1 Chronicles 6:49
But Aaron and his sons offered upon the altar of the burnt offering, and on the altar of incense, and were appointed for all the work of the place most holy, and to make an atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
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(49) But Aaron and his sons offered.—Literally, And Aaron and his sons were offering. The participle denotes unintermitted action. “Aaron and his sons” is a technical name for the priests, to whom, according to this passage, three functions pertained: (1) sacrifice on the altars of burnt-offering and inconse; (2) the work of the most holy place (Holy of holies); (3) atonement for Israel by special rites of sacrifice and purification.

According to all that Moses . . . commanded.—This refers to the entire ministry of the priests. The time in question is the Davidic age.

The servant of God.—Comp. Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:1; Joshua 1:13. After his death, Moses is thrice called “servant of Jehovah,” in whose earthly household he had been faithful as a servant (Hebrews 3:5). He fore-figures in grand if imperfect outline that other servant of Jehovah, of whom the second half of Isaiah has so much discourse. “Servant of God” (Elohîm) the chronicler writes, because in his day the NAME was held in ever-increasing awe.

1 Chronicles 6:49. But Aaron and his sons offered upon the altar — The noblest part of the ministry was reserved for them. Aaron alone, and his successors in the high-priesthood, made atonement and ministered in the most holy place. But his sons, the other priests, offered on the altars of burnt- offering, and of incense.

6:1-81 Genealogies. - We have an account of Levi in this chapter. The priests and Levites were more concerned than any other Israelites, to preserve their descent clear, and to be able to prove it; because all the honours and privileges of their office depended upon their descent. Now, the Spirit of God calls ministers to their work, without any limit as to the families they came from; and then, as now, though believers and ministers may be very useful to the church, none but our great High Priest can make atonement for sin, nor can any be accepted but through his atonement.Ethan - Or Jeduthun (see the margin). Corruption will scarcely account for the two forms of the name, since Ethan is used persistently up to a certain point 1 Chronicles 15:19, after which we have uniformly "Jeduthun." The case seems to be rather one in which a new name was taken after a while, which thenceforth superseded the old. Compare Abraham, Sarah, Joshua, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah, etc. 1Ch 6:49-81. Office of Aaron and His Sons.

49. But Aaron and his sons offered, &c.—The office and duties of the high priests having been already described, the names of those who successively filled that important office are recorded.

Having mentioned the work and employment of the high priests, he briefly rehearseth the names of the persons who successively performed it.

But Aaron and his sons,.... Those that descended from him, though of the same tribe of Levi were all priests:

and they offered upon the altar of burnt offerings; the daily sacrifice, and all the offerings of the people brought to them:

and on the altar of incense; they burnt incense night and morning: and were appointed

for all the work of the place most holy; such as were high priests of the line of Eleazar, whose work it was to go into the most holy place once a year:

to make atonement for all Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God commanded; in Leviticus 16:1 which see; and on mention of this, a list of the high priests from Aaron, in the line of Eleazar, is given, to the times of Solomon, in the four following verses, just in the same order as in 1 Chronicles 6:4.

But Aaron and his sons offered upon the altar of the burnt offering, and on the altar of incense, and were appointed for all the work of the place most holy, and to make an atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
49. the altar of the burnt offering] Exodus 27:1-8.

the altar of incense] Exodus 30:1-10.

to make an atonement] R.V. to make atonement; Exodus 30:10; Leviticus 16.

Verses 49-53. - These verses allude to the more special functions of "Aaron and his sons," as they are here called, i.e., his lineal descendants (vers. 4-15; Ezra 7:2-5), whose names, stopping at Ahimaaz, the eleventh generation, are the same with those of vers. 3-8. The manifest inference is that the present enumeration, stopping with the name of one contemporary with David (2 Samuel 15:27), was borrowed from tables of the date of David, and not of the date of the Captivity (ver. 15). Verse 49. - The altar of the burnt offering (Leviticus 1:3-17). The altar of incense (Exodus 25:6; Exodus 30:1-7, 7-9, 34-38; Leviticus 16:12). Most holy (Leviticus 16:12, 14, 15, 17, 20). An atonement for Israel (Leviticus 16:3-19; Leviticus 23:26-32; Numbers 29:7-11). 1 Chronicles 6:49(1 Chronicles 6:33-34). "And their brethren the Levites," i.e., the other Levites besides the singers just mentioned, "were נתוּנים given for every service of the dwelling of the house of God," i.e., given to Aaron and his sons (the priests) for the performance of service in the carrying on of the worship; cf. Numbers 3:9; Numbers 8:16-19; Numbers 18:6. But Aaron and his sons had three duties to perform: (1) they burnt the offerings on the altar of burnt-offering and on the altar of incense, cf. Numbers 18:1-7; (2) they looked after all the service of the holy place; (3) they had to atone for Israel by offering the atoning-sacrifices, and performing the cleansings according to all that Moses commanded. This last clause refers to all the three above-mentioned duties of the priests. Moses is called the servant of God, as in Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:1, Joshua 1:13.
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