Numbers 30:6
And if she had at all an husband, when she vowed, or uttered ought out of her lips, with which she bound her soul;
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(6) And if she had at all an husband . . . . —Better, And if she should be married to a husband whilst her vows are upon her, or the rash utterance of her lips wherewith she hath bound her soul. The case here contemplated appears to be that of a woman who married whilst under a vow. On the other hand the case of a woman who takes a vow after marriage is treated of further on in Numbers 30:10-13. The cognate verb of the word mibta, rash utterance, occurs in Leviticus 5:4, and seems to denote something which is uttered without reflection.

30:3-16 Two cases of vows are determined. The case of a daughter in her father's house. When her vow comes to his knowledge, it is in his power either to confirm it or do it away. The law is plain in the case of a wife. If her husband allows her vow, though only by silence, it stands. If he disallows it, her obligation to her husband takes place of it; for to him she ought to be in subjection, as unto the Lord. The Divine law consults the good order of families. It is fit that every man should bear rule in his own house, and have his wife and children in subjection; rather than that this great rule should be broken, or any encouragement be given to inferior relations to break those bonds asunder, God releases the obligation even of a solemn vow. So much does religion secure the welfare of all societies; and in it the families of the earth have a blessing.Rather, And if she shall at all be an husband's, and her vows shall be upon her, or a rash utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul, etc. The "at all" intimates that the case of a girl betrothed but not yet actually married is here especially contemplated. After betrothal, a woman continued to reside, until the period of her marriage arrived, in her father's house; but her property was from that time forward vested in her husband, and she was so far regarded as personally his, that an act of faithlessness to him was, like adultery, punishable with death Deuteronomy 22:23-24. Hence, his right to control her vows even before he actually took her home as his wife. 3. If a woman also vow a vow unto the Lord, and bind herself by a bond, being in her father's house in her youth—Girls only are specified; but minors of the other sex, who resided under the parental roof, were included, according to Jewish writers, who also consider the name "father" as comprehending all guardians of youth. We are also told that the age at which young people were deemed capable of vowing was thirteen for boys and twelve for girls. The judgment of a father or guardian on the vow of any under his charge might be given either by an expressed approval or by silence, which was to be construed as approval. But in the case of a husband who, after silence from day to day, should ultimately disapprove or hinder his wife's vow, the sin of non-performance was to be imputed to him and not to her [Nu 30:15]. An husband, to whose will and authority she was thereby made subject.

When she vowed, to wit, when she was in her father’s house, as is evident by comparing Numbers 30:10; and this clause seems to be added by way of exception to that which was said Numbers 30:3,4, to signify, that though she were in her father’s house, yet if she were married, her husband only, and not her father, could disoblige her from her vow.

Or uttered ought; either,

1. By way of vow, and so this clause explains and determines the former, i.e. if she express her vow in words. Or,

2. By way of oath, concerning which this same phrase is used Leviticus 5:4, and so this clause is distinct from the former, which the disjunctive particle or implies. And if she had at all an husband with whom she vowed,.... Or "when her vows were upon her" (w), was either betrothed or married to a man:

or uttered ought out of her lips, wherewith she bound her soul; uttered anything, either with or without premeditation, either with thought and deliberation, or rashly and imprudently, as the word signifies, yet in such a manner that it was binding upon her.


And if she had at all an husband, when she vowed, or {d} uttered ought out of her lips, wherewith she bound her soul;

(d) Either by oath, or solemn promise.

6. while her vows are upon her] If at the time of her marriage she was still bound by some vow or pledge of abstinence, which she had previously taken with her father’s approval.Verse 6. - If she had at all a husband. Literally, "if being she be to an husband." Septuagint, ἐὰν γενομένη γένηται ἀνδρί. Case second, of a married or betrothed woman. As far as the legal status of the woman was concerned, there was little difference under Jewish law whether she were married or only betrothed. In either case she was accounted as belonging to her husband, with all that she had (cf. Deuteronomy 22:23, 24; Matthew 1:19, 20). When she vowed. Rather, "and her vows be upon her." Septuagint, καὶ αἱ εὐχαὶ αὐτῆς ἐπ αὐτῇ. The vows might have been made before her betrothal, and not disallowed by her father; yet upon her coming under the power of her husband he had an absolute right to dissolve the obligation of them; otherwise it is evident that he might suffer loss through an act of which he had no notice. Or uttered ought out of her lips. Rather, "or the rash utterance of her lips." The word מִבְטָא, which is not found elsewhere (cf. Psalm 106:33), seems to have this meaning. Such a vow made by a young girl as would be disallowed by her husband when he knew of it would presumably be a "rash utterance." Numbers 29:40 forms the conclusion of the list of sacrifices in ch. 28 and 29.
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