These were all the sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Sons of the concubines.—David’s concubines (pilagshim, πλλακαί) are mentioned several times in Samuel (e.g., 2Samuel 12:11), but their sons here only. However repugnant to modern ideas, it was and is part of the state of an Oriental potentate to possess a harem of many wives.
And Tamar (was) their sister.—Not the only one, but the sister whose unhappy fate had made her famous (2 Samuel 13).
A comparison of the above lists of David’s sons with the parallels in Sam. makes it improbable that they were drawn from that source; for (1) the Hebrew text of the chronicle appears, in this instance, to be quite as original as that of Samuel; (2) Some of the names differ, without our being able to pronounce in favour of one or the other text; (3) The form of the lists is different, especially that of the second. The chronicler alone gives the number of the four and nine sons, assigning the former to “Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel,” and arranging the latter in three triads. 1Chronicles 3:9 also is wanting in Samuel.
And Tamar their sister; not the sister of the sons of the concubines, but of his other sons, and only of Absalom by the mother's side, of whom see 2 Samuel 13:1.These were all the sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Verse 9. - This verse plainly adds concubines, perhaps the ten spoken of in 2 Samuel 15:16, to the number of the mothers of the foregoing sons. The mention of only one daughter of David, viz. Tamar, follows the manifest ordinary rule, that daughters are not recorded at all, except for one of two reasons - either that through a daughter the line was saved, or that the daughter had from some special reason made a place for herself in history. 1 Chronicles 3:1-4. The six sons born in Hebron are enumerated also in 2 Samuel 3:2-5, with mention of their mother as here: but there the second is called כּלאב; here, on the contrary, דּניּאל, - a difference which cannot well have arisen through an error of a copyist, but is probably to be explained on the supposition that this son had two different names. In reference to the others, see on 2 Samuel 3. The sing. לו נולד אשׁר after a preceding plural subject is to be explained as in 1 Chronicles 2:9. שׁני, without the article, for משׁנהוּ, 2 Samuel 3:3, or המּשׁנה, 1 Chronicles 5:12, is surprising, as all the other numbers have the article; but the enumeration, the first-born, a second, the third, etc., may be justified without any alteration of the text being necessary. But the difference between our text and that of 2 Sam. regard to the second son, shows that the chronicler did not take the register from 2 Samuel 3. The preposition ל before אבשׁלום seems to have come into the text only through a mistake occasioned by the preceding לאביגיל, for no reason is apparent for any strong emphasis which might be implied in the ל being placed on the name of Absalom. The addition of אשׁתּו to עגלה (1 Chronicles 3:3) seems introduced only to conclude the enumeration in a fitting way, as the descent of Eglah had not been communicated; just as, for a similar reason, the additional clause "the wife of David" is inserted in 2 Samuel 3:5, without Eglah being thereby distinguished above the other wives as the most honoured. The concluding formula, "six were born to him in Hebron" (1 Chronicles 3:4), is followed by a notice of how long David reigned in Hebron and in Jerusalem (cf. 2 Samuel 2:11 and 2 Samuel 5:5), which is intended to form a fitting transition to the following list of the sons who were born to him in Jerusalem.
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