Psalm 66:15
I will offer to you burnt sacrifices of fatted calves, with the incense of rams; I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(15) I will offer.—Such a holocaust could hardly have been vowed by a single person. It is the community that speaks. Besides, the ram was not a sacrifice for any individual, but particularly enjoined for the high priest (Leviticus 9:2), the head of a tribe (Numbers 7), or a Nazarite (Numbers 6:14). Incense is here the ascending smoke of the sacrifice.

66:13-20 We should declare unto those that fear God, what he has done for our souls, and how he has heard and answered our prayers, inviting them to join us in prayer and praise; this will turn to our mutual comfort, and to the glory of God. We cannot share these spiritual privileges, if we retain the love of sin in our hearts, though we refrain from the gross practice, Sin, regarded in the heart, will spoil the comfort and success of prayer; for the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination of the Lord. But if the feeling of sin in the heart causes desires to be rid of it; if it be the presence of one urging a demand we know we must not, cannot comply with, this is an argument of sincerity. And when we pray in simplicity and godly sincerity, our prayers will be answered. This will excite gratitude to Him who hath not turned away our prayer nor his mercy from us. It was not prayer that fetched the deliverance, but his mercy that sent it. That is the foundation of our hopes, the fountain of our comforts; and ought to be the matter of our praises.I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings - Margin, marrow. On the word rendered "burnt-offerings" see the notes at Isaiah 1:11. The word rendered "fatlings" is rendered in Isaiah 5:17, lambs. It may be applied to any animal considered as fat - a qualification required in sacrifices to be made on the altar, Isaiah 1:11.

With the incense of rams - The word here rendered incense is commonly applied to aromatics which were burned in the tabernacle or temple, producing a grateful odor (see the notes at Isaiah 1:13); but it seems here to be used with reference to the smoke ascending from burning rams offered in sacrifice - ascending as the smoke of incense did. The smoke thus ascending would be as grateful and acceptable as incense.

I will offer bullocks with goats - Bullocks and goats. That is, I will present sacrifices in all the forms required in worship; in all the forms that will express gratitude to God, or that will be an acknowledgment of dependence and guilt; in all that would properly express homage to the Deity. Bullocks and goats were both required in the ancient worship.

15. I will offer—literally, "make to ascend," alluding to the smoke of burnt offering, which explains the use of "incense."

incense—elsewhere always denoting the fumes of aromatics.

With the incense of rams; with the fat of rams, which in these peace-offerings was burnt upon the altar, and so vanished into smoke like incense, and which is no less pleasing to God than incense. I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings,.... Of the fattest of the flock; that is, of the best; such as Abel offered, Genesis 4:4;

with the incense of rams; or "rams with incense" (f); the Targum is,

"with sweet incense, the sacrifice of rams;''

Kimchi interprets it of incense of the fat of rams.

I will offer bullocks with goats; he proposed to offer all kind of offerings, to show gratitude and thankfulness for the favours received; by all which are meant the calves, or fruit of the lips, the sacrifices of praise, thanksgiving to God, in the name of the whole church and people of God; see Revelation 19:1.

Selah; on this word; see Gill on Psalm 3:2.

(f) "arietes cum incenso", Gejerus; so Campeusis in ibid.

I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings, with the incense of rams; I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
15. Burnt offerings of fatlings will I offer unto thee,

Together with incense of rams.

‘Incense of rams’ denotes the sweet savour of the sacrifice ascending as it was consumed by fire. Cp. perhaps, though the meaning is not certain, Isaiah 1:13. The cognate verb is used of burning the victim or the fat of the victim on the altar. Thus Exodus 29:18, “and thou shalt burn (lit., if an obsolete verb might be revived, incense) the whole ram upon the altar; it is a burnt offering unto the Lord: it is a sweet savour.” According to the Levitical ritual the ram was to be offered as a burnt offering or peace offering only by the whole people or its princes, by the high-priest or an ordinary priest, or by a Nazirite; never by an ordinary individual (by whom however it was to be used as a trespass offering). He-goats are only mentioned in connexion with the offerings of the princes (Numbers 7:17 ff). Hence it may be inferred that the Psalm refers to sacrifices offered by the nation or its leaders, not by an ordinary private individual. Cp. however Isaiah 1:11, where almost exactly the same animals are mentioned as here; and Psalm 50:9; Psalm 50:13.

I will offer] Lit., dress for sacrifice. Cp. 1 Kings 18:23 ff; Exodus 29:36 ff; &c.: and Gr. ἔρδειν, ῥέζειν, in LXX ποιεῖν: Lat. facere.Verse 15. - I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings; i.e. of fatted beasts (comp. 1 Samuel 15:9; 2 Samuel 6:13; Ezekiel 39:18). With the incense of rams; i.e. the smoke, or savoury odour of rams. I will offer bullocks with goats; literally, I will prepare - i.e, dress for sacrifice (see 1 Kings 18:23, 26). The character of the event by which the truth has been verified that the God who redeemed Israel out of Egypt still ever possesses and exercises to the full His ancient sovereign power, is seen from this reiterated call to the peoples to share in Israel's Gloria. God has averted the peril of death and overthrow from His people: He has put their soul in life (בּחיּים, like בּישׁע in Psalm 12:6), i.e., in the realm of life; He has not abandoned their foot to tottering unto overthrow (mowT the substantive, as in Psalm 121:3; cf. the reversed construction in Psalm 55:23). For God has cast His people as it were into a smelting-furnace or fining-pot in order to purify and to prove them by suffering; - this is a favourite figure with Isaiah and Jeremiah, but is also found in Zechariah 13:9; Malachi 3:3. Ezekiel 19:9 is decisive concerning the meaning of מצוּדה, where הביא במצודות signifies "to bring into the holds or prisons;" besides, the figure of the fowling-net (although this is also called מצוּדה as well as מצודה) has no footing here in the context. מצוּדה (vid., Psalm 18:3) signifies specula, and that both a natural and an artificial watch-post on a mountain; here it is the mountain-hold or prison of the enemy, as a figure of the total loss of freedom. The laying on of a heavy burden mentioned by the side of it in Psalm 66:11 also accords well with this. מוּעקה, a being oppressed, the pressure of a burden, is a Hophal formation, like מטּה, a being spread out, Isaiah 8:8; cf. the similar masculine forms in Psalm 69:3; Isaiah 8:13; Isaiah 14:6; Isaiah 29:3. The loins are mentioned because when carrying heavy loads, which one has to stoop down in order to take up, the lower spinal region is called into exercise. אנושׁ is frequently (Psalm 9:20., Psalm 10:18; Psalm 56:2, Isaiah 51:12; 2 Chronicles 14:10) the word used for tyrants as being wretched mortals, perishable creatures, in contrast with their all the more revolting, imperious, and self-deified demeanour. God so ordered it, that "wretched men" rode upon Israel's head. Or is it to be interpreted: He caused them to pass over Israel (cf. Psalm 129:3; Isaiah 51:23)? It can scarcely mean this, since it would then be in dorso nostro, which the Latin versions capriciously substitute. The preposition ל instead of על is used with reference to the phrase ישׁב ל: sitting upon Israel's head, God caused them to ride along, so that Israel was not able to raise its head freely, but was most ignominiously wounded in its self-esteem. Fire and water are, as in Isaiah 43:2, a figure of vicissitudes and perils of the most extreme character. Israel was nigh to being burnt up and drowned, but God led it forth לרויה, to an abundant fulness, to abundance and superabundance of prosperity. The lxx, which renders εἰς ἀναψυχήν (Jerome absolutely: in refrigerium), has read לרוחה; Symmachus, εἰς εὐρυχωρίαν, probably reading לרחבה (Psalm 119:45; Psalm 18:20). Both give a stronger antithesis. But the state of straitness or oppression was indeed also a state of privation.
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