Matthew 10:3
Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
10:1-4 The word apostle signifies messenger; they were Christ's messengers, sent forth to proclaim his kingdom. Christ gave them power to heal all manner of sickness. In the grace of the gospel there is a slave for every sore, a remedy for every malady. There is no spiritual disease, but there is power in Christ for the cure of it. There names are recorded, and it is their honour; yet they had more reason to rejoice that their names were written in heaven, while the high and mighty names of the great ones of the earth are buried in the dust.Philip and Bartholomew - These two were probably sent out together. Philip was a native of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. He is not the same as Philip the evangelist, mentioned in Acts 6:5; Acts 21:8. Bartholomew (literally, "the son of Tolmai").

Thomas - Literally, "a twin," in reference to which he is also called "Didymus," John 11:16. For his character, see the notes at John 20:25. "And Matthew the publican." See the notes at Matthew 9:9. "James the son of Alpheus." See the note above.

And Lebbeus, called Thaddeus - These two words have the same signification in Hebrew. Luke calls him "Judas," by a slight change from the name "Thaddeus." Such changes are common in all writings.

3. Philip and Bartholomew—That this person is the same with "Nathanael of Cana in Galilee" is justly concluded for the three following reasons: First, because Bartholomew is not so properly an individual's name as a family surname; next, because not only in this list, but in Mark's and Luke's (Mr 3:18; Lu 6:14), he follows the name of "Philip," who was the instrument of bringing Nathanael first to Jesus (Joh 1:45); and again, when our Lord, after His resurrection, appeared at the Sea of Tiberias, "Nathanael of Cana in Galilee" is mentioned along with six others, all of them apostles, as being present (Joh 21:2).

Matthew the publican—In none of the four lists of the Twelve is this apostle so branded but in his own, as if he would have all to know how deep a debtor he had been to his Lord. (See on [1253]Mt 1:3, 5, 6; [1254]9:9).

James the son of Alphaeus—the same person apparently who is called Cleopas or Clopas (Lu 24:18; Joh 19:25); and, as he was the husband of Mary, sister to the Virgin, James the Less must have been our Lord's cousin.

and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus—the same, without doubt, as "Judas the brother of James," mentioned in both the lists of Luke (Lu 6:16; Ac 1:13), while no one of the name of Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus is so. It is he who in John (Joh 14:22) is sweetly called "Judas, not Iscariot." That he was the author of the Catholic Epistle of "Jude," and not "the Lord's brother" (Mt 13:55), unless these be the same, is most likely.

See Poole on "Matthew 10:4".

Philip and Bartholomew,.... The first of these was called next; his name is a Greek one, which his parents, though Jews, might take from the Greeks that dwelt among them, see John 12:20 mention is made of one R. Phelipi, and Phulipa, in the Jewish writings (q). The latter of these, Bartholomew, is conjectured, by Dr. Lightfoot, to be the same with Nathanael, he being called next in order after Philip; and that his name was Nathanael, , "Bar Talmai", or "the son of Talmai", or "Ptolomy": a name once common to the kings of Egypt: so Talmai, king of Geshur, is by the Septuagint, in 2 Samuel 3:3 2 Samuel 13:37 called Tholmi, and in 1 Chronicles 3:2 Tholmai: hence it appears, that Bartholomew is no other than Bartholmi, or the son of Tholmi. We read of one R. Jonathan, , "ben Abtolemus", in the Talmud (r), whether the same name with this, may be considered.

Thomas, and Matthew the publican: by the other evangelists Matthew is mentioned first; but he being the writer of this Gospel, puts Thomas first, which is an instance of his modesty; and also calls himself the "publican", which the other do not: this he mentions, to magnify the grace of God in his vocation. The Jews (s) speak of "Matthai", or "Matthew", as a disciple of Jesus. Thomas was sometimes called Didymus; the one was his Hebrew, the other his Greek name, and both signify a "twin", as it is very likely he was: mention is made of R. Thoma, or Thomas bar Papias, in a Jewish writer (t). Next follow,

James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus: the former of these is so called, to distinguish him from James, the son of Zebedee. This is the James, who was the brother of our Lord, Galatians 1:19 and is called "James the less", Mark 15:40. Alphaeus his father, is the same with Cleopas, Luke 24:18 or Cleophas, John 19:25. The Hebrew name, which often occurs among the Jews (u), may be pronounced either Chlophi, or Alphi, or with the Greek termination Cleopas, or Alphaeus. The latter of this pair of apostles is the same person with Jude, the writer of the epistle, which bears that name, and was the brother of James, with whom he is coupled: he was called Lebbaeus, either from the town of Lebba, a sea coast town of Galilee, as Dr. Lightfoot thinks; or from the Hebrew word "my heart", as others, either for his prudence, or through the affections of his parents to him; as the Latins call one they love, "meum corculum", "my little heart"; or from "a lion", that being the motto of the tribe of Judah. His surname Thaddaeus, is thought by some to be a deflexion of Jude; or Judas, and as coming from the same root, which signifies "to praise", or "give thanks"; or from the Syriac word, "a breast", and may be so called for the same reason as he was Lebbaeus. Frequent mention is made of this name, "Thaddai", or "Thaddaeus", among the Talmudic (w) doctors. The Jews themselves speak (x) of one "Thodah", as a disciple of Jesus, by whom no doubt they mean this same disciple. Eusebius (y) mentions one Thaddaeus, as one of the seventy disciples, who was sent to Agbarus, king of Edessa, who was healed and converted by him. This Agbarus is reported to have wrote a letter to Jesus Christ, desiring him to come and cure him of his disease; to which Christ is said to return an answer, promising to send one of his disciples, who should do it; and that accordingly, after Christ's death, Thomas sent this Thaddaeus to him.

(q) Massechet Sopherim, c. 21. sect. 7. Bereshit Rabba, sect. 71. fol. 63. 4. (r) T. Bab. Nidda, fol. 19. 1.((s) T. Bab. Sanhedrim, fol. 43. 1.((t) Juchasin, fol. 105. 2.((u) Echa Rabbati, fol. 58. 4. Midrash Kohelet, fol. 60. 4. Juchasin, fol. 92. 1.((w) T. Hieros. Celaim, fol. 27. 2. Sabbat, fol. 6. 1. Erubim, fol. 23. 3. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 123. 1. & Erubim, fol. 71. 2. Juchasin, fol. 81. 1. & 105. 2. & 108. 1.((x) T. Bab. Sanhedrim, fol. 43. l. (y) Eccl. Hist. l. 1. c. 12, 13.

Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Matthew 10:3. Βαρθολομαῖος] בַּר תָּלְמַי, son of Tolmai, LXX. 2 Samuel 13:37, patronymic. His proper name was Nathanael; see note on John 1:46, and Keim, II. p. 311.

Θωμᾶς] תְּאֹם, Δίδυμος, twin (John 11:16; John 20:24; John 21:2), perhaps so called from the nature of his birth. In Eusebius and the Acts of Thomas he is called (see Thilo, p. 94 ff.) Ἰούδας Θωμᾶς ὁ καὶ Δίδυμος.

ὁ τελώνης] In reference to Matthew 9:9 without any special object.

ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου] Matthew’s father was likewise called Alphaeus (Mark 2:14), but this is a different person; see Introduction, sec. 1.

Λεββαῖος] who must be identical with Judas Jacobi,[441] Luke 6:16 (comp. John 14:22), Acts 1:13; who, however, is not the author of the New Testament epistle bearing that name. Lebbaeus (the courageous one, from לֵב), according to our passsage, had become his regular apostolic name. According to Mark 3:18, he had the apostolic name of ΘΑΔΔΑῖΟς (which must not be taken as the correct reading of the present passage; see the critical notes), and it is in vain to inquire how this twofold appellation has arisen. The name Thaddaeus, however, is not “deflexio nominis Judae, ut rectius hic distingueretur ab Iscariota” (Lightfoot, Wetstein), but the independent name חדאי, which is also currently used in the Talmud (Lightfoot, Schoettgen, Wetstein). There is the less reason to seek for an etymology of ΘΑΔΔ. such as will make the name almost synonymous with ΛΕΒΒ., as if from תַּר (which, however, signifies mamma), or even from שַׁרַּי, one of the names of God, and meaning potens (Ebrard). For the apocryphal but ancient Acts of Lebbaeus, see Tischendorf, Acta ap. apocr. p. 261 ff. According to these, he received the name Θαδδαῖος when John the Baptist baptized him, and was previously known by the name of Lebbaeus. This is in accordance with the reading of the Received text in the case of the present passage, and with the designation in the Constit. apost., Λεββαῖος ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θαδδαῖος, 6. 14. 1, 8. 25,—a circumstance which, at the same time, goes to show that the name of the apostle as given in Mark is to be preferred to that found in Matthew

[441] On the relation of the genitive in Judas Jacobi (not brother, but son), see note on Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13. Comp. Nonnus, John 14:22 : Ἰούδας υἱὸς Ἰακώβοιο. The view that this Judas is a different person from Lebbaeus, and that he had succeeded to the place rendered vacant, probably by the death of Lebbaeus (Schleiermacher, Ewald), cannot possibly be entertained, for this reason, that in that case the statement in Luke 6:13 (ἐκλεξάμενος, etc.) would be simply incorrect, which is not to be supposed in connection with a matter so important and generally known (Rufinus, in Praef. ad Origen in ep. ad Rom.). According to Strauss, only the most prominent of the Twelve were known, while the others had places assigned them in conformity with the various traditions that prevailed.

Matthew 10:3. Βαρθολομαῖος, the 6th, one of the doubtful names, commonly identified with Nathanael (John 1:46).—Ματθαῖος ὁ τελώνης, one of four in the list with epithets: Peter the first, Simon the zealot, Judas the traitor, Matthew the publican; surely not without reason, except as echoing Matthew 9:9 (Meyer). Matthew stands second in his pair here, before Thomas in Mark and Luke. Position and epithet agree, indicative, Euthy. suggests, of modesty and self-abasement.

3. Philip, also a Greek name prevalent at the time, partly through the influence of the Macedonian monarchy, whose real founder was Philip, father of Alexander the Great.

Lebbæus, Thaddæus, Jude the [son] of James, are all names of one and the same person. He was the son in all probability of a James or Jacob, not, as usually translated, brother of James. The name “Lebbæus” = “courageous” from a Hebrew word signifying “heart.”

This Jude or Judas must not be confused with Jude or Judas the “brother” of our Lord; nor must James the son of Alphæus be confused with James the brother of our Lord. The “brethren of the Lord” believed not on Him, and could not have been among His apostles. James and Judas were both common names, and the variety of names seems to have been small at this epoch. According to this theory there are four persons named James—(1) the son of Zebedee, (2) the son of Alphæus, (3) the father of Jude, (4) “The less” or rather “the little,” the brother of the Lord: and three named Judas—(1) the brother of the Lord, (2) the apostle, son of James, (3) Iscariot.

Matthew or Levi also was son of an Alphæus, but there is no evidence or hint that he was connected with James son of Alphæus.

Bartholomew = son of Tolmai, probably to be identified with Nathanael. (1) St John, who twice mentions the name of Nathanael, never mentions that of Bartholomew; (2) the three Synoptists mention Bartholomew but not Nathanael. (3) Philip is closely connected with Nathanael and also with Bartholomew. (4) Lastly, Nathanael is mentioned with six other disciples as if like them he belonged to the Twelve.

Matthew 10:3. Ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου, the son of Zebedee) To distinguish him from James the son of Alphaeus.—ὁ τελώνης, the publican) A humble confession of the Evangelist concerning himself. He does not call Peter, Andrew, etc., the fishermen: but he does call himself the publican.

Λεββαῖος, Lebbaeus) According to Hiller, Thaddaeus, derived from the Chaldee תד, bosom, and Lebbaeus, from the Hebrew לב, heart, are synonymous terms, and denote a man of much heart:[448] see Onomata Sacra, p. 123. So Thomas means the same thing as Didymus. Those copies[449] which have in this passage only Λεββαῖος, are supported by the list of the apostles which Cotelerius[450] has published with the apostolical constitutions, and by Hesychius in the article ἼΑΡΑ.[451] As this reading is shorter and middle,[452] it appears to be the right one. Some persons having appended the disputed clause from the parallel passage of Mark as a gloss, others introduced it into the text from the same source. Their reading considers Thaddaeus as a surname, and Lebbaeus as the name of this apostle: His name, however, in reality was Judas the brother of James: but he was called Lebbaeus by name, as it were to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot.[453]

[448] “Hominem pectorosum,” lit. in classical Latin, a man of broad, large, or high breast.—(I. B.)

[449] The reading of E. M. is “καὶ Λεββαῖος ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θαδδαῖος.”—(I. B.)

[450] COTELERIUS, alias JEAN BAPTISTE COTELIER, born at Nismes in 1627, was one of the most eminent critics of modern times. As a mere child, he was considered a prodigy of learning; and he sustained this reputation at the Sorbonne, where he took the degree of Batchelor. In 1667 the great Minister Colbert selected him, together with the celebrated Du Cange, to examine and catalogue the Greek MSS. of the Royal Library. The able manner in which he performed this task procured him, in 1676, the Professorship of Greek in the Royal College at Paris. His labours were many and valuable. He died in 1686.—(I. B.)

[451] The passage referred to does not really occur under Ἴαρα, but under Ἰάκωβος, which is by mistake placed out of its alphabetical order. The article on Ἴαρα consists of a single line, viz. Ἴαρα αἷμα ἤ μοῖρα.

[452] “Media.” See Author’s Preface, viii. 14, and footnote in voc.—(I. B.)

[453] Lachm. with Bc Vulg. reads Καὶ Θαδδαῖος. Tischend. with D and MSS. in August, reads Καὶ Λεββαῖος. ab have Judas. Mill attributes the reading Λεββαῖος here to some one wishing to call attention to the fact, that Mark and Luke call Matthew Λευΐ, Levi. It seems hard to account for the introduction of such a reading, if not genuine: and yet the weight of authorities are for Καὶ Θαδδαῖος here, which otherwise might well be a transcriber’s or harmonist’s correction from Mark 3:18; Δεββαῖος, as the less open to suspicion of transcribers’ corrections, being accounted as the genuine reading. Jerome calls him τριώνυμος, triple-named; so that in his day Lebbeus must have been a recognised name either here or in Mark, as well as Thaddeus and Judas.—ED.

Then follow immediately the words referred to by Bengel: Ἰάκωβος Ἀλφαίον. ὁ καὶ Θκδδαῖος καὶ Λευὶ, παρὰ τῷ Μαρκῳ, παρὰ δὲ τῷ Ματθαιῷ Δεββαιος, παρὰ δὲ Δουκᾷ, Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου.

In the note on Hesychius (Ed. Lugd. Bat. 1776), vol. xi. col. 10, are these words—

Nullus dubito quin diversos hic confuderit Glossæ hujus insititiæ auctor, ex male intellecto Veteris cujusdam Scriptoris apostolicorum nominum laterculo, qualem ex MS. codice Bibliothecæ Regiæ protulit Cotelerius ad lib. ii. Constitut. Apostol. c. 63, p. 264, ed. Cleric.—(I. B.)

So the margin of Bengel’s larger Ed., though in the text there stood Θαδκῖος. The first Ed. of the Gnomon gives the palm to the shorter reading, Λεββκῖος. So marg. of Ed. 2 and Vers. Germ., leaving it however to the decision of the reader, whether the words ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θχδδκῖος are to be accepted or rejected. Michaelis, in his Einleitung, T. ii., p. m. 1687, etc., shows, by many proofs, that Judas the brother of James is the same as Thaddeus and Lebbeus, and was called among the Syrians Adai or Adæus.—E. B.

Verse 3. - Bartholomew. Nathanael (John 1:45, equivalent to Theodore) was so common a name (cf. Numbers 1:8; 1 Chronicles 2:14; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 26:4; 2 Chronicles 17:7; 2 Chronicles 35:9; Ezra 10:22; Nehemiah 12:21, 36), that for further identification a patronymic ("son of Tolmai," Ptolemy) was used, which in this case (as in the case of a Bartholomew mentioned in 'Pesikta Rabbathi,' § 22, p. 113, edit. Friedmann; cf. also Levy, s.v. תלמיון), superseded the proper name. Thomas. "As Thomas (Δίδυμος), ' the Twin,' is properly a surname, and this apostle must have had some other name, there seems no reason for doubting this very early tradition [Eusebius, 'Hist. Eccl.,' 1:13, and probably the Old Syriac of John 14:22, et al.] that he also was a Jude" (Bishop Lightfoot, 'Galatians,' p. 257, edit. 1869). The ' Clem. Hem.,' 2:1, give Eliezer as the name of the other brother. Matthew the publican (Introduction, p. 20.), James the son of Alphseus. (On the possibility of the name and the person being identical with the Clopas of John 19:25, cf. Bishop Lightfoot, 'Galatians,' p. 260.) And Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; and Thaddaeus (Revised Version); as also Mark, while Luke and Acts 1:13 read "Jude [the brother, Authorized Version, but better the son, Revised Version] of James," which was doubtless his proper name. If the word "Thaddaeus" (תּדּאי) was as seems likely (for Edersheim's connexion of it with todah, "praise," is based on what is apparently a mere play of words in Talm. Bob., 'Sanh.,' 43a), originally a pet-name (Sehosskind, "Bosom-child," Weiss, Nosgen) from תַּדֵּי, "the female breasts," it is intelligible that he or others would prefer the somewhat synonymous "Lebbseus" (לֵב, "heart"), which might mean "child of one's heart," but more probably "courageous," found in the "Western" text. The similarity of sound would help towards this, even if another derivation that seems possible, "the Fiery" (from לִבָּה, "kindle"), be the true one. In the latter case the appellation, "Jude the Zealot" (Old Latin), may rest on something more than a mistaken interpretation of the parallel passage in Luke. In Westcott and Herr, 'App.,' it is said that "this name [Lebbaeus] is apparently due to an early attempt to bring Levi (Δευείς) the publican (Luke 5:27) within the Twelve, it being assumed that his call was to apostleship just as in Mark 2:14 Δευείς is changed in Western texts to Ἰάκωβος, because τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου follows, and it was assumed that the son of Halphseus elsewhere named as one of the Twelve must be meant. The difference between the two forms of the name would be inconsiderable in Aramaic, Lewi and Levi or Lebi or Lebbi; and Βεββαῖος might as easily represent Lebbi as Θαδδαῖος Τηαδδι. Matthew 10:3
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