2 Chronicles 23:5
And a third part shall be at the king's house; and a third part at the gate of the foundation: and all the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) And a third part at the gate of the foundation.2Kings 11:6 reads: “the gate Sûr,” which appears there as a gate of the palace. (LXX., “the middle gate;” Syr. and Arab., “the Butchers’ gate”)

And all the people shall be in the courts of the house of the Lord.—This appears to be written from the point of view of a strict legalist, according to which none might enter the holy house itself save the priests. It looks like a protest against 2Kings 11:4, where it is said that Jehoiada brought the centurions of the royal guard into the house of the Lord.

23:12-20 A warning from God was sent to Jehoram. The Spirit of prophecy might direct Elijah to prepare this writing in the foresight of Jehoram's crimes. He is plainly told that his sin should certainly ruin him. But no marvel that sinners are not frightened from sin, and to repentance, by the threatenings of misery in another world, when the certainty of misery in this world, the sinking of their estates, and the ruin of their health, will not restrain them from vicious courses. See Jehoram here stripped of all his comforts. Thus God plainly showed that the controversy was with him, and his house. He had slain all his brethren to strengthen himself; now, all his sons are slain but one. David's house must not be wholly destroyed, like those of Israel's kings, because a blessing was in it; that of the Messiah. Good men may be afflicted with diseases; but to them they are fatherly chastisements, and by the support of Divine consolations the soul may dwell at ease, even when the body lies in pain. To be sick and poor, sick and solitary, but especially to be sick and in sin, sick and under the curse of God, sick and without grace to bear it, is a most deplorable case. Wickedness and profaneness make men despicable, even in the eyes of those who have but little religion.The writer of Chronicles relates the orders that were given to the Levites, the author of Kings those received by the royal body-guard (2 Kings 11:5 note). 4-9. This is the thing that ye shall do—The arrangements made for defense are here described. The people were divided into three bodies; one attended as guards to the king, while the other two were posted at all the doors and gates, and the captains and military officers who entered the temple unarmed to lull suspicion, were furnished with weapons out of the sacred armory, where David had deposited his trophies of victory and which was reopened on this occasion. At the gate of the foundation; at the east gate, thought to be so called, because it stood lower than the rest of the doors, at the foot of the steps, by which they went up from the king’s house to the temple.

In the courts; either,

1. In the two courts; and so by the people he understands as well the generality of the Levites, who had no particular stations allotted to them, as their brethren had, 2 Chronicles 23:4,5, which were to be in the priests’ court, as the people, who were in the court of the people: or,

2. In the court of the people, which may be called courts, the plural number being put for the singular, in regard of great amplitude, and divers quarters and partitions, into which it was or might be divided; as the temple is called sanctuaries, because of its division into divers parts, Leviticus 26:31. The contents of this chapter are the same with 2 Kings 11:4 and need no other explanation than what may be found in the notes there, to which the reader is referred.See Gill on 2 Kings 11:4. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:5. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:6. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:7. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:8. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:9. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:10. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:11. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:12. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:13. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:14. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:15. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:16. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:17. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:18. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:19. See Gill on 2 Kings 11:20. And a third part shall be at the king's house; and a third part at the gate of the {c} foundation: and all the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LORD.

(c) Which was the chief gate of the temple toward the east.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Verse 5. - A third part... at the king's house. It seems impossible to refer this to the royal palace, as some suppose from ver. 19 in the parallel. It probably designates the place where the child had been living in concealment. This portion of the description appears to correspond with the last clause of ver. 5 in the parallel. At the gate of the foundation. The Hebrew text here is יְסוד (Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:7; Habakkuk 3:13); in the parallel סוּר, a name only found there, and unintelligible - probably a corruption of the other word. The gate of the foundation is supposed to have stood at that corner of the area which was strengthened by additional works, where was the ravine separating Moriah and the hill to the south. All the people. Evidently the miscellaneous outside people are not here intended, who were not entrusted with the secret and the surprise that was to be, but the same all the people as are unmistakably designated in ver. 10; i.e. all who were appointed to officiate. The last clause in each of vers. 5, 6, 7 in the parallel go strongly to confirm the position that" the king's house "so far does not intend the royal palace, but such part of the house of the Lord as had been, and then still was, "about the king" (ver. 7, parallel); in order to keep watch "about the king,' they were set to keep watch of a certain part of "the house of the Lord." The six years' tyranny of Athaliah. - In regard to her, all that is stated is, that after Ahaziah's death she ascended the throne, and caused all the royal seed of the house of Judah, i.e., all the male members of the royal house, to be murdered. From this slaughter only Joash the son of Ahaziah, an infant a year old, was rescued, together with his nurse, by the princess Jehoshabeath, who was married to the high priest Jehoiada. He was hidden for six years, and during that time Athaliah reigned. The same narrative, for the most part in the same words, is found in 2 Kings 11:1-3, and has been already commented upon there.
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