Numbers 30:5
But if her father disallow her in the day that he hears; not any of her vows, or of her bonds with which she has bound her soul, shall stand: and the LORD shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) The Lord shall forgive her—i.e., she would not incur the guilt or punishment which would otherwise have been incurred by neglecting to fulfil the vow which she had made.

Numbers 30:5. In the day that he heareth — Speedily, or without delay, allowing only convenient time for deliberation. And it is hereby intimated, that the day or time he had for disallowing her vow was not to be reckoned from her vowing, but from his knowledge of her vow. The Lord shall forgive — Or, will forgive her not performing it. But this should be understood only of vows which could not be performed without invading the father’s right; for if one should vow to forbear such or such a sin, and all occasions or means leading to it, and to perform such or such duties, when he had opportunity, no father can discharge him from such vows. If this law does not extend to children’s marrying without the parent’s consent, so far as to put it in the power of the parent to disannul the marriage, (which some think it does,) yet certainly it proves the sinfulness of such marriages, and obliges those children to repent and humble themselves before God and their parents.30:3-16 Two cases of vows are determined. The case of a daughter in her father's house. When her vow comes to his knowledge, it is in his power either to confirm it or do it away. The law is plain in the case of a wife. If her husband allows her vow, though only by silence, it stands. If he disallows it, her obligation to her husband takes place of it; for to him she ought to be in subjection, as unto the Lord. The Divine law consults the good order of families. It is fit that every man should bear rule in his own house, and have his wife and children in subjection; rather than that this great rule should be broken, or any encouragement be given to inferior relations to break those bonds asunder, God releases the obligation even of a solemn vow. So much does religion secure the welfare of all societies; and in it the families of the earth have a blessing.The Lord shall forgive her - i. e., shall remit the obligation. (Compare 2 Kings 5:18.) 3. If a woman also vow a vow unto the Lord, and bind herself by a bond, being in her father's house in her youth—Girls only are specified; but minors of the other sex, who resided under the parental roof, were included, according to Jewish writers, who also consider the name "father" as comprehending all guardians of youth. We are also told that the age at which young people were deemed capable of vowing was thirteen for boys and twelve for girls. The judgment of a father or guardian on the vow of any under his charge might be given either by an expressed approval or by silence, which was to be construed as approval. But in the case of a husband who, after silence from day to day, should ultimately disapprove or hinder his wife's vow, the sin of non-performance was to be imputed to him and not to her [Nu 30:15]. In the day that he heareth, i.e. speedily, or without delay, allowing’ only necessary and convenient time for deliberation. And it is hereby intimated, that the day or time he had for disallowing her vow was not to be reckoned from her vowing, but from his hearing or knowledge of her vow.

Shall forgive her; or, will forgive either her rashness of making such vows, or rather her not performing of it. But this is to be understood only of such vows which could not be performed without invading the father’s or superior’s right; for if one should vow to forbear such or such a sin, and all unnecessary occasions or means leading to it, and to perform such or such duties, when he had opportunity, no father nor superior can discharge him from such vows. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth,.... Disapproves of her vow, and expresses his dislike of it, and declares it null and void; which, if done at all, is to be done on the same day he hears it, and not on another day, as Aben Ezra observes; not the day following, and much less on a third or fourth day, &c. and it might be done on a sabbath day (u):

not any of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she bound her soul,

shall stand; but become null and void, she being at the control of her father, and having nothing in her own power, and at her own disposal, to vow or consecrate, but wholly in the power and at the disposal of her father:

and the Lord shall forgive her; the breach of her vow, it shall not be imputed to her as a sin:

because her father disallowed her; so that it was no fault of hers that it was not fulfilled; though she might be blameworthy to make one, without previously obtaining his consent, and making it rashly without his previous knowledge, she not being at her own hands; and in this respect may be said to be forgiven by the Lord, which supposes some fault committed.

(u) Misn. Sabbat, c. 24. sect. 5.

But if her {c} father disallow her in the day that he heareth; not any of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the LORD shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her.

(c) By not approving or consenting to her vow.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
5. disallow her] lit. ‘oppose her,’ express disapproval.Verse 5. - If her father disallow her. It appears from the previous verse that the disallowance must be spoken, and not mental only. If the vow had been made before witnesses, no doubt the father's veto must be pronounced before witnesses also. The sacrifices already mentioned were to be presented to the Lord on the part of the congregation, in addition to the burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, drink-offerings, and peace-offerings which individuals or families might desire to offer either spontaneously or in consequence of vows. On the vowing of burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, see Numbers 15:3, Numbers 15:8; Leviticus 22:18, Leviticus 22:21.
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