2 Samuel 7:12
And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(12) Which shall proceed.—The promise here given certainly has immediate reference to Solomon, and it is thought by many that the use of the future shows that he was not yet born. This may be the fact, and if so, the expression will give an important indication of the point in David’s reign to which this passage belongs. But the same expression might have been used after Solomon’s birth, the future tense being merely an assimilation to the futures of the whole passage, and the point of the promise being that David’s son shall succeed to his throne.

2 Samuel 7:12. And when thy days are fulfilled, &c. — When the time of thy life shall expire. This phrase implies, that his days should be prolonged to the usual course of nature, and not cut off in the midst, by any violent or untimely death. Thy seed, which shall proceed out of thy bowels — This manner of speaking shows that it was intended to be understood of one who was not yet born, namely, Solomon; and that Absalom, Adonijah, and the rest who pretended to the kingdom, were not designed for it, having already proceeded from him. I will establish his kingdom — Solomon reigned a long time himself, and his posterity after him, and the Messiah, his seed, will reign for ever. So the following words may be understood, part of Solomon, part of his posterity in general, and part of Christ only, according to the different nature of the several passages.

7:4-17 Blessings are promised to the family and posterity of David. These promises relate to Solomon, David's immediate successor, and the royal line of Judah. But they also relate to Christ, who is often called David and the Son of David. To him God gave all power in heaven and earth, with authority to execute judgment. He was to build the gospel temple, a house for God's name; the spiritual temple of true believers, to be a habitation of God through the Spirit. The establishing of his house, his throne, and his kingdom for ever, can be applied to no other than to Christ and his kingdom: David's house and kingdom long since came to an end. The committing iniquity cannot be applied to the Messiah himself, but to his spiritual seed; true believers have infirmities, for which they must expect to be corrected, though they are not cast off.The prophet, having detailed God's past mercies to David, now passes on to direct prophecy, and that one of the most important in the O d Testament.

I will set up the seed - In one sense this mannifestly refers to Solomon, David's successor and the builder of the temple. But we have the direct authority of Peter Acts 2:30 for applying it to Christ the seed of David, and His eternal kingdom; and the title the Son of David given to the Messiah in the rabbinical writings, as well as its special application to Jesus in the New Testament, springs mainly from the acknowledged Messianic significance of this prophecy. (See also Isaiah 55:3; Acts 13:34.)

12. I will set up thy seed after thee, &c.—It is customary for the oldest son born after the father's succession to the throne to succeed him in his dignity as king. David had several sons by Bath-sheba born after his removal to Jerusalem (2Sa 5:14-16; compare 1Ch 3:5). But by a special ordinance and promise of God, his successor was to be a son born after this time; and the departure from the established usage of the East in fixing the succession, can be accounted for on no other known ground, except the fulfilment of the divine promise. When thy days be fulfilled; when the time of thy life shall expire. This phrase implies that his days shall be completed and prolonged to the usual course and stint of nature, and not out off in the midst, by any violent or untimely death.

I will set up thy seed after thee; I will set up in thy stead and throne thy posterity, first Solomon, and then others successively, and at last the Messias. So the following words may be understood diversely, part of his posterity in general or indefinitely taken, part of Solomon, and part of Christ only, according to the differing nature of the several passages.

Out of thy bowels; out of thy inward parts, or from thy loins; who shall be begotten by thee.

And when thy days be fulfilled,.... The days of his life, which were appointed by the Lord for him to live, and when he had filled up the common term of man's life, as he exactly did; for he lived just seventy years, see 2 Samuel 5:4,

and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; die and be buried; for this is a phrase expressive of death, and the grave the common portion of men:

I will set up thy seed after thee; sons to succeed in the kingdom, as they did for the space of five hundred years; though here it respects one particular seed or son, even Solomon, as appears by what follows:

which shall proceed out of thy bowels; be begotten by him, and born unto him, and has regard to a future son of his not yet born; not Absalom nor Adonijah, nor any of the rest born in Hebron were to succeed him in the kingdom, but one as yet unborn:

and I will establish his kingdom; so that he shall have a long and happy reign, as Solomon had.

And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
12. And when] And is not in the Hebrew text; perhaps and it shall come to pass, which is found in the LXX., has dropped out. Nathan now passes on from recounting God’s past mercies to Israel and David to a direct prophecy concerning the establishment of David’s house.

I will set up thy seed] First Solomon, who recognises the fulfilment of this promise in his elevation to the throne (1 Kings 8:15-20); then the line of David’s descendants who succeeded him on the throne of Judah; and finally Christ, in whom the prophecy reaches its highest fulfilment. See Luke 1:31-33; Acts 2:29-31; Acts 13:22-23.

Verse 12. - Thy seed... which shall proceed. As the son is to be established in the kingdom and to build the house, he must be Solomon, who plainly, therefore, was not as yet born (see note on ver. 1). 2 Samuel 7:12In 2 Samuel 7:12-16 there follows a more precise definition of the way in which the Lord would build a house for His servant David: "When thy days shall become full, and thou shalt lie with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall come from thy body, and establish his kingdom. He will build a house for my name, and I shall establish the throne of his kingdom for ever." הקים, to set up i.e., to promote to royal dignity. יצא אשׁר is not to be altered into יצא אשׁר, as Thenius and others maintain. The assumption that Solomon had already been born, is an unfounded one (see the note to 2 Samuel 5:11); and it by no means follows from the statement in 2 Samuel 7:1, to the effect that God had given David rest from all his enemies, that his resolution to build a temple was not formed till the closing years of his reign.
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