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Smith's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. shual). Probably the jackal is the animal signified in almost all the passages in the Old Testament where the Hebrew term occurs. Though both foxes and jackals abound in Palestine, the shualim (foxes) of (Judges 15:4) are evidently jackals and not foxes, for the former animal is gregarious, whereas the latter is solitary in its habits; and Samson could not, for that reason, have easily caught three hundred foxes, but it was easy to catch that number of jackals, which are concealed by hundreds in caves and ruins of Syria. It is not probable, however, that Samson sent out the whole three hundred at once. With respect to the jackals and foxes of Palestine, there is no doubt that the common jackal of the country is the Canis aureus , which may be heard every night in the villages. It is like a medium-sized dog, with a head like a wolf, and is of a bright-yellow color. These beasts devour the bodies of the dead, and even dig them up from their graves.

ATS Bible Dictionary

Two words in Hebrew are translated "fox" in the Bible; and it is not easy in every case to determine what animal is referred to. There were several varieties of fox in Palestine, all like the common fox in form and habits. The fox is cunning, voracious, and mischievous, Ezekiel 13:4 Luke 13:32. He is fond of grapes, and does much harm in vineyards, So 2:15. The fable of the fox and the sour grapes is well known. He is solitary in his habits, and burrows a home for himself in the ground, Luke 9:58. The jackal, at the present day, is much more numerous in Palestine, and is probably referred to in many texts where the word "foxes" occurs. It is like a medium-sized dog, with a head like the wolves, and a tail like the fox's; of a bright yellow color. To the fierceness of the wolf it joins the impudent familiarity of the dog. It differs from the fox in its habit of hunting its prey in large packs, and in its cry-a mournful howl, mixed with barking, which they keep up all night, to the annoyance of all within hearing. They live in holes; prowl around villages; ravage poultry yards; feed upon game, lizards, insects, grapes, garbage; and when they can find nothing else, old leather and any thing that has once had animal life. They follow after caravans and armies, and devour the bodies of the dead, and even dig them up from their graves, Psalm 63:10 La 5:18. The incident in the life of Samson, where foxes, or perhaps jackals, are referred to, Jud 15:4-5, has a parallel in the ancient Roman feast of Ceres, goddess of corn; when torches were bound to the tails of numbers of foxes, and they ran round the circus till the fire stopped and consumed them. This was in revenge for their once burning up some fields of corn.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Hebrews shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this animal indigenous to Palestine. It burrows, is silent and solitary in its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a plunderer of ripe grapes (Cant. 2:15). The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Palestine.

The proverbial cunning of the fox is alluded to in Ezek. 13:4, and in Luke 13:32, where our Lord calls Herod "that fox." In Judges 15:4, 5, the reference is in all probability to the jackal. The Hebrew word shu'al_ through the Persian _schagal becomes our jackal (Canis aureus), so that the word may bear that signification here. The reasons for preferring the rendering "jackal" are (1) that it is more easily caught than the fox; (2) that the fox is shy and suspicious, and flies mankind, while the jackal does not; and (3) that foxes are difficult, jackals comparatively easy, to treat in the way here described. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and are still very numerous in Southern Palestine.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A carnivorous animal of the genus Vulpes, family Canidae, of many species. The European fox (V. vulgaris or V. vulpes), the American red fox (V. fulvus), the American gray fox (V. Virginianus), and the arctic, white, or blue, fox (V. lagopus) are well-known species.

2. (n.) The European dragonet.

3. (n.) The fox shark or thrasher shark; -- called also sea fox. See Shark.

4. (n.) A sly, cunning fellow.

5. (n.) Rope yarn twisted together, and rubbed with tar; -- used for seizings or mats.

6. (n.) A sword; -- so called from the stamp of a fox on the blade, or perhaps of a wolf taken for a fox.

7. (n.) A tribe of Indians which, with the Sacs, formerly occupied the region about Green Bay, Wisconsin; -- called also Outagamies.

8. (n.) To intoxicate; to stupefy with drink.

9. (n.) To make sour, as beer, by causing it to ferment.

10. (n.) To repair the feet of, as of boots, with new front upper leather, or to piece the upper fronts of.

11. (v. i.) To turn sour; -- said of beer, etc., when it sours in fermenting.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

(shu`al; compare Arabic tha`lab (Judges 15:4 Nehemiah 4:3 Psalm 63:10 Songs 2:15 Lamentations 5:18 Ezekiel 13:4); alopex (Matthew 8:20 Luke 9:58; Luke 13:32)): The foxes of different parts of Europe and Western Asia differ more or less from each other, and some authors have given the local tyes distinct specific names. Tristram, for instance, distinguishes the Egyptian fox, Vulpes nilotica, of Southern Palestine, and the tawny fox, Vulpes flavescens, of the North and East It is possible that the range of the desert fox, Vulpes leucopus, of Southwestern Asia may also reach Syria. We have, however, the authority of the Royal Natural History for considering all these as merely local races of one species, the common fox, Vulpes alopex or Canis vulpes. The natives of Syria and Palestine do not always distinguish the fox and jackal although the two animals are markedly different. The jackal and wolf also are frequently confounded.


In Psalm 63:9 we have, "Those that seek my soul, to destroy it,. shall be given over to the power of the sword: they shall be a portion for foxes" (shu`alim). It has been thought that the jackal is meant here (Revised Version margin), and that may well be, though it is also true that the fox does not refuse carrion. In the Revised Version, margin, "jackal" is suggested in two other passages, though why is not clear, since the rendering "fox" seems quite appropriate in both. They are Nehemiah 4:3, ". if a fox go up, he shall break down their stone wall," and Lamentations 5:17, ". our eyes are dim; for the mountain of Zion which is desolate: the foxes walk upon it." the Revised Version, margin also has "jackals" in Judges 15:4, where Samson "caught three hundred foxes. and put a firebrand in the midst between every two tails. and let them go into the standing grain of the Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks and the standing grain, and also the oliveyards." Jackals are probably more numerous than foxes, but the substitution does not appreciably diminish the difficulties in the way of any natural explanation of the story. In Songs 2:15 we have a reference to the fondness of the fox for grapes. In Matthew 8:20 and Luke 9:58 Jesus says in warning to a would-be follower, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head." Foxes differ from most of the Canidae in burrowing holes for their lairs, unless indeed they take possession of the burrow of another animal, such as the badger. In Luke 13:32 Jesus compares Herod to a fox.

Alfred Ely Day.

258. alopex -- a fox
... a fox. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: alopex Phonetic Spelling:
(al-o'-pakes) Short Definition: a fox Definition: a fox; a fox-like, crafty ...
// - 6k
Strong's Hebrew
7776. shual -- fox, perhaps jackal
... 7775, 7776. shual. 7777 . fox, perhaps jackal. Transliteration: shual
Phonetic Spelling: (shoo-awl') Short Definition: foxes. ... fox. ...
/hebrew/7776.htm - 6k

2705. Chatsar Shual -- "village of the fox," a place in S. Judah
... "village of the fox," a place in S. Judah. Transliteration: Chatsar Shual Phonetic
Spelling: (khats-ar' shoo-awl') Short Definition: Hazar-shual. ...
/hebrew/2705.htm - 6k

7777b. Shual -- "fox," an Asherite
... "fox," an Asherite. Transliteration: Shual Short Definition: Shual. Word Origin
from the same as shual Definition "fox," an Asherite NASB Word Usage Shual (1). ...
/hebrew/7777b.htm - 5k

7777a. Shual -- "fox," a district in Isr.
... Shual. 7777b . "fox," a district in Isr. Transliteration: Shual Short Definition:
Shual. Word Origin from the same as shual Definition "fox," a district in Isr ...
/hebrew/7777a.htm - 5k

7777. Shuw'al -- "fox," a district in Isr.
Shuw'al. 7776, 7777. Shuw'al. 7777a . "fox," a district in Isr. Transliteration:
Shuw'al Phonetic Spelling: (shoo-awl') Short Definition: Shual. Shual ...
/hebrew/7777.htm - 5k

8169. Shaalbim -- perhaps "(haunt of) foxes," a city in Dan
... Shaalabbin, Shaalbim. Or Sha.alabbiyn {shah-al-ab-been'}; plural from shuw'al;
fox-holes; Shaalbim or Shaalabbin, a place in Palestine -- Shaalabbin, Shaalbim. ...
/hebrew/8169.htm - 6k


George Fox.
// book of religions/george fox.htm

PMWJ Fox. Stabat Mater.
... III. JESUS CHRIST. 135. PMWJ Fox. Stabat Mater. 1 Jews were wrought to cruel madness,
Christians fled in fear and sadness, Mary stood the cross beside. ...
/.../various/book of hymns for public and private devotion/135 p m w j.htm

LM Fox's Hymns. The Great Temple.
... II. GOD. 88. LM Fox's Hymns. The Great Temple. 1 Though wandering in a
stranger-land, Though on the waste no altar stand, Take comfort! ...
/.../various/book of hymns for public and private devotion/88 l m foxs hymns.htm

The Little Foxes.
... THE LITTLE FOXES. One little fox is, "Some other time." If you track him
up, you come to his hole"never. Another little fox is ...
/.../orr/food for the lambs or helps for young christians/the little foxes.htm

... history of the English people during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries should read most carefully three books: George Fox's Journal, John ...
// journal of john wesley/introduction.htm

... Among his other extensive labours, it may be stated, that in 1677, he accompanied
George Fox, William Penn, and other Friends, in a religious visit to Holland ...

Letter F
... 1834 * Fowler, Littleton "Received 1826 * Fowler, Samuel , "Received 1791, Died
1831 * Fowler, William "Received 1822, Located 1837 * Fox, Absalom D ...
/.../ alphabetical list of m e preachers/letter f.htm

Little Foxes
... Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted
in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. ...
/.../chidley/fifty-two story talks to boys and girls/little foxes.htm

Whether any Demons are Naturally Wicked?
... Objection 3: Further, some irrational animals have wicked dispositions by nature:
thus the fox is naturally sly, and the wolf naturally rapacious; yet they are ...
/.../aquinas/summa theologica/whether any demons are naturally.htm

The Strait Gate. Warned against Herod.
... end he employed this strategy of sending messengers to warn Jesus under the guise
of friendship.] 32 And he said unto them, Go and say to that fox [ie, say to ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/lxxxix the strait gate warned.htm

Fox (2 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary (Hebrews shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing
under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of ...
/f/fox.htm - 13k

Foxes (9 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (n.) Plural of Fox. 2. (n. pl.) See Fox.
Multi-Version Concordance Foxes (9 Occurrences). Matthew 8:20 ...
/f/foxes.htm - 9k

Thresher (1 Occurrence)
... It is found both upon the American and the European coasts. Called also fox shark,
sea ape, sea fox, slasher, swingle-tail, and thrasher shark. ...
/t/thresher.htm - 7k

... not found in Palestine CHIROPTERA: Bat CARNIVORA (a) Felidae, Cat, Lion, Leopard
(b) Hyaenidae, Hyena (c) Canidae, Dog (including Greyhound), Fox, Jackal, Wolf ...
/z/zoology.htm - 18k

Jackal (3 Occurrences)
... Like the fox, it is destructive to poultry, grapes, and vegetables, but is less
fastidious, and readily devours the remains of others' feasts. ...
/j/jackal.htm - 15k

Jump (3 Occurrences)
... Nehemiah 4:3 Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, Even that which they
are building, if a fox go up, he shall break down their stone wall. ...
/j/jump.htm - 8k

Goal (7 Occurrences)
... Luke 13:32 He said to them, "Go and tell that fox,'Behold, I cast out demons and
perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission. ...
/g/goal.htm - 8k

Wolf (4 Occurrences)
... 39): While the wolf is surpassed in size by some dogs, it is the fiercest member
of the dog family (Canidae), which includes among others the jackal and the fox...
/w/wolf.htm - 13k

Finish (35 Occurrences)
... Luke 13:32 "Go," He replied, "and take this message to that fox: "'See, to-day and
to-morrow I am driving out demons and effecting cures, and on the third day ...
/f/finish.htm - 20k

Tobijah (17 Occurrences)
... (DBY). Nehemiah 4:3 And Tobijah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, Even that
which they build, if a fox went up, it would break down their stone wall. ...
/t/tobijah.htm - 12k

Fox (2 Occurrences)

Luke 13:32
He said to them, "Go and tell that fox,'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission.

Nehemiah 4:3
Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, Even that which they are building, if a fox go up, he shall break down their stone wall.



Fox of Craftiness

Fox of Heretics

Fox of Unfaithful Prophets

Fox or Jackal

Fox: Dens of

Fox: Depredations of

Fox: Held in Contempt

Fox: Samson Uses, to Burn the Field of the Philistines

The Fox used by Samson for Annoying the Philistines

The Fox: Abounded in Palestine

The Fox: Active

The Fox: Carnivorous

The Fox: Crafty

The Fox: Cunning and Deceitful Persons

The Fox: Destructive to Vines

The Fox: Dwells in Holes

The Fox: Enemies of the Church

The Fox: False Prophets

The Fox: Found in Deserts

Related Terms

Foxes (9 Occurrences)

Thresher (1 Occurrence)


Jackal (3 Occurrences)

Jump (3 Occurrences)

Goal (7 Occurrences)

Wolf (4 Occurrences)

Finish (35 Occurrences)

Tobijah (17 Occurrences)

To-day (208 Occurrences)

Tomorrow (57 Occurrences)

Take (11064 Occurrences)

To-morrow (52 Occurrences)

Tobiah (14 Occurrences)

Tobi'ah (15 Occurrences)

Reach (63 Occurrences)

Earth (10501 Occurrences)

Effecting (9 Occurrences)

Driving (144 Occurrences)

Morrow (113 Occurrences)

Mission (14 Occurrences)

Maralah (1 Occurrence)

Perform (155 Occurrences)

Perfected (25 Occurrences)

Bush (14 Occurrences)

Brush (1 Occurrence)

Climbed (16 Occurrences)

Cures (3 Occurrences)

Complete (246 Occurrences)

Accomplish (44 Occurrences)

Aim (17 Occurrences)

Start (50 Occurrences)

Shual (6 Occurrences)

Say (11805 Occurrences)

Scorn (65 Occurrences)

Third (192 Occurrences)

Fowls (61 Occurrences)

Drive (132 Occurrences)

Course (87 Occurrences)

Message (222 Occurrences)

Ammonite (22 Occurrences)

Works (379 Occurrences)

Mercy (467 Occurrences)

Perfect (205 Occurrences)

Syria (73 Occurrences)

Spirits (129 Occurrences)

Devils (48 Occurrences)

Demons (54 Occurrences)

Writing (194 Occurrences)

Herod (45 Occurrences)

Cast (640 Occurrences)

Heal (62 Occurrences)

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