Esther 9:29
Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote with all authority, to confirm this second letter of Purim.
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(29) This second letter.—It seems to us that the first letter must be that extracted from the king by Esther (Esther 8:8), and consequently this “second letter “is Mordecai’s (Esther 9:20), which is now confirmed in a more authoritative way.

Esther 9:29. Then Esther and Mordecai wrote with all authority — As well they might, Esther being queen, and Mordecai prime minister of state. The former letter (Esther 9:20) did only recommend, but this enjoins the observance of this solemnity. And it was not only the act of the queen and Mordecai, but also the act of all the Jews, binding themselves and their posterity to it.

9:20-32 The observance of the Jewish feasts, is a public declaration of the truth of the Old Testament Scriptures. And as the Old Testament Scriptures are true, the Messiah expected by the Jews is come long ago; and none but Jesus of Nazareth can be that Messiah. The festival was appointed by authority, yet under the direction of the Spirit of God. It was called the feast of Purim, from a Persian word, which signifies a lot. The name of this festival would remind them of the almighty power of the God of Israel, who served his own purposes by the superstitions of the heathen. In reviewing our mercies, we should advert to former fears and distresses. When our mercies are personal, we should not by forgetfulness lose the comfort of them, or withhold from the Lord the glory due to his name. May the Lord teach us to rejoice, with that holy joy which anticipates and prepares for the blessedness of heaven. Every instance of Divine goodness to ourselves, is a new obligation laid on us to do good, to those especially who most need our bounty. Above all, redemption by Christ binds us to be merciful, 2Co 8:9.This second letter of Purim - Mordecai's first letter Esther 9:20 was to some extent tentative, a recommendation. The Jews generally having accepted the recommendation Esther 9:23, Esther 9:27, he and Esther now wrote a second letter which was mandatory. 26. they called these days Purim after the name of Pur—"Pur," in the Persian language, signifies "lot"; and the feast of Purim, or lots, has a reference to the time having been pitched upon by Haman through the decision of the lot. In consequence of the signal national deliverance which divine providence gave them from the infamous machinations of Haman, Mordecai ordered the Jews to commemorate that event by an anniversary festival, which was to last for two days, in accordance with the two days' war of defense they had to maintain. There was a slight difference in the time of this festival; for the Jews in the provinces, having defended themselves against their enemies on the thirteenth, devoted the fourteenth to festivity; whereas their brethren in Shushan, having extended that work over two days, did not observe their thanksgiving feast till the fifteenth. But this was remedied by authority, which fixed the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar. It became a season of sunny memories to the universal body of the Jews; and, by the letters of Mordecai, dispersed through all parts of the Persian empire, it was established as an annual feast, the celebration of which is kept up still. On both days of the feast, the modern Jews read over the Megillah or Book of Esther in their synagogues. The copy read must not be printed, but written on vellum in the form of a roll; and the names of the ten sons of Haman are written on it a peculiar manner, being ranged, they say, like so many bodies on a gibbet. The reader must pronounce all these names in one breath. Whenever Haman's name is pronounced, they make a terrible noise in the synagogue. Some drum with their feet on the floor, and the boys have mallets with which they knock and make a noise. They prepare themselves for their carnival by a previous fast, which should continue three days, in imitation of Esther's; but they have mostly reduced it to one day [Jennings, Jewish Antiquities]. Wrote with all authority: the former letter, Esther 9:20, did only recommend, but this enjoins the observation of this solemnity; because this was not only Mordecai’s act, who yet had by the king’s grant a great power and authority over the subjects of that kingdom, and consequently over the Jews, but it was the act of all the Jews, binding themselves and posterity to it, Esther 9:27. Or, with all might, or efficacy, as that word usually signifies; he pressed it with all earnestness and vehemency.

Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote with all authority,.... Strongly pressing the observance of this festival; before, Mordecai only recommended it, but now the queen gave a sanction to it, and laid her obligation on the Jews to observe it; perhaps some of the Jews were backward to it, or neglected to observe it, and therefore Esther and Mordecai joined in a letter to them, to press them to it; the Jewish chronologer (x) says, this was written the year following; the former Targum is, they wrote this whole volume, and the strength of the miracle, or set the miraculous deliverance in the strongest light, with this view:

to confirm this second letter of Purim; that it might have its weight and influence upon them, to engage them to keep it, as the latter Targum adds; that when it was an intercalary year, they might not read the Megillah (or book of Esther) in the first Adar, but in the second Adar.

(x) Seder Olam Rabba, c. 29. p. 87.

Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote with all authority, to confirm this second letter of Purim.
29. the daughter of Abihail] She was probably thus designated in the letter itself.

letter] See on Esther 9:26.

29–32. Further injunctions on the part of Esther and Mordecai

The Jews having readily agreed to the directions which Mordecai had given in the first letter, and expressed their readiness (Esther 9:28) to accept the obligation of keeping the annual festival as a perpetual one, a second communication is sent out to them, viz. a joint letter of Esther and Mordecai. An increased weight is given to it, as compared with the former, by the addition of the name of the queen who is also the heroine of the story. Moreover, in it the Jews are bidden to remember as well the duty of the preceding fast, even as Mordecai and Esther themselves fasted in the time of peril. But see note on Esther 9:31.

Verse 29. - Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail,... wrote. The unusual designation of Esther as "daughter of Abihail" can only be accounted for by her having so designated herself in the letter. With all authority. Rather, "with all earnestness," or "impressiveness." Literally, the word used means "strength." To confirm this second letter of Purina. The first letter is the one which is mentioned in vers. 20 and 26. That letter having elicited the favourable reply contained in vers. 26-28, a "second letter of Purina" was now issued, "confirming" and establishing the observance. It went forth not as an edict, or in the king's name, but as a letter, and in the names of Esther and Mordecai. Esther 9:29A second letter from Queen Esther and Mordochai to appoint fasting and lamentation on the days of Purim. Esther 9:29. And Esther the queen and Mordochai the Jew wrote with all strength, that is very forcibly, to appoint this second letter concerning Purim, i.e., to give to the contents of this second letter the force of law. הזּאת refers to what follows, in which the contents of the letter are briefly intimated. The letter is called השּׁנית with reference to the first letter sent by Mordochai, Esther 9:20.
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