Luke 19:11
And as they heard these things, he added and spoke a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(11) He added and spake a parable.—As in Luke 18:1; Luke 18:9, so here, it is characteristic of St. Luke that he states, more fully than is common in the other Gospels, the occasion and the purpose of the parable which follows. The verse throws light upon all the history that follows. In all previous visits to Jerusalem our Lord had gone up either alone or accompanied only by His chosen disciples. Now He was followed by a crowd,, gathering strength as they journeyed on, and roused, by their very nearness to the Holy City, to an almost uncontrollable excitement. The time for delay, they thought, had come to an end. He was about to claim the throne of His father David. The Kingdom of God would “immediately appear.” The parable shows us, and was, in part, meant to teach them, how the Master regarded the dreams of the disciples.

Should immediately appear.—Better, perhaps, should be shown forth, or manifested. The Greek word is not used by any other New Testament writer. It is clear, from the tenor of the parable, that disciples and multitude were alike dwelling on the greatness to which they were to attain, on the high places in store for them on the right hand and on the left, rather than on their work and their duties in relation to that Kingdom of God.

Luke 19:11. And as they heard these things — Namely, that salvation was come to Zaccheus’s family; he added, and spake a parable — From this we gather, that he spake the parable in Zaccheus’s house; because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and they thought, &c. — Because his followers were accompanying him to the royal city, in expectation that the kingdom of God would immediately appear, and with a resolution to assist him in erecting it, he spake this parable, wherein he showed them their duty, described the true nature of the kingdom of God, and taught them that it was not immediately to appear. “The parable,” says Dr. Doddridge, “considered in this view, as suited to the circumstance of time, and to the case of those to whom it was delivered, will appear a most wise and seasonable admonition; and by neglecting the instruction it was designed to give them, the Jews deservedly brought ruin on themselves.”19:11-27 This parable is like that of the talents, Mt 25. Those that are called to Christ, he furnishes with gifts needful for their business; and from those to whom he gives power, he expects service. The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal, 1Co 12:7. And as every one has received the gift, so let him minister the same, 1Pe 4:10. The account required, resembles that in the parable of the talents; and the punishment of the avowed enemies of Christ, as well as of false professors, is shown. The principal difference is, that the pound given to each seems to point out the gift of the gospel, which is the same to all who hear it; but the talents, distributed more or less, seem to mean that God gives different capacities and advantages to men, by which this one gift of the gospel may be differently improved.He spake a parable - This parable has in some respects a resemblance to the parable of the "talents" in Matthew 25:14-28, but it is not the same. They differ in the following respects: That was spoken "after" he had entered Jerusalem; this, while on his way there. That was delivered on the Mount of Olives; this, in the house of Zacchaeus. That was delivered to teach them the necessity of "improving" the talents committed to them; this was for a different design. He was now near Jerusalem. A great multitude attended him. His disciples regarded him as the Messiah, and by this they understood a temporal prince who should deliver them from the dominion of the Romans and set them at liberty. They were anxious for that, and supposed that the time was at hand, and that "now," as soon as he entered Jerusalem, he would assume the appearance of such a prince and set up his kingdom. To "correct that notion" seems to have been the main design of this parable. To do that, he tells them of a man who had a right to the kingdom, yet who, "before" taking possession of it, went into another kingdom to receive a confirmation of his title, thus intimating that "he" would also go away "before" he would completely set up his kingdom Luke 19:12; he tells them that this nobleman left to his servants "property" to be improved in his absence, as "he" would leave to his disciples "talents" to be used in his service Luke 19:12-13; he tells them that this nobleman was rejected by his own citizens Luke 19:14, as "he" would be by the Jews; and that he received the kingdom and called them to an account, as he also would his own disciples.

Because he was nigh to Jerusalem - The capital of the country, and where they supposed he would probably set up his kingdom.

The kingdom of God should immediately appear - That the reign of the Messiah would immediately commence. He spoke the parable to "correct" that expectation.

Lu 19:11-27. Parable of the Pounds.

A different parable from that of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30). For, (1) This parable was spoken "when He was nigh to Jerusalem" (Lu 19:11); that one, some days after entering it, and from the Mount of Olives. (2) This parable was spoken to the promiscuous crowd; that, to the Twelve alone. Accordingly, (3) Besides the "servants" in this parable, who profess subjection to Him, there is a class of "citizens" who refuse to own Him, and who are treated differently, whereas in the parable of the talents, spoken to the former class alone, this latter class is omitted. (4) In the Talents, each servant receives a different number of them (five, two, one); in the Pounds all receive the same one pound, which is but about the sixtieth part of a talent; also, in the talents, each shows the same fidelity by doubling what he received (the five are made ten; the two, four); in the Pounds, each receiving the same, render a different return (one making his pound ten, another five). Plainly, therefore, the intended lesson is different; the one illustrating equal fidelity with different degrees of advantage; the other, different degrees of improvement of the same opportunities; yet with all this difference, the parables are remarkably similar.

We noted before, that Jericho was but a hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, (which were not twenty miles), and probably this discourse was upon the way when he was come nearer to it. But the principal occasion of the following parable was, his discerning of the opinion which possessed some of the company which went along with him, that the time was now at hand when the kingdom of God should appear; when Christ would put forth some eminent act of his power, in delivering them from the servitude they were in to the Romans, or in destroying the unbelieving Jews and Pharisees; or when his gospel should take a further place, and prevail in the world beyond what it yet had done. He therefore putteth forth a parable to them, wherein by a familiar similitude he lets them understand, that he was going away from them, but would come again, and then receive the kingdom: that in the mean time he would employ them, as his servants, with his goods, and when he came would take an account what use and improvement they had made of them, and then he would both reward his friends and be revenged on his enemies. The parable followeth. And as they heard these things,.... What Zacchaeus said to Christ, and what Christ said to Zacchaeus; particularly, that salvation, or the Saviour was then come to his house, and that he was come to save lost persons:

he added, and spake a parable; that is, as the Syriac version renders it, "he added a parable to the word", or to what he had said:

because he was nigh to Jerusalem: within ten "parsas", or large miles; for at such a distance was Jerusalem from Jericho (f), where Christ now was, according to the Jewish writers; but according to Josephus (g), it was a hundred and fifty furlongs, which must be eighteen or twenty miles, and this may be said to be nigh; and not long after this, we hear of Christ at the Mount of Olives, which was about a mile from Jerusalem, Luke 19:29.

And because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear: or be revealed, or made manifest: the phrase is Jewish; so Sol 2:12 "the time of the singing of birds is come", is interpreted (h), the time that the "kingdom of heaven", "shall be revealed", is come, and elsewhere (i),

"say to the cities of the house of Judah, , "the kingdom of your God is revealed;"''

meaning in both places, as here, the kingdom of the Messiah: what induced the disciples of Christ, or the multitude, or both, to imagine that the temporal kingdom of the Messiah, which they were expecting, would quickly be set up, might be what he had said to Zacchaeus, that salvation was that day come to his house, he being a son of Abraham; which they understanding of a temporal salvation, took it as a hint, that the outward prosperity of the seed of Abraham was at hand; as also what he had said, concerning his coming to seek and save that which is lost; which they were willing to interpret, of the civil state of Judea, and that he was come to restore its lost liberties and privileges; and partly, because he was now not a great way from Jerusalem, and was on his journey thither, in order to make his entrance in a very public manner; which was the metropolis of their nation, and the ancient seat of their kings, David, Solomon, and others: now the scope and design of the following parable, is to refute the notion of a temporal kingdom, and its near approach; by showing, that his kingdom lay a great way off, and was not of this world; and that his servants and disciples had a great deal of business to transact for him, and must not think of pomp and grandeur, but of labour and service; and that the Jews were so far from receiving any advantages by his kingdom, that they would not submit to his government, and would be treated as enemies, and utterly destroyed; even their nation, city, and temple.

(f) Bartenora in Misn. Tamid, c. 3, sect. 8. (g) De Bello Jud. l. 4. c. 27. (h) Shirhashirim Rabba, fol. 11. 4. (i) Targum in Isaiah 40.9.

{4} And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.

(4) We must patiently wait for the judgment of God which will be revealed in his time.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Luke 19:11. As to the relation of the following parable to Matthew 25:14-30,[231] see on Matthew; the form in Luke is not the original one; see also Weiss in the Jahrb. f. D. Th. 1864, p. 128 ff.

ἀκουόντων δὲ αὐτῶν ταῦτα] But because they heard this (Luke 19:8 ff.), whereby their Messianic anticipations could only be strengthened; see what follows. Not the disciples (Grotius and others), but only those murmurers, Luke 19:7, could be the subject—the single plural-subject which preceded. The scene is this—the people in attendance have accompanied Jesus as far as the entrance into the house (as far as into the forecourt), when they also observe how Zacchaeus joyously welcomes Jesus, and they murmur; whereon Zacchaeus speaks the words, Luke 19:8, and Jesus the rejoinder, Luke 19:9-10.

Both utterances therefore are spoken while they are still at the entrance, so that the murmuring crowd also listens to what is said. The connection is neither disclosed first of all from the contents of the parable (Weizsäcker), nor is it obscure (de Wette, Holtzmann), but it is darkened by the interpreters (see also Sehleiermacher).

προσθείς] adding to, still continuing—a Hebraism, as at Genesis 38:5, Job 29:1, and elsewhere; Winer, p. 416 [E. T. 588]. In pure Greek the expression would run προσθεὶς παραβ. εἶπεν.

εἶπε παραβ.] Comp. Luke 18:9.

ἘΓΓΎς] 150 stadia, Joseph. Bell. iv. 8. 3.

ὅτι παραχρῆμα κ.τ.λ.] ὙΠΈΛΑΒΟΝ, ὍΤΙ ΔΙᾺ ΤΟῦΤΟ ἌΝΕΙΣΙ ΝῦΝ ΕἸς ἹΕΡΟΥΣ., ἽΝΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΎΣῌ ἘΝ ΑὐΤῇ, Euthymius Zigabenus.

ἈΝΑΦΑΊΝΕΣΘΑΙ] to come to light.

The people think of the glorious setting up of the kingdom believed in by them. This verse, moreover, does not exclude from the connection of Luke the history of the entrance, Luke 19:29 ff., which Marcion rejected. Comp. Hilgenfeld, Krit. Unters. p. 466.

[231] In affinity with the contents of this parable is the word which Christ, according to Clem. Homil. ii. 51, iii. 50, xviii. 20, and Apelles in Epiphan. Haer. 44. 2, is said to have spoken: γίνεσθε δόκιμοι τραπεζῖται. The wide publication of this saying in Christian antiquity (Clem. Alex., Origen, etc.) makes it probable (in opposition to Lechler, Apost. Zeit. p. 458) that it actually was a word of Christ’s.Luke 19:11-27. Parable of the pounds, or of the nobleman who goes to find a kingdom (cf. Matthew 25:14-30). Into the vexed question of the connection between this parable and that of the talents in Mt. I cannot here go. That there is a resemblance between them is obvious, and the hypothesis that the one has grown out of the other in the course of tradition cannot be treated as a mere impertinence. Yet that they are two distinct parables in their main features, both spoken by Jesus, is not improbable. They serve different purposes, and their respective details suit their respective purposes, and the kindred features may only show that Jesus did not solicitously avoid repeating Himself. The parable before us suits the situation as described by Luke, in so far as it corrects mistaken expectations with regard to the advent of the Kingdom. It is a prophetic sketch in parabolic form of the real future before them, the fortunes of the King and the various attitudes of men towards him. It is more allied to allegory than most of the parables, and on this ground, according to J. Weiss (in Meyer), it cannot have proceeded from Jesus. One fails to see why Jesus might not occasionally use allegory as a vehicle of truth as well as other teachers.11-27. The Parable of the Pounds.

11
. because he was nigh to Jerusalem] Probably therefore the parable was spoken on the journey.

should immediately appear] Literally, “be manifested to view.” The disciples had the same excited anticipation after the Resurrection, Acts 1:6-7. Our Lord was always careful to lead them away from false material hopes. The lessons of the parable are patient waiting and active work.Luke 19:11. Προσθεὶς εἶπε, He added and spake) Therefore the parable which follows has a most close connection with the preceding incidents; as also with what follows, Luke 19:28.—δοκεῖ, on account of their thinking) The Hebrews think that the Messiah will collect together in Galilee the brethren scattered in the world, and will lead them to the city of Jerusalem, as the seat of His kingdom: that He will thus commence His reign, and will much frequent the Mount of Olives. The aspect of things at that time was not unlike this. [Nor was their opinion erroneous in itself; but they formed their conception of the event rather out of the due season for it.—V. p.] The Lord teaches them the true judgment which they ought to form. See Luke 19:27; Luke 19:41.—ἀναφαίνεσθαι, to make its appearance) in a manifest and visible manner on earth and in the city, and this without the agency of human power.Verses 11-27. - The parable of the pounds. Verse 11. - And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable. The words which introduce this parable-story indicate its close connection with the events which had just taken place. "He added, and spake (προσθεὶς εϊπε)." Because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear. Thus were briefly stated the reasons which determined the Master to speak the following parable. First, "he was nigh to Jerusalem," only at most a few hours' journey from the holy city - his last solemn, awful visit, when the mysterious act of stupendous love would be accomplished. So he determined to give a veiled parabolic picture of himself and of his chosen people. Second, "they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear." In his parable he proposed to moderate the wild romantic enthusiasm of his immediate followers and of the Passover crowds by painting for them a quiet picture of the future of work and waiting which lay before them. The parable contains three sets of lessons.

(1) The varieties of reward apportioned to different degrees of zeal and industry in the Master's service.

(2) The eternity of loss and shame which will be the portion of the slothful and unfaithful servant.

(3) The terrible doom of his enemies. Appear (ἀναφαίνεσθαι)

Only here and Acts 21:3. It means to be brought to light; shown forth. The common phrase show up (ἀνά) represents it.

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