Acts 10:41
Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(41) Unto witnesses chosen before.—Better, appointed. The precise word which St. Luke uses occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, but is connected with the word rendered “ordained” in Acts 14:23.

Who did eat and drink with him.—The three recorded instances of this are found in Luke 24:30; Luke 24:42; John 21:13. This was, of course, the crucial test which showed that the Form on which the disciples had looked was no phantom of the imagination.

10:34-43 Acceptance cannot be obtained on any other ground than that of the covenant of mercy, through the atonement of Christ; but wherever true religion is found, God will accept it without regarding names or sects. The fear of God and works of righteousness are the substance of true religion, the effects of special grace. Though these are not the cause of a man's acceptance, yet they show it; and whatever may be wanting in knowledge or faith, will in due time be given by Him who has begun it. They knew in general the word, that is, the gospel, which God sent to the children of Israel. The purport of this word was, that God by it published the good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ. They knew the several matters of fact relating to the gospel. They knew the baptism of repentance which John preached. Let them know that this Jesus Christ, by whom peace is made between God and man, is Lord of all; not only as over all, God blessed for evermore, but as Mediator. All power, both in heaven and in earth, is put into his hand, and all judgment committed to him. God will go with those whom he anoints; he will be with those to whom he has given his Spirit. Peter then declares Christ's resurrection from the dead, and the proofs of it. Faith has reference to a testimony, and the Christian faith is built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, on the testimony given by them. See what must be believed concerning him. That we are all accountable to Christ as our Judge; so every one must seek his favour, and to have him as our Friend. And if we believe in him, we shall all be justified by him as our Righteousness. The remission of sins lays a foundation for all other favours and blessings, by taking that out of the way which hinders the bestowing of them. If sin be pardoned, all is well, and shall end well for ever.Not to all the people - Not to the nation at large, for this was not necessary in order to establish the truth of his resurrection. He, however, showed himself to many persons. See the Harmony of the Accounts of the Resurrection of Jesus.

Chosen of God - Appointed by God, or set apart by his authority through Jesus Christ.

Who did eat and drink ... - And by doing this he furnished the clearest possible proof that he was truly risen; that they were not deceived by an illusion of the imagination or by a phantom. Compare John 21:12-13.

40-41. showed him openly; Not to all the people—for it was not fitting that He should subject Himself, in His risen condition, to a second rejection in Person.

but unto witnesses chosen before of God … to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose, &c.—Not the less certain, therefore, was the fact of His resurrection, though withholding Himself from general gaze in His risen body.

he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead—He had before proclaimed Him "Lord of all," for the dispensing of "peace" to all alike; now he announces Him in the same supreme lordship, for the exercise of judgment upon all alike. On this divine ordination, see Joh 5:22, 23, 27; Ac 17:31. Thus we have here all Gospel truth in brief. But, forgiveness through this exalted One is the closing note of Peter's beautifully simple discourse.

Not to all the people: Christ after his resurrection appeared not to the wicked Jews, for being to suffer no more, his enemies were not vouchsafed a sight of him; and thus he did not manifest himself unto the world, John 14:22.

But unto witnesses; these witnesses were the apostles, who were chosen by God himself immediately; and the vacancy supplied by lot, which was at God’s direction, Acts 1:24,26. The metaphor here used is taken from the ordinary way then in use of choosing men into offices, which is here alluded to.

Eat and drink with him: though in the gospel history we do not read that our Saviour drank after he rose again; yet it is sufficiently implied, being he did eat, and make a meal with his disciples, Luke 24:30,42,43Jo 21:12; and eating is put in Scripture for the whole refection, Matthew 15:2, compared with Luke 7:36.

Not to all the people,.... Of the Jews, who crucified him; nor to the whole body of the Christians, though at one time to a large number, even five hundred brethren at once:

but unto witnesses chosen before of God; by Christ himself, who is God:

even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead; namely, to the apostles, with whom he familiarly conversed by times, for the space of forty days after his resurrection; and Beza's most ancient copy; and the Ethiopic version here add, "forty days"; and particularly he did sometimes eat and drink with them; Luke 24:42 and though drinking is not mentioned, it is included in eating, as in Luke 7:36 wherefore there is no need to connect the last clause, "after he rose from the dead", with the latter part of the preceding verse, as some do, on that account.

Not to all the people, but unto witnesses {r} chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead.

(r) This choosing of the apostles is properly given to God: for though God is president in the lawful election of ministers, yet there is in this place a secret opposition and setting of God's choosing and men's voices against one another, for the apostles are appointed directly by God, and the Church ministers indirectly.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Acts 10:41. οὐ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, and therefore Cornelius could not have known the details fully. Theophylact well remarks, “If even the disciples were incredulous, and needed touch and talk, what would have happened in the case of the many?”—προκεχειροτονημένοις, i.e., by God; only here, not used in LXX or Apocrypha; in classical Greek in same sense as here, see Acts 14:23 for the simple verb. The preposition points back to the choice of the disciples with a view to bearing their testimony, Acts 1:18, so that their witness was no chance, haphazard assertion.—συνεφάγ., cf. Luke 24:41; Luke 24:43 (John 21:13), see also Ignat., ad Smyrn., iii., 3 (Apost. Const., vi., 30, 5).—συνεπίομεν: it is surely a false method of criticism which cavils at this statement, because in St. Luke’s Gospel nothing is said of drinking, only of eating (see Plummer, in loco). Bede comments: “here Peter mentions what is not in the Gospel, unless intimated when He says ‘until I drink it new’ ” etc.

41. not to all the people] For they, having rejected Moses and the prophets, who foretold Christ’s coming, and the nature of His Kingdom, were not likely, as Jesus Himself had said of some others of like character, to be converted by the rising of any one from the dead.

witnesses chosen before of God] Christ Himself speaks (John 17:6) of the Apostles as given unto Him by God.

even to us] Cp. 1 Corinthians 15:6-8.

who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead] See Luke 24:42-43. And in the narrative John 21:12-15 it is to be inferred, especially from the last verse, that Jesus Himself partook of the food which He gave to the rest.

Acts 10:41. Οὐ, not) Not now any longer, as He did before His death.—οὐ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, not to all the people) His kingdom is a kingdom of faith, which was to be propagated by witnesses, and those witnesses persons divinely approved of and trustworthy: and it is a heavenly, not a worldly kingdom; not one of vain splendour, but (as Justus Jonas expresses it) one lying hid under the (various) forms of the cross.—ἡμῖν, to us) The Apposition of the noun (μάρτυσιν) and pronoun (ἡμῖν).—συνεφάγομεν καὶ συνεπίομεν αὐτῷ, did eat and drink with Him) during two years and more before His passion. There is denoted by this phrase (concerning which comp. John 15:27), long-continued converse: nor were the apostles wont at any time to mention that they did eat with Jesus after His resurrection; for Jesus did this for their own conviction, not for that of others: and He even had spoken more widely as to not afterwards drinking of wine, Luke 22:18; Luke 22:16, “I will not any more eat thereof [of the Passover, not of any food] until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God,” than concerning the not eating of the Passover (in opposition to any se of food whatever). Therefore μετὰ, after, depends on Acts 10:40 [“Showed Him openly, after He rose from the dead;” not, “We did eat and drink with Him after He rose”]. Christ appeared after His resurrection to those who before had believed on Him, and who could bear witness that He, who was said to have risen again, was truly the Christ whom they had known before.

Verse 41. - That were chosen for chosen, A.V. Peter here again brings forward the special apostolic office of being witnesses of Christ's resurrection (see Acts 1:8, 21, 22; Acts 2:32; Acts 3:15; Acts 4:33; Acts 5:32; Acts 13:31; Acts 26:16, as well as vers. 39 and 42 of this chapter). This constant reference to the testimony of eye-witnesses is an indication of the thoroughly historical character of Christianity, and of the importance of Christian evidences. The new matter which Peter was to bring before Cornelius and his company begins at ver. 40, but with the prefatory remarks in ver. 39, which both attest the truth of what Cornelius already knew and prepare for the following revelation. Who did eat and drink (see Luke 24:30, 41-43; John 21:12, etc.). Acts 10:41Chosen before (προκεχειροτονημένοις)

Only here in New Testament. The simple verb χειροτονέω, to appoint, occurs Acts 14:23; 2 Corinthians 8:19; and originally means to stretch out the hand for the purpose of giving a vote. Hence to elect by show of hands, and generally to appoint. Plato uses the word of the election of leaders of choruses ("Laws," 765). In later ecclesiastical usage it signified ordain, as bishops or deacons.

Who (οἵτινες)

The compound pronoun marks them more strongly as belonging to the class of eye-witnesses.

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