Psalm 72:11
Yes, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him.
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(11) Yea, all kings shall . . .—Better, as before, Let all kings.

72:2-17 This is a prophecy of the kingdom of Christ; many passages in it cannot be applied to the reign of Solomon. There were righteousness and peace at first in the administration of his government; but, before the end of his reign, there were troubles and unrighteousness. The kingdom here spoken of is to last as long as the sun, but Solomon's was soon at an end. Even the Jewish expositors understood it of the kingdom of the Messiah. Observe many great and precious promises here made, which were to have full accomplishment only in the kingdom of Christ. As far as his kingdom is set up, discord and contentions cease, in families, churches, and nations. The law of Christ, written in the heart, disposes men to be honest and just, and to render to all their due; it likewise disposes men to live in love, and so produces abundance of peace. Holiness and love shall be lasting in Christ's kingdom. Through all the changes of the world, and all the changes of life, Christ's kingdom will support itself. And he shall, by the graces and comforts of his Spirit, come down like rain upon the mown grass; not on that cut down, but that which is left growing, that it may spring again. His gospel has been, or shall be, preached to all nations. Though he needs not the services of any, yet he must be served with the best. Those that have the wealth of this world, must serve Christ with it, do good with it. Prayer shall be made through him, or for his sake; whatever we ask of the Father, should be in his name. Praises shall be offered to him: we are under the highest obligations to him. Christ only shall be feared throughout all generations. To the end of time, and to eternity, his name shall be praised. All nations shall call HIM blessed.Yea, all kings shall fall down ... - That is, his reign will be universal. The kings and people mentioned in the previous verses are only specimens of what will occur. "All" kings - "all" nations - will do what these are represented as doing. They will submit to the Messiah; they will own him as their Lord. See the notes at Psalm 2:8. Compare Isaiah 49:23. 9-11. The extent of the conquests.

They that dwell in the wilderness—the wild, untutored tribes of deserts.

bow … dust—in profound submission. The remotest and wealthiest nations shall acknowledge Him (compare Ps 45:12).

Which cannot be said of Solomon with any truth or colour, but was unquestionably verified in Christ; of whom therefore this must be understood. For what is said 1 Kings 4:21, that Solomon reigned over all kingdoms, is there limited to them that reigned from the river unto Egypt; whereas the expressions here are unlimited and universal. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him,.... Or worship him; not with a civil, but religious worship; for such worship is due to Christ, he being God equal with the Father, and so to be equally honoured; the Creator of all things, the Redeemer of his people, Head and Lord of the church, and whom the angels adore; every part of worship is to be given him; internal, which lies in the exercise of faith, hope, love, fear, &c. and external, which consists of prayer to him, praise of him, preaching in his name, and the administration of ordinances; and this worship is to be performed in the same manner as to the Father, in spirit and in truth, in righteousness and holiness, with reverence and godly fear. This is to be understood, either literally of the kings of the earth, and which will have its full accomplishment in the latter day; see Isaiah 49:23; or mystically of such who are made kings unto God the Father by Christ; who reign spiritually now, through the power of divine grace in their hearts; have the honour, riches, and attendance of kings, and a crown and kingdom prepared for them; and shall reign with Christ on earth, though under him, at whose feet they cast their crowns: all this shows the dignity of Christ's person and office; that he is the Prince of the kings of the earth, the firstborn of God, whom he has made higher than they, and King of kings, and Lord of lords; whose princes, and all whose subjects, are altogether kings. This passage is allowed to belong to the Messiah, both by ancient and modern Jews (g); and indeed it never was true of Solomon, nor of any other;

all nations shall serve him; which will be in the latter day; see Isaiah 2:2; the Jews say (h), that in the world to come, or the times of the Messiah, all the Gentiles shall be voluntary proselytes.

(g) Zohar in Gen. fol. 84. 4. Bemidbar Rabba, s. 13. fol. 209. 4. Midrash Megillat Esther, fol. 86. 2. R. Isaac Chizzuk Emunah, par. 1. p. 44. (h) T. Avodah Zarah, fol. 24. 1.

Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him.
11. Yea, let all kings fall down before him,

Let all nations serve him.

The allusions to Solomon’s empire in this and the preceding verse are obvious. “All kingdoms brought presents and served Solomon.” … “All the earth sought to Solomon, to hear his wisdom, … and they brought every man his present.” His alliance with Phoenicia brought him into connexion with the West; he had extensive commerce both by sea and land with the East and South; his fame brought the queen of Sheba to visit him in person. See 1 Kings 4:21; 1 Kings 4:34; 1 Kings 10:1 ff., 1 Kings 10:11; 1 Kings 10:15; 1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 10:25; 1 Kings 10:28-29.Verse 11. - Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him (comp. Isaiah 49:7, 23; Isaiah 60:3-14). This prophecy has not yet been fulfilled in the letter; but it may one day be exactly accomplished. Or it may not have been intended to be understood literally. General truths are often expressed by the sacred writers universally. The invocation of Psalm 72:1 is continued in the form of a wish: may they fear Thee, Elohim, עם־שׁמשׁ, with the sun, i.e., during its whole duration (עם in the sense of contemporary existence, as in Daniel 3:33). לפני־ירח, in the moonlight (cf. Job 8:16, לפני־שׁמשׁ, in the sunshine), i.e., so long as the moon shines. דּור דּורים (accusative of the duration of time, cf. Psalm 102:25), into the uttermost generation which outlasts the other generations (like שׁמי השּׁמים of the furthest heavens which surround the other heavens). The first two periphrastic expressions for unlimited time recur in Psalm 89:37., a Psalm composed after the time of Solomon; cf. the unfigurative expression in Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the Temple in 1 Kings 8:40. The continuance of the kingship, from the operation of which such continuance of the fear of God is expected, is not asserted until Psalm 72:17. It is capricious to refer the language of address in Psalm 72:5 to the king (as Hupfeld and Hitzig do), who is not directly addressed either in Psalm 72:4, or in Psalm 72:6, or anywhere in the Psalm. With respect to God the desire is expressed that the righteous and benign rule of the king may result in the extension of the fear of God from generation to generation into endless ages. The poet in Psalm 72:6 delights in a heaping up of synonyms in order to give intensity to the expression of the thoughts, just as in Psalm 72:5; the last two expressions stand side by side one another without any bond of connection as in Psalm 72:5. רביבים (from רבב, Arab. rbb, densum, spissum esse, and then, starting from this signification, sometimes multum and sometimes magnum esse) is the shower of rain pouring down in drops that are close together; nor is זרזיף a synonym of גּז, but (formed from זרף, Arab. ḏrf, to flow, by means of a rare reduplication of the first two letters of the root, Ew. 157, d) properly the water running from a roof (cf. B. Joma 87a: "when the maid above poured out water, זרזיפי דמיא came upon his head"). גּז, however, is not the meadow-shearing, equivalent to a shorn, mown meadow, any more than גּז, גּזּה, Arabic ǵizza, signifies a shorn hide, but, on the contrary, a hide with the wool or feathers (e.g., ostrich feathers) still upon it, rather a meadow, i.e., grassy plain, that is intended to be mown. The closing word ארץ (accus. loci as in Psalm 147:15) unites itself with the opening word ירד: descendat in terram. In his last words (2 Samuel 23) David had compared the effects of the dominion of his successor, whom he beheld as by vision, to the fertilizing effects of the sun and of the rain upon the earth. The idea of Psalm 72:6 is that Solomon's rule may prove itself thus beneficial for the country. The figure of the rain in Psalm 72:7 gives birth to another: under his rule may the righteous blossom (expanding himself unhindered and under the most favourable circumsntaces), and (may there arise) salvation in all fulness עד־בּלי ירח, until there is no more moon (cf. the similar expression in Job 14:12). To this desire for the uninterrupted prosperity and happiness of the righteous under the reign of this king succeeds the desire for an unlimited extension of his dominion, Psalm 72:8. The sea (the Mediterranean) and the river (the Euphrates) are geographically defined points of issue, whence the definition of boundary is extended into the unbounded. Solomon even at his accession ruled over all kingdoms from the Euphrates as far as the borders of Egypt; the wishes expressed here are of wider compass, and Zechariah repeats them predictively (Psalm 9:10) with reference to the King Messiah.
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