Hebrews 10:9
Then said he, See, I come to do your will, O God. He takes away the first, that he may establish the second.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(9) Then said he, Lo, I come.—Rather, then hath he said, Lo, I am come to do Thy will. The words “O God” are not in the true text, but have been accidentally repeated from Hebrews 10:7.

He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.—It is important to inquire how this is done, first in the case of the writer of the psalm, then as the words are used of Jesus. David, perceiving that that which God seeks is the subjection of man’s will, refuses to rest in the sacrifices of the law. No one will think that burnt offering or gift or sacrifice for sin was henceforth at an end for him: the confession of his iniquities (Hebrews 10:12) implied a recourse to the appointed means of approach to God: even the sacrifices themselves were taken up into the service of obedience. But to the symbols shall be added the consecration and the sacrifice of praise (Psalm 50:23) which they typified. The application to the Saviour must be interpreted by this context. In making these words His own, He declares the sacrifices of the law to be in themselves without virtue; Jehovah seeks them not from Him, but, having prepared a human body for Him, seeks only the fulfilment of His will. But included in that will of God was Christ’s offering of Himself for the world; and, on the other hand, it was His perfect surrender of Himself that gave completeness to that offering. His death was at once the antitype of the sacrifice for sin and the consummation of the words, “I am come to do Thy will, O God.” Hence, in saying, “Lo, I am come to do Thy will” (that which God has really willed), He taketh away the sacrifices of slain animals that He may establish the doing of God’s will. That such sacrifices as were formerly offered are no longer according to God’s pleasure follows as an inference from this.

10:1-10 The apostle having shown that the tabernacle, and ordinances of the covenant of Sinai, were only emblems and types of the gospel, concludes that the sacrifices the high priests offered continually, could not make the worshippers perfect, with respect to pardon, and the purifying of their consciences. But when God manifested in the flesh, became the sacrifice, and his death upon the accursed tree the ransom, then the Sufferer being of infinite worth, his free-will sufferings were of infinite value. The atoning sacrifice must be one capable of consenting, and must of his own will place himself in the sinner's stead: Christ did so. The fountain of all that Christ has done for his people, is the sovereign will and grace of God. The righteousness brought in, and the sacrifice once offered by Christ, are of eternal power, and his salvation shall never be done away. They are of power to make all the comers thereunto perfect; they derive from the atoning blood, strength and motives for obedience, and inward comfort.Then said he - In another part of the passage quoted. When he had said that no offering which man could make would avail, then he said that he would come himself.

He taketh away the first - The word "first" here refers to sacrifices and offerings. He takes them away; that is, he shows that they are of no value in removing sin. He states their inefficacy, and declares his purpose to abolish them.

That he may establish the second - To wit, the doing of the will of God. The two stand in contrast with each other, and he shows the inefficacy of the former, in order that the necessity for his coming to do the will of God may be fully seen. If they had been efficacious, there would have been no need of his coming to make an atonement.

9. Then said he—"At that time (namely, when speaking by David's mouth in the fortieth Psalm) He hath said." The rejection of the legal sacrifices involves, as its concomitant, the voluntary offer of Jesus to make the self-sacrifice with which God is well pleased (for, indeed, it was God's own "will" that He came to do in offering it: so that this sacrifice could not but be well pleasing to God).

I come—"I am come."

taketh away—"sets aside the first," namely, "the legal system of sacrifices" which God wills not.

the second—"the will of God" (Heb 10:7, 9) that Christ should redeem us by His self-sacrifice.

In this verse the apostle collects the psalmist’s assertion of God the Father’s accepting his sacrifice, the offering whereof was so exactly agreeable to his will, when he was displeased with the legal ones; and this revealed to David when he was punctually using them according to the law.

He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second: God therefore abolished all the legal sacrifices, which he commanded to be used as types of the better sacrifice he had provided, because of their insufficiency and weakness as to expiate sin, or pacify conscience, that he might establish that sacrifice of the body of Christ for abolishing sin, and bringing in everlasting righteousness, which was effectual, and an actual obedience agreeable to his will and command, Philippians 2:7,8. This being thus proved, he concludes from it... (See Poole on "Hebrews 10:10"). Then said he, lo, I come to do thy will, O God,.... See Gill on Hebrews 10:7.

he taketh away the first, that he may establish the second; the sense is, either that God has taken away, and abolished the law, that he might establish the Gospel; or he has caused the first covenant to vanish away, that place might be found for the second, or new covenant; or he has changed and abrogated the priesthood of Aaron, that he might confirm the unchangeable priesthood of Christ; or rather he has taken away that which was first spoken of in the above citation, namely, sacrifice, offering, burnt offerings, and sin offerings; these he has removed and rejected as insignificant and useless, that he might establish what is mentioned in the second place; namely, the will of God, which is no other than the sacrifice of Christ, offered up according to the will of God, and by which his will is done.

Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the {d} first, that he may establish the second.

(d) That is, the sacrifices, to establish the second, that is, the will of God.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Hebrews 10:9. Τότε εἴρηκεν] are words of the author, and form the apodosis to ἀνώτερον λέγων, Hebrews 10:8. Quite erroneously does Peirce, who, with Chrysostom, Hom. xviii. and the Vulgate (tunc dixi), instead of τότε εἴρηκεν will read τότε εἶπον, which, however, only arose from Hebrews 10:7, make the apodosis begin first with ἀναιρεῖ τὸ πρῶτον.

τότε, however, not ὕστερον, which would more exactly accord with the ἀνώτερον, Hebrews 10:8, the author wrote, because the τότε εἶπον of the citation was still fresh in his memory.

ἀναιρεῖ τὸ πρῶτον, ἵνα τὸ δεύτερον στήσῃ] he abolishes the first, or deprives it of validity, in order to establish the second as the norm in force (Romans 3:31). Parenthetic insertion, so that Hebrews 10:10 attaches itself closely to τὸ θέλημα, and is to be separated therefrom only by a comma. The parenthesis serves by way of exclamation to call attention to the importance of the application to be given in Hebrews 10:10 to the ἰδοὺ ἥκω κ.τ.λ. Subject in ἀναιρεῖ is naturally here also Christ; not “the Spirit of God,” as Kurtz arbitrarily supposes.

τὸ πρῶτον] sc. τὸ προσφέρειν θυσίας καὶ προσφορὰς κ.τ.λ.

τὸ δεύτερον] sc. τὸ ποιεῖν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ. Theodoret: πρῶτον εἶπε τὴν τῶν ἀλόγων θυσίαν, δεύτερον δὲ τὴν λογικηήν, τὴν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ προσενεχθεῖσαν. Wrongly does Peirce take τὸ πρῶτον and τὸ δεύτερον adjectivally, in supplementing to each τὸ θέλημα θεοῦ. With equally little warrant Carpzov: the διαθήκη πρώτη and the διαθήκη καινή, or the ἱερωσύνη κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρών and the ἱερωσύνη κατὰ ὁμοιότητα Μελχισεδέκ, are meant; as also Stein: the O. T. and the N. T. economy.9. then said he] Lit., “Then he has said.”

He taketh away the first] namely, Sacrifices, &c.

that he may establish the second] namely, the Will of God.Hebrews 10:9. Ἵνα) A powerful particle; that He may forthwith and in consequence establish the second.—στήσῃ, may establish) with the highest authority, as it were, by His own hand-writing. From ἵστημι comes στάσις, ch. Hebrews 9:8, with the same idea.He taketh away the first that he may establish the second

Removes that which God does not will, the animal sacrifice, that he may establish that which God does will, the offering of an obedient will.

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