Leviticus 7:16
But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice: and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(16) Be a vow or a voluntary offering.—The vow and the voluntary offering which constitute the second class of peace offerings are both entirely voluntary. The distinction between them, as defined by the canon law, which obtained in the time of Christ, is as follows :—A vow (nēdēr) is an obligation voluntarily imposed upon oneself with the formula, “Behold, I take it upon myself to bring a bullock, &c., for a peace offering.” This undertaking is binding upon the person till he fulfils it. Hence, if the bullock in question dies, or is stolen, or becomes disqualified for a sacrifice, he must bring another. A free-will offering (nedabah) simply pledges voluntarily a certain animal for a peace offering, with the formula, “ Behold, this animal I devote for a peace offering.” Hence, if the animal in question dies, or is stolen, or has otherwise become disqualified for sacrifice, the obligation ceases, since it does not extend beyond the animal thus devoted.

It shall be eaten the same day.—As both these votive offerings were an indirect mode of supplication having respect to future favours, and hence were not a spontaneous expression of pious devotion, they were not so sacred as the former. They were, therefore, allowed to be eaten both on the day of presentation and on the following day.

Leviticus 7:16. If the sacrifice be a vow — Offered in performance of a vow, the offerer having desired some special favour from God, and vowed the sacrifice to God if he would grant it. A voluntary offering, which a person offered freely to God, in testimony of his faith and love, not being under the obligation of any particular vow of his own, or command from God. On the morrow also the remainder shall be eaten — Which was not allowed in the case of the thank-offering. The reason of which is to be fetched only from God’s good pleasure and will, to which he expects our obedience, though we discern not the reason of his appointments.7:11-27 As to the peace-offerings, in the expression of their sense of mercy, God left them more at liberty, than in the expression of their sense of sin; that their sacrifices, being free-will offerings, might be the more acceptable, while, by obliging them to bring the sacrifices of atonement, God shows the necessity of the great Propitiation. The main reason why blood was forbidden of old, was because the Lord had appointed blood for an atonement. This use, being figurative, had its end in Christ, who by his death and blood-shedding caused the sacrifices to cease. Therefore this law is not now in force on believers.The vow-offering appears to have been a peace-offering vowed upon a certain condition; the voluntary-offering, one offered as the simple tribute of a devout heart rejoicing in peace with God and man offered on no external occasion (compare Leviticus 22:17-25). 15-17. the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings … shall be eaten the same day that it is offered—The flesh of the sacrifices was eaten on the day of the offering or on the day following. But if any part of it remained till the third day, it was, instead of being made use of, to be burned with fire. In the East, butcher-meat is generally eaten the day it is killed, and it is rarely kept a second day, so that as a prohibition was issued against any of the flesh in the peace offerings being used on the third day, it has been thought, not without reason, that this injunction must have been given to prevent a superstitious notion arising that there was some virtue or holiness belonging to it. Be a vow; offered in performance of a vow, the man having desired some special favour from God, and vowed the sacrifice to God if he would grant it. A

voluntary offering, which a malt freely offered to God, in testimony of his faith and love to God, without any particular injunction from God, or design of his own special advantage thereby. See Leviticus 22:23 Ezekiel 46:12.

On the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten, which was not allowed for the thankoffering; the reason of which difference is to be fetched only from God’s good pleasure and will, to which he expects our obedience, though we discern not the reason of his appointments. But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow,.... Be on account of a vow made, as, that if he was favoured with such and such benefits, or delivered out of such and such troubles and distresses, then he would offer such a sacrifice:

or a voluntary offering; without any condition or obligation; what from the mere motion of his mind he freely offered, not being directed to it by any command of God, or under any necessity from a vow of his own, and without any view to; any future good to be enjoyed: Aben Ezra describes both the one and the other thus; a "vow" which he uttered with his lips in his distresses, a "voluntary offering", which his spirit made him willing to bring, a sacrifice to God neither for a vow nor for thanksgiving:

it shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice; that is, it shall be begun to be eaten then, and if all is eaten up it is very well, but they were not obliged in either of these cases, as in the preceding, to eat up all, and leave none to the morning, for it follows:

and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten; some of it, if thought fit, and could not be conveniently eaten, might be kept till the day after the sacrifice, but no longer.

But if the sacrifice of his offering be a {h} vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice: and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten:

(h) If he makes a vow to offer: or else the flesh of the peace offerings must be eaten the same day.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
In the case of the burnt-offering, the skin of the animal was to fall to the lot of the officiating priest, viz., as payment for his services. הכּהן is construed absolutely: "as for the priest, who offereth - the skin of the burnt-offering which he offereth shall belong to the priest" (for "to him"). This was probably the case also with the trespass-offerings and sin-offerings of the laity; whereas the skin of the peace-offerings belonged to the owner of the animal (see Mishnah, Sebach. 12, 3). - In Leviticus 7:9, Leviticus 7:10, the following law is laid down with reference to the meat-offering, that everything baked in the oven, and everything prepared in a pot or pan, was to belong to the priest, who burned a portion of it upon the altar; and that everything mixed with oil and everything dry was to belong to all the sons of Aaron, i.e., to all the priests, to one as much as another, so that they were all to receive an equal share. The reason for this distinction is not very clear. That all the meat-offerings described in ch. 2 should fall to the sons of Aaron (i.e., to the priests), with the exception of that portion which was burned upon the altar as an azcarah, followed from the fact that they were most holy (see at Leviticus 2:3). As the meat-offerings, which consisted of pastry, and were offered in the form of prepared food (Leviticus 7:9), are the same as those described in Leviticus 2:4-8, it is evident that by those mentioned in Leviticus 2:10 we are to understand the kinds described in Leviticus 2:1-3 and Leviticus 2:14-16, and by the "dry," primarily the קלוּי אביב, which consisted of dried grains, to which oil was to be added (נתן Leviticus 2:15), though not poured upon it, as in the case of the offering of flour (Leviticus 2:1), and probably also in that of the sin-offerings and jealousy-offerings (Leviticus 5:11, and Numbers 5:15), which consisted simply of flour (without oil). The reason therefore why those which consisted of cake and pastry fell to the lot of the officiating priest, and those which consisted of flour mixed with oil, of dry corn, or of simple flour, were divided among all the priests, was probably simply this, that the former were for the most part offered only under special circumstances, and then merely in small quantities, whereas the latter were the ordinary forms in which the meat-offerings were presented, and amounted to more than the officiating priests could possibly consume, or dispose of by themselves.
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