And the pride of Israel testifies to his face: and they do not return to the LORD their God, nor seek him for all this.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Hosea 5:5.
Nor seek Him for all this - God had exhausted all the treasures of His severity, as, before, of His love. He Himself marvels at His incorrigible and contumacious servant, as He says in Isaiah, "Why should ye be stricken anymore? Ye will revolt more and more" Isaiah 1:5. How is this? It follows, because they have "no heart."
not return to … Lord … for all this—notwithstanding all their calamities (Isa 9:13).The pride of Israel testifieth to his face: see Hosea 5:5. Their proud contempt of God and his threats, of the prophets and their warnings, is notorious.
They do not return to the Lord; they persist in sin without repentance, run away from God rather than return to him. Of this phrase,
return, see Hosea 6:1.
Their God; who was theirs of old, who still would be theirs on fair terms, of whom they talk and boast.
Nor seek him; see this phrase Hosea 5:15; they pray not, repent not, nor rely on God.
For all this; though so greatly, continually, and severely punished, though almost eaten up. Hosea 5:5; notwithstanding their weak and declining state, they were proud and haughty; entertained a high conceit of themselves, and of their good and safe condition; and behaved insolently towards God, and were not humbled before him for their sins. Their pride was notorious, which they themselves could not deny; they were self-convicted, and self-condemned:
and they do not return to the Lord their God; by acknowledgment of their sins, repentance for them, and reformation from them; and by attendance on his worship, from which they had revolted; so the Targum,
"they return not to the worship of the Lord their God:''
nor seek him for all this; though they are in this wasting, declining, condition, and just upon the brink of ruin, yet they seek not the face and favour of the Lord; they do not ask help of him, or implore his mercy; and though they have been so long in these circumstances, and have been gradually consuming for many years, yet in all this time they have made no application to the Lord, that he would be favourable, and raise their sinking state, and restore them to their former glory.And the pride of Israel testifieth to his face: and they do not return to the LORD their God, nor seek him for all this.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. And the pride of Israel …] Repeated from Hosea 5:5, just as Hosea 12:9 a is repeated in Hosea 13:4 a. It is not the prophet who speaks condemning a bad quality in his people, but Jehovah, Israel’s true Pride, and the source of Israel’s prosperity, who utters a solemn word of warning translated into act. How much more suitable this explanation is in such a context than either of the alternatives mentioned on Hosea 5:5.
for all this] i.e. in spite of all this chastisement, comp. Isaiah 9:12; Isaiah 9:17; Isaiah 9:21.Verse 10. - And the pride of Israel testifieth to his face: and they do not return to the Lord their God, nor seek him for all this (amid all this). If with Keil and others
(1) we understand "the pride of Israel" to mean Jehovah the glory of Israel, and take the verb in the sense of "testify," the meaning will be that Jehovah bore witness to the face of Israel by the weakening and wasting of their kingdom, as portrayed in the preceding verse. We prefer
(2) to understand "the pride of Israel" in the souse of "the haughtiness" of Israel, and the verb in the sense of "being humbled," as at Hosea 5:5. The real meaning, then, is expressed in the following rendering: And the haughtiness of Israel shall be humbled to his face. This humiliation is the effect of the wasting mentioned in the preceding verse; while the evidence of their humiliation is specified in the succeeding verse by their resorting to Egypt and repairing to Assyria from a consciousness of their helplessness. This rendering is countenanced by the LXX., both here and at Hosea 5:5; while Rashi says, "The verb עגה has the meaning of "humiliation." For all this. This emphasizes the obstinate blindness and perverseness of Ephraim, when, amid all the calamities and miseries of the kingdom both within and without, they turned not to Jehovah to solicit help and deliverance, but concluded treaties or made alliances with foreign nations in hope of being lifted up out of their national impotence. On this Aben Ezra makes the judicious remark: "They turned not to Jehovah as paupers who have nothing more to give foreign nations that they may help them." Daniel 7:6 and Daniel 8:5-8, Daniel 8:21-22, without adding new elements. The founder of the kingdom is called גּבּור מלך, "brave king," "hero-king," and his kingdom "a great dominion." Of his government it is said כּרצונו עשׂה, he does, rules, according to his will (cf. Daniel 8:4), so that his power might be characterized as irresistible and boundless self-will. Similarly Curtius writes of him (x. 5. 35): Fatendum est, cum plurimum virtuti debuerit, plus debuisse fortunae, quam solus omnium mortalium in potestate habuit. Hujus siquidem beneficio agere videbatur gentibus quidquid placebat. By the כ in כּעמדו the coming of the king and the destruction of his kingdom are stated as synchronous, so as to express with great force the shortness of its duration. עמדו is not to be otherwise interpreted than עמד in Daniel 11:3, and is thus not to be translated: "when he thus stands up," sc. in the regal power described in Daniel 11:3 (Kran.), or: "on the pinnacle of his might" (Hv.), but: "when (or as) he has made his appearance, his kingdom shall be broken." In the words, also, there does not lie the idea "that he himself in his life-time is deprived of this throne and his kingdom by a violent catastrophe" (Kran.); for the destruction of the kingdom does not necessarily include in it the putting to death of the ruler. The thought is only this: "when he has appeared and founded a great dominion, his kingdom shall be immediately broken." תּשּׁבר (shall be broken) is chosen with reference to Daniel 8:8, "toward the four winds of heaven." We may neither supply תחץ (shall be divided) to לאחריתו ולא (and not to his posterity), nor is this latter expression "connected with תחץ in pregnant construction;" for תחץ, from חצה, signifies to divide, from which we are not to assume the idea of to allot, assign. We have simply to supply היא in the sense of the verb. subst., shall be, as well here as in the following clause, כמשׁלו ולא. The אחרית e signifies here as little as in Amos 4:2; Amos 9:1, posterity equals זרע, but remnant, that which is left behind, the survivors of the king, by which we are to understand not merely his sons, but all the members of his family. כמשׁלו ולא, "and it shall not be according to the dominion which he ruled." This thought, corresponding to בכחו ולא in Daniel 8:22, is the natural conclusion from the idea of division to all the four winds, which the falling asunder into several or many small kingdoms involves. הנּתשׁ, "shall be plucked up" (of plants from the earth), denotes the rooting up of that which is table, the destroying and dissolving of the kingdom into portions. In this division it shall pass to others מלּבד־אלּה, "with the exclusion of those" (the אחרית), the surviving members of the family of Alexander. To ולאחרים (and for others) supply תּהיה (shall be).
In Daniel 11:4, accordingly, the prophetic thought is expressed, that the Javanic kingdom, as soon as the brave king has founded a great dominion, shall be broken to pieces and divided toward the four winds of heaven, so that its separate parts, without reaching to the might of the broken kingdom, shall be given not to the survivors of the family of the founder, but to strangers. This was historically fulfilled in the fact, that after the sudden death of Alexander his son Hercules was not recognised by his generals as successor on the throne, but was afterwards murdered by Polysperchon; his son also born by Roxana, along with his guardian Philip Arideus, met the same fate; but the generals, after they had at first divided the kingdom into more than thirty parts, soon began to war with each other, the result of which was, that at last four larger kingdoms were firmly established. Cf. Diod. Sic. xx. 28, xix. 105; Pausan. ix. 7; Justini hist. xv. 2, and Appiani Syr. c. 51.
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