Acts 19:35
And when the town cleark had appeased the people, he said, You men of Ephesus, what man is there that knows not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(35) And when the townclerk had appeased the people . . .—The Greek word is the same as the “scribe” of the Gospels, and the familiar English expresses his function with adequate correctness. He was the keeper of the records and archives of the city. The title appears in many of the inscriptions in Mr. Wood’s volume, often in conjunction with those of the Asiarchs and the proconsul. If, as is probable, his office was a permanent one, he was likely to have more weight with the people than the Asiarchs, who were elected only for a year, and who were not all of Ephesus. The language of the public officer is as characteristic in its grave caution as that of Demetrius had been in its brutal frankness. He, like the Asiarchs, obviously looks on St. Paul and his companions with respect. He has no feeling of fanaticism, and would not willingly be a persecutor. He dares not oppose the multitude, but he will try and soothe them with the loud profession of his attachment to the religion of his country. He was, if we may so speak, the Gamaliel of Ephesus, not without parallels among the princes and statesmen and prelates who have lived in the critical times of political and religious changes, and have endeavoured to hold the balance between contending parties.

A worshipper of the great goddess Diana.—The substantive as well as the adjective belonged to the local vocabulary. Its literal meaning is “temple sweeper,” or “sacristan”—one consecrated to the service of the goddess. The Greek word (neôkoros) is found on coins and inscriptions of Ephesus as applied to the inhabitants, sometimes in relation to the Emperor, sometimes to the goddess. They looked to her as their guardian and protector. One inscription claims for the city the honour of being the “nurse” of the great goddess (Boeckh. 2954, ut supra). She was, as it were, to borrow a phraseology which presents only too painful an analogy, “Our Lady of Ephesus.” It is a curious fact that the same month was consecrated to Flora in Rome, and is now the “Mois de Marie” in France and Italy. The omission of the word “goddess” in nearly all the best MSS. is significant. She was, even without that word, emphatically “Artemis the Great” In some of the inscriptions of Ephesus she is described as “the greatest,” the “most High.”

The image which fell down from Jupiter.—The name was often given to old pre-historic images—as, e.g., to that of Athenè Polias at Athens. It may have been merely a legendary way of stating that no one knew what artist had sculptured the image, or when it had been first worshipped. Possibly, however, the word may have had a more literal meaning as applied to a meteoric stone which had been employed by the sculptor, or was worshipped in its original form. The many-breasted image of Aitemis described in the Note on Acts 19:24 is, however, reported to have been made of olive-wood. The word image is not in the Greek, and one familiar word (diopetes) was sufficient to express what requires seven in the English paraphrase.

Acts 19:35-41. And when the town-clerk — Greek, ο γραμματευς, the scribe; probably the proconsul’s secretary, to whom the direction of the affairs of the city was committed; had appeased the people — So far as to produce a degree of silence, the rioters, by their violent outcries so long continued, having spent their rage; he said, What man is there in the world, that has any intelligence of things at all, that knoweth not that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper — Greek, νεωκορον, the temple-keeper, of the great goddess Diana — The expression is compounded of words which, taken together, signify to sweep or clean a temple, being used of a priest or priestess, or other person, whose business it was to look after the temple of any god or goddess, and see that it was not only kept in good repair, but also neat and clean, and beautified in a proper manner. This title was given also to those cities which had the care of the games celebrated in honour of any god or goddess. And of the image which fell down from Jupiter — They believed that very image of Diana, which stood in their temple, fell down from Jupiter in heaven. Perhaps this town-clerk, or secretary, designed to intimate that this image, as falling down from Jupiter, was not made with hands, and so was not of that sort of idols which Paul had said were no gods. Seeing then these things cannot be denied — But are plainly incontestable; ye ought to be quiet — Gentle in your proceedings; and to do nothing rashly — By which you may run yourselves into vast inconveniences and dangers before you are aware. In this speech, the secretary took hold of the multitude by their prejudices; for without speaking any thing concerning Paul’s doctrine, that images made with hands were no gods, he desired the Ephesians to consider that their privileges, as keepers of the temple of Diana, and of her heaven-descended image, were so universally acknowledged, that there was no danger of their losing that honour through any thing Paul had spoken. For ye have brought these men, Gaius and Aristarchus, hither, which are neither robbers of churches — Greek, ιεροσυλους, robbers of temples, or sacrilegious persons; nor yet blasphemers of your goddess — The apostles had simply preached the one God, and the vanity of idols in general. The secretary further told them, that the men whom they had brought into the theatre were not yet proved to be guilty of those crimes which they appeared to lay to their charge; because, though they might have spoken against the images made by the craftsmen, they had said nothing against the image which Jupiter had given them: and added, that if Demetrius and the craftsmen had these, or any other crimes, to lay to their charge, of which they could prove them guilty, there were deputies. — Roman proconsuls, to whom they might apply, as the proper judges in such cases; and the courts of law were open — Where the matters might be fairly tried. But if ye inquire any thing concerning other matters — If ye inquire whether the temple of Diana or her worship be in danger, or what persons or religions should be tolerated in the city, these are public matters, which should be determined in a lawful assembly — An assembly regularly appointed, and such as has authority to judge in religious and political affairs. For we are in danger to be called in question by the Romans for this day’s uproar — Greek, εγκαλεισθαι στασεως, to be accused of sedition; there being no cause — No sufficient cause; whereby we may give an account of — May justify; this concourse — He wisely calls it by an inoffensive name. Fire, inundations, the sudden invasion of enemies, &c., might have excused a sudden concourse of people rushing together with some violence: but the secretary, with great propriety, observes that there was no such cause, nor any other adequate one, to be assigned in this instance. It must be observed, there was a Roman law which made it capital to raise a riot: Qui cœtum et concursum fecerit capite puniatur. And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly — And set Gaius and Aristarchus at liberty. The secretary’s conduct on this occasion shows that he had a good opinion of the Christian preachers. We may therefore believe, that in preaching against the established worship, Paul and his assistants had spoken nothing against Diana in particular, though their doctrine struck at all the heathen deities in the general: and even that in speaking against the established idolatry, they had used a becoming decency of language. The secretary, therefore, observing their prudence, entertained a good opinion of the cause they were engaged in. 19:32-41 The Jews came forward in this tumult. Those who are thus careful to distinguish themselves from the servants of Christ now, and are afraid of being taken for them, shall have their doom accordingly in the great day. One, having authority, at length stilled the noise. It is a very good rule at all times, both in private and public affairs, not to be hasty and rash in our motions, but to take time to consider; and always to keep our passions under check. We ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly; to do nothing in haste, of which we may repent at leisure. The regular methods of the law ought always to stop popular tumults, and in well-governed nations will do so. Most people stand in awe of men's judgments more than of the judgement of God. How well it were if we would thus quiet our disorderly appetites and passions, by considering the account we must shortly give to the Judge of heaven and earth! And see how the overruling providence of God keeps the public peace, by an unaccountable power over the spirits of men. Thus the world is kept in some order, and men are held back from devouring each other. We can scarcely look around but we see men act like Demetrius and the workmen. It is as safe to contend with wild beasts as with men enraged by party zeal and disappointed covetousness, who think that all arguments are answered, when they have shown that they grow rich by the practices which are opposed. Whatever side in religious disputes, or whatever name this spirit assumes, it is worldly, and should be discountenanced by all who regard truth and piety. And let us not be dismayed; the Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters; he can still the rage of the people.And when the town-clerk - ὁ γραμματέυς ho grammateus. The scribe; the secretary. This word is often used in the Bible, and is commonly translated "scribe," and is applied to "public notaries in the synagogues; to clerks; to those who transcribed books, and hence, to men skilled in the law or in any kind of learning." Compare 2 Samuel 8:17; 2 Kings 12:11; Ezra 7:6, Ezra 7:11-12; Matthew 5:20; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 13:52; Matthew 15:1; Matthew 23:34; 1 Corinthians 1:20. It is, however, nowhere else applied to a pagan magistrate. It probably denoted "a recorder; or a transcriber of the laws; or a chancellor" (Kuinoel, Doddridge). This officer had a seat in their deliberative assemblies, and on him it seems to have devolved to keep the peace. The Syriac, "Prince of the city." The Vulgate and Arabic, "Scribe."

Had appeased the people - καταστείλας katasteilas. Having restrained, quieted, tranquillized, so as to be able to address them.

What man is there - Who is there that can deny this? It is universally known and admitted. This is the language of strong confidence, of reproof, and of indignation. It implied that the worship of Diana was so well established that there was no danger that it could be destroyed by a few Jews, and he therefore reproved them for what he deemed their unreasonable fears. But he little knew the power of that religion which had been the innocent cause of all this tumult; nor that, at no very distant period, this despised religion would overturn not only the worship of Diana at Ephesus, but the splendid idolatry of the mighty Roman empire.

Is a worshipper - νεωκόρον neōkoron. Margin, temple-keeper. The word used here does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament. It is derived from νεὼς neōs, for ναὸς naos, a temple, and κορέω koreō, to sweep, to cleanse. But among the ancients, the office of keeping their temples was by no means as humble as that of sexton is with us. It was regarded as an office of honor and dignity to have charge of the temples of the gods, and to keep them in order. The term was also given to the cities that were regarded as the special patrons or worshippers of certain gods and goddesses. They esteemed it an honor to be regarded as the special keepers of their temples and images, or as having adopted them as their tutelar divinities. Such was Ephesus in regard to Diana. It was considered to be a high honor that the city was everywhere regarded as being entrusted with the worship of Diana, or with keeping the temple regarded by the whole world as especially her own. See Schleusner on this word.

And of the image - A special guardian of the image, or statue of Diana.

Which fell down ... - Which was reigned or believed to have been sent down from heaven. See the notes on Acts 19:27. It is probable that the image was so ancient that the maker of it was unknown, and it was therefore reigned to have fallen from heaven. It was for the interest of the priest to keep up this impression. Many cities pretended to have been favored in a similar manner with images or statues of the gods, sent directly from heaven. The safety of Troy was supposed to depend on the Palladium, or image of Pallas Minerva, which was believed to have fallen from heaven. Numa pretended that the ancilia, or sacred shields, had descended from heaven. Herodian expressly affirms that "the Phoenicians had no statue of the sun polished by the hand, but only a certain large stone, circular below, and terminated acutely above in the figure of a cone, of a black color, and that they believed it to have fallen from heaven." The same thing was affirmed of the ancient Minerva of the Athenian Acropolis (Paus., Att. 26); of the Paphian Venus, and the Ceres of Sicily (Cic. in Verr., v. 187). It has been supposed by some that this image at Ephesus was merely a conical or pyramidal stone which fell from the clouds - a meteorite - and that it was regarded with superstitious reverence, as having been sent from heaven. See the Edinburgh Encyclopedia's article, "Meteorites."

From Jupiter - See the notes on Acts 14:12.

35-41. when the town-clerk—keeper of the public archives, and a magistrate of great authority.

had appeased—"calmed."

the people—"the multitude," which the very presence of such an officer would go far to do.

he said … what man … knoweth not that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana—literally, the neocoros or "warden." The word means "temple-sweeper"; then, "temple-guardian." Thirteen cities of Asia had an interest in the temple, but Ephesus was honored with the charge of it. (Various cities have claimed this title with reference to the Virgin or certain saints) [Webster and Wilkinson].

and of the image which fell down from Jupiter—"from the sky" or "from heaven." See on [2062]Ac 19:27. "With this we may compare various legends concerning images and pictures in the Romish Church, such as the traditional likenesses of Christ, which were said to be "not made with hands"" [Webster and Wilkinson].

Town clerk, or secretary, who registered their acts, and intervened in all their meetings.

Is a worshipper; each country and city had their peculiar gods, which they worshipped, and took for their patrons, as Ephesus did this goddess Diana. But the word here signifies a sacrist, or one that looks to the temple to keep it clean; especially that hath the charge of more solemn shows or sports in honour of any supposed deity: and these Ephesians took it to be their no small glory, that they were employed in such as belonged to Diana.

The image which fell down from Jupiter; though the maker’s name (Canetias) is upon record, yet it having lasted whilst the temple was six or seven times repaired, at least, if not renewed, and none ever remembering when it first was brought in amongst them, the crafty priests persuaded the credulous people that it was fallen from heaven, thereby getting more honour unto it, and profit to themselves. And when the town clerk had appeased the people,.... Caused them to cease their loud outcry, so as that he could be heard. This person seems to have been more than a "town clerk", as we render it; or a common "scribe", as the Vulgate Latin, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions render it; rather as the Syriac version, "a chief man of the city"; the Septuagint interpreters in Exodus 5:6 use the word for the Egyptian officers that were over the Israelites; and the Babylonians used to call the priest of (a) Isis by this name; and according to some learned men, this man's office was to register the conquerors' names, and their rewards in the theatre; and who was chosen into this office by the people, and was a man of some considerable authority, as it is very apparent by what follows that this man was:

he said, ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana? the word "Neocorus", translated "worshipper", signifies an officer in the temple, one that looked after it, beautified and adorned it; for "Neocorus" is from which signifies to beautify (b); though some etymologists would have the word to signify to sweep and clean, as if this officer was a sexton; rather, he answered to a churchwarden, and to this agrees the Syriac version; though this office belonged not to a single person, but to a city. Now to be a worshipper of Diana, was not peculiar to the city of Ephesus, as appears from Acts 19:27 but to be Neocorus, a sacrist to the goddess, was a favour granted to some cities, and accounted a great honour; some had it twice, some thrice, some four times:

and of the image which fell down from Jupiter; or "of Diopetes"; so the Palladium, or image of Pallas, was called, because it was supposed to fall down from heaven, which Diomedes and Ulysses are said to take away from Troy; and here it seems to be something distinct from the goddess Diana, and her image, and may design another deity worshipped along with her, and by them, since they make mention of more gods, Acts 19:26. The Vulgate Latin version takes it to be the same with Diana, reading the words in connection with the preceding, "and the offspring of Jupiter"; she being said to be his daughter by Latona, as before observed; and the Ethiopic version understands it of her image, rendering them thus, "and of that molten image which was sent from Jupiter the great god"; and more expressly the Syriac version, which reads, "and of her image which fell from heaven"; and so was not made with the hands of men, and could not be objected to on that account, or denied to be a deity; and this the people might be the rather induced to believe, since it had been in the temple before the memory of any man. The Arabic version, reading these words in connection with the beginning of the next verse, gives a very different sense, "but neither indeed they that fell from heaven contradict the faith of this thing"; as if it was to be understood of the fallen angels, of which it can hardly be thought Demetrius had any knowledge. This image, Pliny says (c), it was doubted of what it was made; some said of the vine tree, others of ebony; but Athenagoras says, the old image of Diana of the Ephesians was made of olive (d).

(a) Alex. ab Alex. l. 2. c. 8. (b) Scholiast. Aristoph ad Nubes, p. 125. Colossians 2. (c) Nat. Hist. l. 16. c. 40. (d) Legatis pro Christianis, p. 17.

{10} And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said, Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which {n} fell down from Jupiter?

(10) An example of a political man who redeems peace and quietness with lies, which Paul would have never done.

(n) The Ephesians believed superstitiously that the image of Diana came down to them from heaven.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Acts 19:35. καταστείλας: only here in N.T. and in Acts 19:36, “had quieted,” R.V., cf. 2Ma 4:31, 3Ma 6:1, Aquila, Psalms 64(65):8, also in Josephus and Plutarch.—ὁ γραμματεὺς: “the secretary of the city” Ramsay; Lightfoot was the first to point out the importance of the officer so named—called also ὁ Ἐφεσίων γραμ. or γραμ. τοῦ δήμου; he was the most influential person in Ephesus, for not only were the decrees to be proposed drafted by him and the Strategoi, and money left to the city was committed to his charge, but as the power of the Ecclesia, the public assembly, declined under imperial rule, the importance of the secretary’s office was enhanced, because he was in closer touch with the court of the proconsul than the other city magistrates, and acted as a medium of communication between the imperial and municipal government, “Ephesus” (Ramsay), Hastings’ B.D., p. 723, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i., 66; St. Paul, pp. 281, 304; Hicks, Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, iii., p. 154, and Wood’s Ephesus, App., p. 49, often with Asiarchs and proconsul; Lightfoot, Contemp. Review, p. 294, 1878. St. Luke’s picture therefore of the secretary as a man of influence and keenly alive to his responsibility is strikingly in accordance with what we might have expected.—τίς γάρ ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος: “what man is there then?” etc. Rendall: the γάρ looks back to the action of the speaker in quieting the crowd, as if he would say that there is no need for this excitement, for all that you have said about your goddess is universally acknowledged.—νεωκόρον: “temple-keeper,” R.V., “a worshipper,” A.V., cultricem, Vulgate, lit[331], “a temple-sweeper” (on derivation see Grimm-Thayer, sub v.), and so found in classical Greek, a sacristan, a verger, Lat., ædituus, cf. Jos., B. J., v., 9, 4, where = worshippers, οὓς ὁ θεὸς ἑαυτῷ νεωκόρους ἦγεν. The title “Warden of the Temple of Ephesus” was a boast of the city, just as other cities boasted of the same title in relation to other deities. It would seem that the title at Ephesus was generally used in connection with the imperial cultus; in the period of this narrative, Ephesus could claim the title as Warden of one Temple of this cultus, and later on she enjoyed the title of δὶς, τρὶς νεωκόρος, as the number of the temples of the imperial cultus increased. But there is ample justification from inscriptions for the mention of the title in the verse before us in connection with the Artemis worship. For references, Ramsay, “Ephesus,” Hastings’ B.D., p. 722; Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i., 58; Wendt, Blass, in loco; Lightfoot, Cont. Rev., p. 294, 1878; Wood, Ephesus, App., p. 50.—τοῦ Δ., sc., ἄγαλμα: or some such word; the image was believed to have fallen from the sky (heaven, R.V. margin), like that of the Tauric Artemis, cf. Eur., Iph. ., 977, 1384, where we find οὐρανοῦ πέσημα given as the equivalent and explanation of διοπετὲς ἄγαλμα (Herod., i., 11). The worship of Diana of the Ephesians was entirely Asian and not Greek, although the Greek colonists attempted to establish an identification with their own Artemis on account of certain analogies between them. According to Jerome, Præfat. ad Ephesios, the Ephesian Artemis was represented as a figure with many breasts, multimammia (“quam Græci πολύμαστον vocant”), symbolising the reproductive and nutritive powers of Nature which she personified. This description is fully borne out by the common representations of the goddess on coins and statues. No one could say for certain of what the ἄγαλμα was made: according to Petronius it was made of cedar wood, according to Pliny of the wood of the vine, according to Xen. of gold, and according to others of ebony. For a fuller description of the image, and for some account of the wide prevalence of worship of the goddess and its peculiar character, Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, “Diana of the Ephesians,” Hastings’ B.D., B.D.2; Wendt, 1888, in loco; Farrar, St. Paul, ii., p. 13, and references in Wetstein.

[331] literal, literally.35. And when the townclerk] It is not easy to find an English word which comes at all near the significance of this title. “Recorder” has been proposed, because he had charge of the city archives, and Luther calls him “chancellor.” He was a most important personage, and his title is found at times on the coinage, and he gave name in some places to the year, like the Archon at Athens. Through him all public communications were made to the city, and in his name replies were given. It is this part of his duty which has led to the rendering “town-clerk.”

had appeased the people] Better (with the Rev. Ver.) had quieted the crowd. The appeasing was done afterwards by his speech. All that he could effect at first, was by the influence of his presence, to induce the assembled mob to mitigate their clamour and give him a hearing.

he said] Gk. he saith. The speech is full of ability, and shews that the man was fitted for his eminent position. It seems to shew also that the higher classes (as has been noticed in the case of the Asiarchs) were not so devoted to the service of the goddess as were the common people.

Ye men of Ephesus … is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana] The oldest MSS. omit “goddess” and only read “the great Artemis.” The word rendered “worshipper” is literally “temple-sweeper.” The name no doubt was first used to imply that any office in the service of so magnificent a goddess was a grand distinction; and not in Ephesus only did the worshippers of a special divinity apply this title to themselves. The Rev. Ver. gives “temple-keeper.”

and of the image which fell down from Jupiter] The same was said of the Palladium of the Trojans (Verg. Aen. ii. 183). The first clause of the speech is directed to point out how uncalled for their uproar is. There is no need for them to shout about the greatness of the Ephesian goddess. Everybody in the world is aware how devoted the city is to her worship and how glorious is her temple.Acts 19:35. Ὁ γραμματεὺς) the town-clerk.—τίς γάρ ἐστιν, for who is there, who then is there) Paul would have spoken otherwise. [But the raving (insane) multitude was unworthy of his preaching.—V. g.] However, the language of the clerk is ambiguous, and he may have spoken so, either because of (to suit) the exigency, or because he sincerely thought what he said: for even in Acts 19:37 he says, Your goddess, not, Our goddess.—Ἐφεσίων, of the Ephesians) By the repetition of the proper name, their celebrity is signified.—νεωκόρον) The Perinthians were νεωκόροι (worshippers, temple-worshippers) of Hercules; other peoples were worshippers of other gods; the Ephesians, of Diana. See J. H. A. Seelen Medit. Exeget., p. 523.—οὖσαν, is) At that very time the Ephesians were priding themselves on that distinction. See Gregory’s Observ., ch. 10. There was therefore a great conflux of men to the sacred games to her in that city.—Διοπετοῦς) They had supposed the image of Diana to have fallen down from heaven, from Jupiter.Verse 35. - Quieted the multitude (τὸν ὄχλον) for appeased the people, A.V.; saith for said, A.V.; who for that, A.V.; temple-keeper for a worshipper, A.V.; Diana for goddess Dann, A.V. and T.R. The town clerk (6 γραμματεὺς); i.e. the scribe, is the city secretary. Ὁ γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως, Thucyd., 7:19 (Meyer); Τοῦ γραμματέως τοῦ δήμου, inscription quoted by Howson (vol. it. p. 76, note). His office, as appears from the passage in Thucydides, was to read public documents to the people. According to some, it was not a post of much dignity at Athens (Becket, on Thucyd., 7:10); but according to Kuinoel it was an office of first-rate influence in the senate in the Greek cities of Asia, seeing the scribe was the chief registrar, had the drafting of the laws, and the custody of the archives. As there were three orders of scribes, there may have been a great difference in the political rank of each. Had quieted (καταστείλας, and κατεσταλμένους, ver. 36). Καταστέλλω means to "arrange," "put in order," the hair, the dress, or the like; hence "to restrain," "quiet;" found only in these two places in the New Testament, but not uncommon in the Maccabees and in Josephus. In classical Greek, ὁ κατεσταλμένος is a man of calm, quiet demeanor, as opposed to ὁ τολμηρός, one who is bold and violent. In medical language, καταστέλλω is to soothe, calm, etc., and φάρμακα κατασταλτικά and ἀνασταλτικά are medicines which check the growth of diseases, ulcers, eruptions, and the like. Temple-keeper, in R.V. and margin of A.V. (νωκόρος); literally, temple-sweeper, from νεώσ, a temple, and κορέω, to sweep. The word Neoceros was a peculiar title, assumed first by persons and then by such cities, in Asia especially, as had the special charge of the temple and sacred rites of any particular god. It first appears on coins of Ephesus, in the reign of Nero, and was deemed a title of great honor. One inscription speaks of ὁ νεωκόρος (Ἐφεσίων) δῆμος as making a certain dedication. But another use of the term sprang up about this time. Among the vile flatteries of those corrupt times, it became usual with cities to dedicate temples and altars to the emperors, and they received in return the title, meant to be an honor, of νεωκόρος of the emperor. Some extant coins exhibit the city of Ephesus as νεωκόρος both of Diana and the emperor (see Lewin, vol. 1. p. 411; Howson, vol. it. pp. 75, 76). The image which fell down from Jupiter (τοῦ Διοπετοῦς, understand ἀγάλματος, as in the 'Iphig. in Taur.,' 947), Διοπετὲς λαβεῖν ἄγαλμα; which is described in ver. 88 of the same play as "the image (ἄγαλμα) of the goddess Diana, which they say fell down from heaven (οὐρανοῦ πεσεῖν ἀπὸ) into her temple in Tauris;" and in line 1349 it is called Οὐρανοῦ πέσημα, τῆς Διὸς κόρης ἄγαλμα, "The image of the daughter of Jove which fell from heaven," brought away from Tauris by Iphigenia and Orestes into Attica. But it does not appear that there was any tradition that the identical image brought from Tauris was carried to Ephesus. There are several representations of the Ephesian Diana, or Artemis, on coins, of which one or two are given by Lewin (vol. 1. p, 411) and by Howson (vol. it. p. 66). The image was of rude form and execution, mummy-shaped, or like an inverted pyramid; πολυμαστὴ (rendered by St. Jerome multi-mammia, and explained as intending to represent her as the nourisher of all living things: Preface to Ephesians); made of wood variously described as ebony, cedar, and vine wood. Pliny says that, though the temple itself had been restored seven times, the image had never been altered (quoted by Kuinoel). The town-clerk

Or recorder, who had charge of the city-archives, and whose duty it was to draw up official decrees and present them to assemblies of the people. Next to the commander, he was the most important personage in the Greek free cities.

Worshipper (νεωκόρον)

Lit., a temple-sweeper. See on Acts 19:27. This title, originally applied to the lowest menials of the temple, became a title of honor, and was eagerly appropriated by the most famous cities. Alexander says, "The city of Ephesus is the sacristan of the great goddess Artemis."

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