Leviticus 9:1
And it came to pass on the eighth day, that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
IX.

(1) And it came to pass on the eighth day.—That is, the day following the seven days of consecration. (See Leviticus 8:33) According to ancient tradition this was the first of the month Nisan, or March.

Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders.—That is, the same elders, the representatives of the people, who were called to attest the imposing ceremony of consecration (see Leviticus 8:3), are now also summoned to witness how the newly-installed priests entered upon the active duties of their ministrations. Like newly-born children who remain seven days in a state of uncleanness and enter into the covenant privileges of the congregation on the eighth day (see Leviticus 12:2-3), so the newly-created priests after a purging of seven days commenced their sacred duties and partook of their privileges on this symbolical day.

Leviticus 9:1. On the eighth day — Namely, from the day of his consecration, or when the seven days of his consecration were ended. The eighth day is famous in Scripture for the perfecting and purifying both of men and beasts. See Leviticus 12:2-3; Leviticus 14:8-10; Leviticus 15:13-14; Leviticus 22:27. And the elders of Israel — All the congregation were called to be witnesses of Aaron’s instalment into his office, to prevent their murmurings and contempt; which being done, the elders were now sufficient to be witnesses of his first execution of his office.9:1-21 These many sacrifices, which were all done away by the death of Christ, teach us that our best services need washing in his blood, and that the guilt of our best sacrifices needs to be done away by one more pure and more noble than they. Let us be thankful that we have such a High Priest. The priests had not a day's respite from service allowed. God's spiritual priests have constant work, which the duty of every day requires; they that would give up their account with joy, must redeem time. The glory of God appeared in the sight of the people, and owned what they had done. We are not now to expect such appearances, but God draws nigh to those who draw nigh to him, and the offerings of faith are acceptable to him; though the sacrifices being spiritual, the tokens of the acceptance are spiritual likewise. When Aaron had done all that was to be done about the sacrifices, he lifted up his hands towards the people, and blessed them. Aaron could but crave a blessing, God alone can command it.Leviticus 9:1

On the eighth day - i. e., on the first day after the week of consecration.

CHAPTER 9

Le 9:1-24. The Priests' Entry into Office.

1-7. Moses called … Take thee a young calf for a sin offering—The directions in these sacred things were still given by Moses, the circumstances being extraordinary. But he was only the medium of communicating the divine will to the newly made priests. The first of their official acts was the sacrifice of another sin offering to atone for the defects of the inauguration services; and yet that sacrifice did not consist of a bullock—the sacrifice appointed for some particular transgression, but of a calf, perhaps not without a significant reference to Aaron's sin in the golden calf [Ex 32:22-24]. Then followed a burnt offering, expressive of their voluntary and entire self-devotement to the divine service. The newly consecrated priests having done this on their own account, they were called to offer a sin offering and burnt offering for the people, ending the ceremonial by a peace offering, which was a sacred feast. This injunction, "to make atonement for himself and for the people" (Septuagint, "for thy family"), at the commencement of his sacred functions, furnishes a striking evidence of the divine origin of the Jewish system of worship. In all false or corrupt forms of religion, the studied policy has been to inspire the people with an idea of the sanctity of the priesthood as in point of purity and favor with the Divinity far above the level of other men. But among the Hebrews the priests were required to offer for the expiation of their own sins as well as the humblest of the people. This imperfection of Aaron's priesthood, however, does not extend to the gospel dispensation: for our great High Priest, who has entered for us into "the true tabernacle," "knew no sin" (Heb 10:10, 11).Moses commands Aaron to offer a sin-offering, and burnt-offering, and peace and meat offering; the congregation drawing near, and so the glory of the Lord should appear to them; to make atonement for himself and the people, Leviticus 9:1-7. Aaron’s offering for himself, Leviticus 9:8-14; for the people, Leviticus 9:15-21, whom he blesses, first by prayer to God, and then by solemn declaration to them; the glory of God appears; fire from heaven consumes the sacrifice; the people shout and are amazed, Leviticus 9:22-24.

The eighth day, to wit, from the first day of his consecration, or when the seven days of his consecration were ended, Leviticus 8:33,35, as appears from Exodus 29:30, Ezekiel 43:27. The eighth day is famous in Scripture for the perfecting and purifying both of men and beasts. See Leviticus 12:2,3 14:8-10 15:13,14 22:27.

All the congregation were called to be witnesses of Aaron’s instalment into his office, to prevent their murmurings and contempt, which being done, the elders were now sufficient to be witnesses of Aaron’s first execution of his office.

And it came to pass on the eighth day,.... When the seven days of consecration were ended, as Ben Gersom, the day following them, so soon was Aaron called to the execution of his office; and so both the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi make it to be the eighth day of the consecration, or the day after the anointing of Aaron and his sons, and which they both say was the beginning, or first day of Nisan, the day the tabernacle was erected by Moses: but that seems to have been set up before the consecration; rather this was, as Aben Ezra says, the eighth day of the month Nisan or March, and was the eighth day of the consecration, which began at the first day, on which day the tabernacle was set up, Exodus 40:2,

that Moses, called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel; Aaron and his sons to enter upon their office, by offering sacrifices for themselves, and for the people, and the elders to be witnesses thereof.

And it came to pass on the {a} eighth day, that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel;

(a) After their consecration: for the seven days before, the priests were consecrated.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
(1) The first sacrifices of Aaron (1–14)

On the eighth day (the consecration of Aaron and his sons being complete) Aaron begins to offer sacrifice for himself and for the people, and his sons assist.

The sacrifices are:

for himself

Sin-Offering. A bull calf

Burnt-Offering. A ram

Peace-Offering. A ram

Meal-Offering. A ram  for the people

A calf and a lamb

An ox and a ram and a meal-offering mingled with oil.

An ox and a ram and a meal-offering mingled with oil.

A complete sequence of sacrifice is prescribed, and the whole offering is moderate in amount compared with those prescribed for the great festivals in Numbers 28, 29.

1. elders] perhaps a late correction (Dillm.). Cp. ‘children’ in Leviticus 9:3, where Sam. and LXX. again introduce ‘elders.’Verses 1-6. - On the eighth day. The seven days of consecration being now over, Aaron for the first time offers a sin offering and burnt offering for himself, and a sin offering, a burnt offering, a peace offering, and a meat offering for the congregation. He is still instructed by Moses as to what he is to do, but it is through him that the command is given to the people to present their offerings, and it is he that slays the victims and offers their blood. His own sin offering is a young calf, or young bull calf, whereas the sin offering commanded for the high priest on ordinary occasions was a young bull, further advanced in age (Leviticus 4:3); and in presenting the blood he does not take it into the sanctuary according to the regulations in chapter Leviticus 4:6, but uses it as Moses had done in the sin offerings of the previous week, the purpose of the difference being to show that Aaron's full dignity had not yet devolved upon him. This did not take place until he had gone into the tabernacle with Moses (verse 23). A ram is again taken for the burnt offering, as had been the case in Moses' sacrifice of the previous week. The children of Israel now present a kid, the offering generally made by a prince, that for the congregation being a young bull. In the words for today the Lord will appear unto you, Moses promises the Divine appearance afterwards vouchsafed (verse 23). For the sacrificial meal, the priests were to boil the flesh in front of the door of the tabernacle, or, according to Exodus 29:31, "at the holy place," i.e., in the court, and eat it with the bread in the fill-offering basket; and no stranger (i.e., layman or non-priest) was to take part in the meal, because the flesh and bread were holy (Exodus 29:33), that is to say, had served to make atonement for the priests, to fill their hands and sanctify them. Atoning virtue is attributed to this sacrifice in the same sense as to the burnt-offering in Leviticus 1:4. Whatever was left of the flesh and bread until the following day, that is to say, was not eaten on the day of sacrifice, was to be burned with fire, for the reason explained at Leviticus 7:17. The exclusion of laymen from participating in this sacrificial meal is to be accounted for in the same way as the prohibition of unleavened bread, which was offered and eaten in the case of the ordinary peace-offerings along with the unleavened sacrificial cakes (see at Leviticus 7:13). The meal brought the consecration of the priests to a close, as Aaron and his sons were thereby received into that special, priestly covenant with the Lord, the blessings and privileges of which were to be enjoyed by the consecrated priests alone. At this meal the priests were not allowed to eat leavened bread, any more than the nation generally at the feast of Passover (Exodus 12:8.).
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