But these are they of which you shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)These are they of which ye shall not eat.—With one exception, the unclean birds are the same described in Leviticus 11:13-19.
11-20. Of all clean birds ye shall eat—(See on Le 11:21).Leviticus 11:13, excepting one, "the glede", Deuteronomy 14:13 which is a kind of kite or puttock; the Jerusalem Targum renders it the vulture, and the Targum of Jonathan the white "dayetha" or vulture; and Aristotle says (q) there are two sorts of vultures, the one small and whiter, the other larger and of many forms or colours; in Hebrew its name here is "raah", and is thought to be the same with "daah" in Leviticus 11:14 there translated the "vulture", which has its name there from flying, and here from seeing, for which it is remarkable; see Job 28:7 and the letters and are pretty much alike, and are sometimes changed, but there is another here, in Deuteronomy 14:13 mentioned, the "dayah", which is not mentioned in Leviticus 11:1, though some think it the same with the "ayah", rendered both here and there the "kite"; perhaps it means another sort of vulture, the black vulture, as the Targum of Jonathan. But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)12. eagle] nesher, Ar. nisr, the great vulture or griffon, gyps fulvus, identified by the baldness of its head and neck, Micah 1:16; from its frequency and its size ‘the most striking ornithological feature of Palestine’ (Tr. 95 f.); worshipped among Syrians and Arabs.
gier eagle] peres, the breaker, A.V. the ossifrage, the Lämmergeier or bearded vulture. It carries its prey to a great height and then drops it, repeating the operation till the prey is shattered (Tr. 94), LXX, γρύψ.
ospray] ‘oznîyyah; LXX, ἁλιάετος (the sea-eagle or osprey). Tristram (98) takes it either as generic for all the eagles, or specific either for the golden eagle, ‘not uncommon in winter over the whole country’ but in summer only on Lebanon and Hermon, or (107) the osprey, which would be likely from its fish-eating habits to have a special name. Read eagle. In Arabia the small swart-brown eagle of the desert is called ‘agab (spelt ‘aḳab), ‘flying in the air they resemble sea-mews’ (Doughty, i. 328, ii. 218).Leviticus 11 relating to clean and unclean animals are repeated in all essential points in vv. 4-20 (for the exposition, see at Leviticus 11); also in Deuteronomy 14:21 the prohibition against eating any animal that had fallen down dead (as in Exodus 32:30 and Leviticus 17:15), and against boiling a kid in its mother's milk (as in Exodus 23:19).
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