2 Kings 13:10
In the thirty and seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10-25) THE REIGN OF JOASH, OR JEHOASH.ELISHA FORETELLS HIS SUCCESSES AGAINST THE SYRIANS.

(10) In the thirty and seventh year.—This does not agree with 2Kings 13:1. The Ald. LXX. reads,” thirty-ninth,” which is right.

Began . . . to reign, and reigned sixteen years.—The Hebrew is briefer, reigned sixteen years.

2 Kings 13:10. In the thirty and seventh year of Joash, king of Judah, &c. — A difficulty arises in comparing this with 2 Kings 13:1, where it is said, Jehoahaz began to reign in the twenty-third year of Joash, king of Judah, and reigned seventeen years: from whence it follows, that this Jehoash, son of Jehoahaz, began to reign, not in the thirty-seventh, but in the thirty-ninth or fortieth year of Joash, king of Judah. This difficulty, however, is solved by supposing, what is very probable, that Jehoahaz had made his son Jehoash king, jointly with himself, two or three years before his death. This is the more probable, because he was perpetually in a state of war, and consequently in danger of an untimely death; and because his son was a man of valour, as is implied, 2 Kings 13:12, and declared, 2 Chronicles 25:17-24.13:10-19 Jehoash, the king, came to Elisha, to receive his dying counsel and blessing. It may turn much to our spiritual advantage, to attend the sick-beds and death-beds of good men, that we may be encouraged in religion by the living comforts they have from it in a dying hour. Elisha assured the king of his success; yet he must look up to God for direction and strength; must reckon his own hands not enough, but go on, in dependence upon Divine aid. The trembling hands of the dying prophet, as they signified the power of God, gave this arrow more force than the hands of the king in his full strength. By contemning the sign, the king lost the thing signified, to the grief of the dying prophet. It is a trouble to good men, to see those to whom they wish well, forsake their own mercies, and to see them lose advantages against spiritual enemies.The meaning is that "he, the king of Syria" (2 Kings 13:4 Hazael) limited the standing army of Jehoahaz.

Like the dust by threshing - An expression not only employed metaphorically, and importing defeat, conquest, and grinding oppression Jeremiah 51:33; Micah 4:12, but implying also the literal use of threshing-instruments in the execution of prisoners of war (marginal reference, and compare 2 Samuel 12:31).

2Ki 13:8-25. Joash Succeeds Him.

8. his might—This is particularly noticed in order to show that the grievous oppression from foreign enemies, by which the Israelites were ground down, was not owing to the cowardice or imbecility of their king, but solely to the righteous and terrible judgment of God for their foul apostasy.

By which, compared with 2 Kings 13:1, it may be gathered that Jehoahaz had two or three years before his death made his son Jehoash king with him; which is very probable, because he was perpetually in the state of war, and consequently in danger of an untimely death, and because he was a man of valour, as is implied here, 2 Kings 13:12, and declared 2Ch 25. In the thirty and seventh year of Joash king of Judah, began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria,.... But inasmuch as his father began to reign in the twenty third of Joash, and reigned seventeen years, 2 Kings 13:1 this king must begin to reign in the thirty ninth or fortieth of Joash; for the reconciling of which it may be observed, that two of the years of his reign may be supposed to be imperfect; or rather that his son reigned two or three years in his lifetime, being raised up before his father's death to be a saviour of Israel from the Syrians; and so his father lived to see his prayer answered, 2 Kings 13:4,

and reigned sixteen years.

In the thirty and seventh year of Joash king {g} of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years.

(g) His chief purpose is to describe the kingdom of Judah, and how God performed his promise made to the house of David: but in the process he shows how Israel was afflicted and punished for their great idolatry, who though they had now degenerated, yet God both by sending them many prophets and various punishments, called them to him again.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10–13. Reign of Jehoash king of Israel (2 Chronicles 25:17-24)

10. In the thirty and seventh year of Joash] See above on verse 1.

Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz] As in the case of Jehoash king of Judah (see 2 Kings 12:2; 2 Kings 12:19-20) so here the longer form, in the previous verse the shorter form of this name is written. This was the second of the four generations promised to Jehu.Verses 10-25. - THE REIGN OF JOASH. The writer passes from the reign of Jehoahaz, Jehu's son, to that of Joash, Jehu's grandson, which he seems to have intended at first to dispatch in the short space of four verses (vers. 10-13). He afterwards, however, saw reason to add to his narrative, first, an account of an interview between Joash and Elisha, shortly Before the death of the latter (vers. 14-19); secondly, an account of a miracle wrought soon afterwards by means of Elisha's corpse (vers. 20, 21); and thirdly, a brief notice of Joash's Syrian war (vers. 22-25). Verse 10. - In the thirty and seventh year of Joash King of Judah. Three years before his death, since he reigned forty years (2 Kings 12:1). The two Joashes were thus contemporary monarchs for the space of three years. Began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign ever Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years. The construction is the same as that of ver. 1, and is equally ungrammatical. Our translators again amend the faulty phrase by introducing the words "and reigned" The "sixteen years" of the reign of Joash are confirmed by Josephus ('Ant. Jud.,' 9:8. § 6), but still present some difficulty (see the comment on 2 Kings 14:23). In this oppression Jehoahaz prayed to the Lord (יי פּני חלּה as in 1 Kings 13:6); and the Lord heard this prayer, because He saw their oppression at the hands of the Syrians, and gave Israel a saviour, so that they came out from the power of the Syrians and dwelt in their booths again, as before, i.e., were able to live peaceably again in their houses, without being driven off and led away by the foe. The saviour, מושׁיע, was neither an angel, nor the prophet Elisha, nor quidam e ducibus Joasi, as some of the earlier commentators supposed, nor a victory obtained by Jehoahaz over the Syrians, nor merely Jeroboam (Thenius); but the Lord gave them the saviour in the two successors of Jehoahaz, in the kings Jehoash and Jeroboam, the former of whom wrested from the Syrians all the cities that had been conquered by them under his father (2 Kings 13:25), while the latter restored the ancient boundaries of Israel (2 Kings 14:25). According to 2 Kings 13:22-25, the oppression by the Syrians lasted as long as Jehoahaz lived; but after his death the Lord had compassion upon Israel, and after the death of Hazael, when his son Benhadad had become king, Jehoash recovered from Benhadad all the Israelitish cities that had been taken by the Syrians. It is obvious from this, that the oppression which Benhadad the son of Hazael inflicted upon Israel, according to 2 Kings 13:3, falls within the period of his father's reign, so that it was not as king, but as commander-in-chief under his father, that he oppressed Israel, and therefore he is not even called king in 2 Kings 13:3.
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