1 Chronicles 15:29
And it came to pass, as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the city of David, that Michal, the daughter of Saul looking out at a window saw king David dancing and playing: and she despised him in her heart.
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(29) And it came to pass.—The verse reads in the Hebrew like a modernised form of 2Samuel 6:16.

As the ark of the covenant of the Lord came.—Rather, The ark had come so far as to the city, and Michal had looked forth by the lattice, and she saw . . .

Dancing and playing.—In the Hebrew two common words have been substituted for the two obsolete ones occurring in Samuel.

Playing.—The Hebrew word denotes dancing combined with singing and playing (Jeremiah 30:19; 1Samuel 18:6-7).

She despised him.—Because he seemed forgetful of his royal and manly honour, in dancing like a woman.

15:25-29 It is good to notice the assistance of Divine Providence, even in things which fall within the compass of our natural powers; if God did not help us, we could not stir a step. If we do our religious duties in any degree aright, we must own it was God that helped us; had we been left to ourselves, we should have been guilty of some fatal errors. And every thing in which we engage, must be done in dependence on the mercy of God through the sacrifice of the Redeemer."Fine linen" (byssus) is here first spoken of as used for dress. It seems to have been reserved for nobles of the highest rank Esther 8:15, for kings, and for priests 2 Chronicles 5:12. David's robe was probably worn, like that of the high priest, immediately under the ephod, and may, like that, have reached the feet. 29. Michal … saw … David dancing and playing—His movements would be slow and solemn, suitable to the grave and solemn character of the music. Though his royal robes were laid aside, he was attired like the other officials, showing a becoming humility in the immediate presence of God. The feelings manifested by Michal were only an ebullition of spleen from a proud and passionate woman. No text from Poole on this verse. And it came to pass, as the ark of the covenant of the Lord came to the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul, looking out at a window,.... Of the palace, to see the procession, see 2 Samuel 6:16 where not only this circumstance is related, and the inward contempt she had David in, because of his behaviour, but also what she said, and what David returned in answer to it. And it came to pass, as the ark of the {q} covenant of the LORD came to the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looking out at a window saw king David dancing and playing: and she despised him in her heart.

(q) It was so called because it reminded the Israelites of the Lord's covenant made with them.

29. looking out at a window saw] R.V. looked out at the window and saw.

playing] a synonym of dancing, obsolete in modern English. The closest rendering is perhaps, leaping as in sport. The unrestrained joyousness of this action might easily degenerate (as in idolatrous worship) into licence. The Chronicler omits to say that the dancing was “before the Lord” (2 Samuel 6:16). David’s subsequent interview with Michal (ib. 2 Samuel 6:20-23) is also passed over in Chron.Verse 29. - Thus briefly is given by our compiler what occupies five verses (2 Samuel 6:19, 20-23) in the Book of Samuel. Neither of the words here rendered dancing and playing (but which would be better rendered "leaping and dancing") is the same with those employed in 2 Samuel 6:14, 16, where our Authorized Version rendering is "dancing" and "leaping and dancing" respectively. The word in both of those verses that represents the dancing, does correctly so represent, bet is a somewhat generic form, as it carries the idea of dancing in a circle. The reason of Michal "despising David in her heart" can only be found in the unreason and the irreligion of that heart itself. She was a type of not a few, who despise devotion, enthusiasm, and above all practical liberality and generosity, on the part of any individual of their own family, when these are shown to Christ and his Church, and when they think they may be a trifle the poorer for it, or when they feel that the liberality and devotion of another exposes their own "poverty" in both these respects.

"Chenaniah, the prince of the Levites, for the bearing, teacher in bearing; for he was instructed in it." Since Chenaniah does not occur among the six princes of the Levites in 1 Chronicles 15:5-10, and is called in 1 Chronicles 15:27 המּשּׂא השׂר, we must here also join בּמשּׂא (as most editions punctuate the first במשׂא, while according to Norzi בּמּשּׂא is the right reading even in the first case) closely with שׂר־הלויּם, with the meaning that Chenaniah was captain of the Levites who had charge of the bearing of the ark, a chief of the Levites who bore it. The word משּׂא is,however, very variously interpreted. The lxx have ἄρχων τῶν ᾠδῶν, and the Vulgate, prophetiae praeerat ad praecinendam melodiam; whence Luther translates: the master in song to teach them to sing. This translation cannot, however, be linguistically upheld; the word משּׂא means only the bearing of the burden (Numbers 4:19, Numbers 4:27, etc.; 2 Chronicles 35:3), and a prophetical utterance of an oppressive or threatening character (Isaiah 13:1, and Isaiah 15:1, etc.). But from this second signification neither the general meaning prophetia, nor, if we wish to go back upon the קול נשׂא, to raise the voice, the signification master of song, supremus musicus (Lavat.), or qui principatum tenebat in cantu illo sublimiore (Vatabl.), can be derived. The meaning prophetia, moreover, does not suit the context, and we must consequently, with Bertheau and others, hold fast the signification of bearing. We are determined in favour of this, (1) by the context, which here treats of the bearing of the ark, for which משּׂא is the usual word; and (2) by the circumstance that in 1 Chronicles 26:29 Chenaniah is mentioned as the chief of the Levites for the external business, which goes to show, if the persons are identical, that he here had the oversight of the external business of the transport. יסר is not the inf. absol., which cannot stand directly for the verb. finit.; nor is it the imperf. of סרר in the signification of שׂרר (Bertheau and others), but a nominal formation from יסר (cf. on this formation as the most proper designation of the actor, Ew. 152, b), in the signification teacher, which is shown by Isaiah 28:26 certainly to belong to יסר. The clause בּמּשּׂא יסר gives the explanation of the preceding בּמשּׂא, or it specifies what Chenaniah had to do in the procession. He had to take the lead in the bearing because he was מבין in it, i.e., was instructed in that which was to be observed in it. - In 1 Chronicles 15:23 two doorkeepers for the ark are named; and in 1 Chronicles 15:24, at the end of the enumeration of the Levites who were busied about the transport, two additional names are mentioned as those of men who had the same duty. The business of these doorkeepers was, as Seb. Schmidt has already remarked on 2 Samuel 6, non tam introitum aperire arcae, quam custodire, ne ad eam irrumperetur. Between these two pairs of doorkeepers in 1 Chronicles 15:24, the priests, seven in number, who blew the trumpets, are named. The Kethibh מחצצרים is to be read מחצצרים, a denom. from חצצרה; the Keri מחצרים is Hiph. of חצר, as in 2 Chronicles 7:6; 2 Chronicles 13:14, and 2 Chronicles 29:28. In 2 Chronicles 5:12 and 2 Chronicles 5:13, on the contrary, מחצּרים is partic. Pi. The blowing of the silver trumpets by the priests in this solemn procession rests on the prescription in Numbers 10:1-10, which see. The place assigned to these trumpet-blowing priests was either immediately before the ark, like the priestly trumpeters in the march round Jericho (Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:6), or immediately after it. For, that these priests entered in the immediate vicinity of the ark, may be inferred from the fact that before and behind them were doorkeepers of the ark. The procession, then, was probably arranged in this way: (1) the singers and players in front, in three division; (2) Chenaniah, the captain of the bearers; (3) two doorkeepers; (4) the priests with the trumpets immediately before or after the ark; (5) two doorkeepers; (6) the king with the elders and captains of thousands (1 Chronicles 15:25). The two doorkeepers Obededom and Jehiah (יחיּה), Rashi, Berth.,and others consider to be the same persons as the singers Obededom and Jeiel (יעיאל), supposing that the latter name is wrongly written in one of the passages. This, however, is incorrect, for the identity of the name Obededom is no sufficient ground for supposing the persons to be the same, since in 1 Chronicles 16:38 the singer Obededom and the doorkeeper Obededom the son of Jeduthun seem to be distinguished. And besides that, Obededom and his colleagues could not possibly at the same time as porters precede, and as singers come after, the priests and the ark, and there is consequently no reason to doubt that the name יחיּה is correct.
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