat on that day with great gladness, and afterward they made Solomon king the second time. And this opinion seems to be confirmed by the following passages, in which it is related, that at this same time they anointed Zadok to be priest and that Solomon was king instead of David, and that all Israel, and all David’s sons, submitted to him; all which was not done till after David’s death, as may be gathered by comparing this with 1 Kings 1 1Ki 2. Or,

2. In 1 Chronicles 23:1, where it is said that David made Solomon his son king over Israel, i.e. he declared him his successor. And so this second time was during David’s life. And what David had more privately declared, 1 Chronicles 23, he now more solemnly owns in this great and general assembly, in which, by David’s order, and the consent of all that assembly, Solomon was anointed king, i.e. to be king after his father’s death. And this opinion the text seems most to favour. For it is said, And they made Solomon king, &c.: they; who? That must be fetched out of the foregoing words and verses, they who did eat and drink before the Lord on that day with great gladness, as it is here said; and then immediately it follows, and that with a copulative conjunction,

and they made Solomon king, & c., which without violence cannot be pulled away from the foregoing words. And therefore they must be David and

all the congregation, who were then present, 1 Chronicles 29:20, of whom it is said, they sacrificed, &c., 1 Chronicles 29:21, and they did eat, &c., and they made Solomon, &c. The great objection against this opinion is, that they anointed Zadok to be priest at this time, which was not done till after David’s death; for till then Abiathar was not thrust out from being priest, &c., 1 Kings 2:26,27. This indeed is a difficulty, but not insoluble. It must be remembered that the high priest had his vicegerent who might officiate in his stead, when he was hindered by sickness or other indispensable occasion; and that there seems to be something more than ordinary in Zadok’s case; for although Abiathar was properly the high priest, yet Zadok seems after a sort to be joined in commission with him, as we see 2 Samuel 15:29 19:11; and it is expressly said, Zadok and Abiathar were priests, 2 Samuel 20:25 1 Kings 4:4. And it may be further considered, that this anointing of Zadok might be occasioned by some miscarriage of Abiathar not recorded in Scripture. Possibly he was unsatisfied with this design of translating the crown to Solomon, and did now secretly favour Adonijah’s person and right, which afterward he did more openly defend; which being known to David by information, might induce him and the princes who favoured Solomon to take this course; which they might the more willingly do, in consideration of that Divine threatening, 1 Samuel 2:31, &c., of translating the priesthood from Ithamar’s and Eli’s house, of which Abiathar was, to Eleazar’s line, to which it had been promised to perpetuity, Numbers 25:13, of which line Zadok was. And they might judge this a fit season, or might be directed by God at this time, to execute that threatening to the one, and promise to the other family. And yet this action of theirs in anointing Zadok did not, as I suppose, actually constitute him high priest, but only settled the reversion of it upon him and his line after Abiathar’s death. Even as David’s making Solomon king, 1 Chronicles 23:1, and their anointing

Solomon to be the chief governor here, did not put him into actual possession of the kingdom, but only gave him a right to it in reversion after the present king’s death, as Samuel’s anointing of David, 1 Samuel 16, had done to David before him. Hence, notwithstanding this anointing, Abiathar continued to exercise his office till Solomon thrust him out, 1 Kings 2:27; and even after he was removed from the execution of his office, yet he was reputed the priest till he died, being so called 1 Kings 4:4. And this I hope may in some sort resolve that difficulty. For the other arguments, they seem not considerable. For as for what follows, 1 Chronicles 29:23-25. Then Solomon sat on the throne, &c., that indeed seems to belong to the time after David’s death, being sufficiently separated from 1 Chronicles 29:22, and not so knit to the foregoing words as those words, and they made Solomon king, &c., are. And for the particle then, that is confessed by all to be often used at large and indefinitely for about, or after that time. To be the chief governor, i.e. to be king after David’s death. Zadok to be priest; of which the last note but one.

And they did eat and drink before the Lord on that day with great gladness,.... Before the ark of the Lord, which was in the tabernacle David had pitched for it:

and they made Solomon the son of David king the second time; the first was upon Adonijah's rebellion, and was done in the presence only of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; but this was done by and in the presence of all the great personages in the land:

and anointed him unto the Lord to be the chief governor; under his father during his lifetime, and then to reign in his own right:

and Zadok to be priest; high priest; which office yet he did not exercise till after the death of David, when Abiathar was thrust out by Solomon.

And did eat and drink before the LORD on that day with great gladness. And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and anointed him unto the LORD to be the chief governor, and Zadok to be priest.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
22. the second time] Cp. 1 Chronicles 23:1. The first time is described in 1 Kings 1:39 (Solomon hastily anointed in order to assert his claim to the throne against his brother Adonijah).

to be the chief governor] R.V. to be prince. Cp. 1 Chronicles 5:2, note.

Zadok] One of Solomon’s earliest acts seems to have been to put an end to the double priesthood by deposing Abiathar; cp. 1 Kings 2:27; 1 Kings 2:35. The Chronicler seems to have this in mind, but he avoids narrating anything so derogatory to the highpriesthood.

Verse 22. - Evident stress is laid upon the eating and drinking of that day as before the Lord, and upon the anointing of Solomon to the Lord. This latter expression is more forcible than the former. The second time of making Solomon king is explained by 1 Kings 1:32-40; 1 Chronicles 23:1. The statement that Zadok was anointed to be priest must probably be understood to describe, either the re-anointing of him (just as "they made Solomon king the second time") on an occasion which particularly invited it; or an anointing which had not been before fully performed. This latter is, perhaps, an unlikely supposition; but at the same time, the fact of any previous ceremony of the kind does not happen to be narrated. Zadok had been joint priest with Abiatbar of the line of Ithamar (1 Chronicles 15:11; 2 Samuel 24, 29; 19:11); but now he was anointed under circumstances of special publicity, and at a crisis of special interest, to supersede Abiathar. who had sided with Adonijah, and who was early to be removed altogether from the sacred office (1 Kings 1:7, 8, 32, 38, 44, 45; 1 Kings 2:26, 27). 1 Chronicles 29:22On this day they made Solomon king a second time, anointing him king to the Lord, and Zadok to be priest, i.e., high priest. The שׁנית refers back to 1 Chronicles 23:1, and the first anointing of Solomon narrated in 1 Kings 1:32. ליהיה, not: before Jahve, which ל cannot signify, but: "to Jahve," in accordance with His will expressed in His choice of Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:4). The ל before צדוק is nota accus., as in לשׁלמה. From the last words we learn that Zadok received the high-priesthood with the consent of the estates of the kingdom.
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