Deuteronomy 14:12
But these are they of which you shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(12) These are they of which ye shall not eat.—With one exception, the unclean birds are the same described in Leviticus 11:13-19.

14:1-21 Moses tells the people of Israel how God had given them three distinguishing privileges, which were their honour, and figures of those spiritual blessings in heavenly things, with which God has in Christ blessed us. Here is election; The Lord hath chosen thee. He did not choose them because they were by their own acts a peculiar people to him above other nations, but he chose them that they might be so by his grace; and thus were believers chosen, Eph 1:4. Here is adoption; Ye are the children of the Lord your God; not because God needed children, but because they were orphans, and needed a father. Every spiritual Israelite is indeed a child of God, a partaker of his nature and favour. Here is sanctification; Thou art a holy people. God's people are required to be holy, and if they are holy, they are indebted to the grace God which makes them so. Those whom God chooses to be his children, he will form to be a holy people, and zealous of good works. They must be careful to avoid every thing which might disgrace their profession, in the sight of those who watch for their halting. Our heavenly Father forbids nothing but for our welfare. Do thyself no harm; do not ruin thy health, thy reputation, thy domestic comforts, thy peace of mind. Especially do not murder thy soul. Do not be the vile slave of thy appetites and passions. Do not render all around thee miserable, and thyself wretched; but aim at that which is most excellent and useful. The laws which regarded many sorts of flesh as unclean, were to keep them from mingling with their idolatrous neighbours. It is plain in the gospel, that these laws are now done away. But let us ask our own hearts, Are we of the children of the Lord our God? Are we separate from the ungodly world, in being set apart to God's glory, the purchase of Christ's blood? Are we subjects of the work of the Holy Ghost? Lord, teach us from these precepts how pure and holy all thy people ought to live!The "pygarg" is a species of gazelle, and the "wild ox" and "chamois" are swift types of antelope.De 14:11-20. Of Birds.

11-20. Of all clean birds ye shall eat—(See on [132]Le 11:21).

No text from Poole on this verse. But these are they of which they shall not eat,.... Jarchi observes, that the unclean birds are particularly mentioned, to teach that the clean sort are more than the unclean, and therefore the particulars of the fewest are given: these are all the same names as in Leviticus 11:13, excepting one, "the glede", Deuteronomy 14:13 which is a kind of kite or puttock; the Jerusalem Targum renders it the vulture, and the Targum of Jonathan the white "dayetha" or vulture; and Aristotle says (q) there are two sorts of vultures, the one small and whiter, the other larger and of many forms or colours; in Hebrew its name here is "raah", and is thought to be the same with "daah" in Leviticus 11:14 there translated the "vulture", which has its name there from flying, and here from seeing, for which it is remarkable; see Job 28:7 and the letters and are pretty much alike, and are sometimes changed, but there is another here, in Deuteronomy 14:13 mentioned, the "dayah", which is not mentioned in Leviticus 11:1, though some think it the same with the "ayah", rendered both here and there the "kite"; perhaps it means another sort of vulture, the black vulture, as the Targum of Jonathan.

(q) Hist. Animal. l. 8. c. 3.

But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
12. eagle] nesher, Ar. nisr, the great vulture or griffon, gyps fulvus, identified by the baldness of its head and neck, Micah 1:16; from its frequency and its size ‘the most striking ornithological feature of Palestine’ (Tr. 95 f.); worshipped among Syrians and Arabs.

gier eagle] peres, the breaker, A.V. the ossifrage, the Lämmergeier or bearded vulture. It carries its prey to a great height and then drops it, repeating the operation till the prey is shattered (Tr. 94), LXX, γρύψ.

ospray] ‘oznîyyah; LXX, ἁλιάετος (the sea-eagle or osprey). Tristram (98) takes it either as generic for all the eagles, or specific either for the golden eagle, ‘not uncommon in winter over the whole country’ but in summer only on Lebanon and Hermon, or (107) the osprey, which would be likely from its fish-eating habits to have a special name. Read eagle. In Arabia the small swart-brown eagle of the desert is called ‘agab (spelt ‘aḳab), ‘flying in the air they resemble sea-mews’ (Doughty, i. 328, ii. 218).With reference to food, the Israelites were to eat nothing whatever that was abominable. In explanation of this prohibition, the laws of Leviticus 11 relating to clean and unclean animals are repeated in all essential points in vv. 4-20 (for the exposition, see at Leviticus 11); also in Deuteronomy 14:21 the prohibition against eating any animal that had fallen down dead (as in Exodus 32:30 and Leviticus 17:15), and against boiling a kid in its mother's milk (as in Exodus 23:19).
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