2 Chronicles 29:31
Then Hezekiah answered and said, Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the LORD, come near and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the LORD. And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank offerings; and as many as were of a free heart burnt offerings.
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(2Chronicles 29:31-36).

(31) Answered and said.—See 1Chronicles 12:17. The phrase is used as we should use it in Exodus 4:1; 2Kings 7:13.

Ye have consecrated . . .—Literally, ye have filled your hand for Jehovah, a phrase used of the consecration of priests (Leviticus 7:37). Here it is addressed to the whole assembly, as the following words prove (unless the text be unsound). The congregation, as well as the sacerdotal order, had consecrated themselves anew to Jehovah, by their presence and participation in the previous solemnities. Others suppose that these words are spoken to the priests only, and that then the king turns to the congregation with the words “Come near,” &c. (There should be a semicolon after “the Lord.”)

Sacrifices and thank offerings (zebahîn we thôdôth).—The first word means thank-offerings” ( = zébahîm shelamîm); the second, a peculiar species of thank-offering, apparently accompanied by a special kind of psalms called tôdôth (“thanksgivings”). “Sacrifices and thank-offerings” therefore means “sacrifices, that is, thank-offerings.” (See Leviticus 7:12; Leviticus 7:16, for the three kinds of thank-offerings.)

As many as were of a free heart.—Literally, Every free-hearted one (1Chronicles 29:6; 1Chronicles 29:9).

Burnt offerings were a token of greater self-denial and disinterestedness than thank-offerings, because they were wholly consumed on the altar, whereas the worshippers feasted upon the latter.

2 Chronicles 29:31. Now ye have consecrated yourselves to the Lord — Have both made an atonement, and made a covenant by sacrifice; are solemnly reconciled and engaged to him; come near and bring sacrifices — Our covenant with God must be pursued and improved in communion with him. Having consecrated ourselves in the first place to the Lord, we must bring the sacrifices of prayer, and praise, and alms, to his house. As many as were of a free heart brought burnt-offerings — Wherein there was more generosity than in the other sacrifices, because they were wholly burned and offered to God.

29:20-36 As soon as Hezekiah heard that the temple was ready, he lost no time. Atonement must be made for the sins of the last reign. It was not enough to lament and forsake those sins; they brought a sin-offering. Our repentance and reformation will not obtain pardon but in and through Christ, who was made sin, that is, a sin-offering for us. While the offerings were on the altar, the Levites sang. Sorrow for sin must not prevent us from praising God. The king and the congregation gave their consent to all that was done. It is not enough for us to be where God is worshipped, if we do not ourselves worship with the heart. And we should offer up our spiritual sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, and devote ourselves and all we have, as sacrifices, acceptable to the Father only through the Redeemer.Hezekiah addresses, not the priests, but the congregation: "Now that by the atoning sacrifice which has been offered for you, you are consecrated once more to be a holy people to the Lord, approach with confidence and offer your free-will offerings as of old."

Burnt offerings - The term thus translated is applied especially to those victims which were to be wholly consumed upon the altar. In the "sacrifices," or peace offerings generally, and the "thank offerings" - a particular kind of peace offering Leviticus 7:12) - the greater part of the victim belonged to, and was consumed by, the worshipper. Hence, to offer "burnt offerings," was indicative of a "free heart."

31. Hezekiah … said, Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the Lord, come near—This address was made to the priests as being now, by the sacrifice of the expiation offerings, anew consecrated to the service of God and qualified to resume the functions of their sacred office (Ex 28:41; 29:32).

the congregation brought in—that is, the body of civic rulers present.

Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the Lord; now that you have reconciled yourselves and the house to God’s favour, and that he is willing and ready to accept your sacrifices.

Burnt-offerings; wherein there was more generosity than in the ether sacrifices, because they were wholly burnt and offered to God, and the people had no share in them as they had in the rest.

Then Hezekiah answered and said,.... Or proceeded to say, as follows:

now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the Lord; having entered anew on the performance of their office, filling their hands with sacrifices, as the words signify:

come near, and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the Lord; which the people were to put into their hands to offer for them:

and the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank offerings; peace offerings, part of which the offerers had to feast on with their friends so expressing their joy and thankfulness on this occasion:

and as many as were of a free heart burnt offerings; of which they had no share, but were wholly the Lord's; and which was a greater proof of their liberality, and so of their sincere and cordial thankfulness.

Then Hezekiah answered and said, Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the LORD, come near and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the LORD. And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank offerings; and as many as were of a free heart burnt offerings.
31–36 (not in Kings). A Great Sacrifice of Burnt Offerings and Thank Offerings

31. answered and said] i.e. answered the thoughts or expectation of the people, for no question had been asked; cp. Job 3:2 (R.V.).

ye have consecrated yourselves] Heb. “filled your hand”; cp. 2 Chronicles 13:9; Exodus 28:41.

were of a free heart burnt offerings] R.V. were of a willing heart brought burnt offerings.

Verse 31. - Ye have consecrated yourselves. The Hebrew text is (with the margin of both Authorized and Revised Versions), "have filled your hands to Jehovah." Our somewhat awkward and somewhat misleading reproduction in English of the Hebrew text is, nevertheless, on the whole defensible. The phrase occurs some seventeen times (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 29:9, 29, 33, 35; Exodus 32:29; Leviticus 8:33; Leviticus 16:32; Leviticus 21:10; Numbers 3:3; Judges 17:5, 12; 1 Kings 13:33; 1 Chronicles 29:5; 2 Chronicles 13:9; Ezekiel 43:26), and in some of these instances is most conveniently represented by the rendering "consecrate." The plural noun הַמִּלֻאִים, or חַמִּלוּאִיִם, is found thirteen times, in three of which places it is spoken of "stones to be set," as e.g. "for" or "in the ephod" (Exodus 25:7; Exodus 35:9, 27; 1 Chronicles 29:2); and in the other ten, of "consecration," as e.g. "a ram of consecration," "the ram of Aaron's consecration" (Exodus 29:22, 26, 27, 31, 34; Leviticus 7:37; Leviticus 8:22, 28, 29, 31, 33). Some think our text, "Now ye have consecrated yourselves," glances at the sacrifices of a propitiatory sort, which had just been completed; others, that the reference is by anticipation - to the fact that the people invited to draw near had, in an honourable, holy, and sincerely devoted way, armed themselves with worthy offerings. The sacrifices and thank offerings were sacrifices "of thank offerings," in the nature of the peace offerings (Leviticus 7:11-21, 29-36). The burnt offerings marked the "free heart," inasmuch as there was nothing of them reserved from the consuming of the altar for use. As many as were of a free heart; Hebrew, וְכָל־נְרִיב לֵב. Among some sixty occurrences of this word, in its verb, noun, or (as hero) adjective form, perhaps the most touching and beautifully expressive is that of Psalm 60:12, "Uphold me with thy free Spirit." Sacrifices; Hebrew, זְבָחִים. This is the plural of זֶבַח- a word that expresses the generic idea, as e.g. the feast of sacrifice; again, the act of slaying and sacrificing a victim; again, the victim itself; again, those kinds of sacrifices that were expiatory or eucharistic, but not holocaustic (Leviticus 7:12). Thank offerings; Hebrew, תּודות. This word occurs about thirty-two times; in about two-thirds of that number denoting the spiritual acts of giving of thanks, even when accompanied by the figurative idea of "sacrifices" (Psalm 56:13; Psalm 107:22; Psalm 116:17), the genuine adoring praise or thanksgiving constituting the sacrifice; and in the other third denoting strictly sacrificial offerings, as several times in Leviticus (Leviticus 7:12; 22:29) and here. Our 2 Chronicles 33:16 classifies these with "peace offerings" (שְׁלָמִים), as do many other passages with "burnt offerings" generally (Judges 20:26; Judges 21:4; 1 Samuel 13:9; 2 Samuel 6:17; 1 Chronicles 16:1; 1 Chronicles 21:26). 2 Chronicles 29:31The sacrifice of thank-offerings and praise-offerings and voluntary burnt-offering. - Hezekiah introduces this, the concluding act of this religious festival, with the words, "Now have ye filled your hand to the Lord," i.e., you have again consecrated yourselves to the service of the Lord (cf. Exodus 32:29 and the commentary on Leviticus 7:37.); "come near, and bring sacrifices and thank-offerings into the house of the Lord." The words "Now have ye filled" are regarded by the commentators (Clericus, Ramb., Bertheau, etc.) as addressed to the priests; while the following וגו גּשׁוּ are supposed to be directed to the congregation, and Clericus and Ramb. consequently supply before גּשׁוּ, vos vero, Israelitae. The summons והביאוּ גּשׁוּ can certainly only be addressed to the congregation, as is shown by the words הקּהל ויּביאוּ, and the congregation brought, which correspond to the summons. But the supplying of vos vero before גּשׁוּ is quite arbitrary. If in גּשׁוּ other persons are addressed than those to whom the king formerly said, "Now have ye filled your hands," the change in the persons addressed would have been intimated by mention of the person, or at least by ואתּם, "but ye." As the two clauses at present stand, they must be spoken to the same persons, viz., the whole assembled congregation, including the priests and Levites. We must therefore suppose that the phrase לי יד מלּא, which in its narrower sense denotes only the consecration of the priests for service at the altar (see on Leviticus 7:37), is here used in a wider sense, and transferred to the whole congregation. They, by their participation in the consecratory offerings, by laying on of hands and worship during the sacrificial act, had consecrated themselves anew to the service of the Lord as their God, and had anew made a covenant with the Lord (2 Chronicles 29:10); so that only the sacrificial meal was wanting to the completion of this celebration of the covenant, and for this the offering of sacrifices was requisite. The collocation ותודות זבהים is strange. זבהים are שׁלמים זבהים, sacrifices of peace-offering, also called briefly שׁלמים. Of these, in the law, three species - praise-offerings (תּודות), vowed offerings, and voluntary offerings - are distinguished (Leviticus 7:11, Leviticus 7:16). תּודות therefore denotes a species of the sacrifices or peace-offerings, the praise or thank-offerings in the stricter sense; and ותודות must be taken as explicative: sacrifices, and that (or namely) praise-offerings. לב וכל־נדיב, and every one who was heartily willing, (brought) burnt-offerings; i.e., all who felt inwardly impelled to do so, brought of their own accord burnt-offerings.
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