1 Chronicles 27:7
The fourth captain for the fourth month was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) The fourth captain for the fourth month.—Heb., the fourth, for the fourth month; an abridged mode of expression, which is preserved from this point to the end of the list.

Asahel the brother of Joab.1Chronicles 11:26. Asahel was slain by Abner at the beginning of David’s reign (2Samuel 2:18-23). The added clause, “And Zebadiah his son after him,” evidently refers to this fact. Perhaps the difficult statements about Mikloth and Ammizabad in 1Chronicles 27:4; 1Chronicles 27:6 were originally similar to this one about Zebadiah. The fourth division “may have been called by the name of the fallen hero in honour of his memory” (Bertheau).

1 Chronicles 27:7. Asahel the brother of Joab — As Asahel was killed before all Israel had acknowledged David as king, it is likely that this course was called the course of Asahel, in honour to his memory, it being commanded by his son. Poole, however, thinks that the foundation of this project was laid while David was in Hebron, and that then his forces were divided into twenty-four courses, under twenty-four chief commanders, whereof Asahel was one, only that the number of his forces was then much less than that which is here mentioned: but, he adds, when David was fully settled in his whole kingdom, the design was perfected, and his soldiers were increased to this number. Zebadiah his son after him — That is, after his death, of which see 2 Samuel 2:23. And in his course were twenty-four thousand — Not Asahel’s, for in his time they were not so numerous, but Zebadiah’s his son.27:1-15 In the kingdoms of this world readiness for war forms a security for peace; in like manner, nothing so much encourages Satan's assaults as to be unwatchful. So long as we stand armed with the whole armour of God, in the exercise of faith, and preparation of heart for the conflict, we shall certainly be safe, and probably enjoy inward peace.Asahel died before the courses, as here described, could have been instituted. Perhaps the arrangements of David in his later years were based upon institutions belonging to the period of his reign at Hebron. 7. Asahel—This officer having been slain at the very beginning of David's reign [2Sa 2:23], his name was probably given to this division in honor of his memory, and his son was invested with the command. The fourth captain was Asahel the brother of Joab; by which, it seems, the foundation of this project was laid whilst David was in Hebron, during which time Asahel was slain, and David’s forces were then divided into twenty-four courses, under twenty-four chief commanders, whereof Asahel was one; only it is probable that the number of their forces was much less than that which is here mentioned: but when David was fully settled in his whole kingdom, the design was perfected, and the numbers of their soldiers increased to this number.

His son after him, i.e. after his death; of which see 2 Samuel 2:23.

In his course; not Asahel’s, for in his time they were not so numerous, but Zebadiah his son. Over the first course for the first month,.... The month Nisan, sometimes called Abib, which was March:

was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel; the first and chief of David's worthies, 1 Chronicles 11:11.

and in his course were twenty and four; and so in all the following ones; this man was of the posterity of Perez, or Pharez, a son of Judah, and so had the preference and command of all the captains of the army for that month:

Dodai an Ahohite; the same with Dodo, 1 Chronicles 11:12 was over the course of the second month, the month Ziv, sometimes called Jiar, or April; and his lieutenant or successor was Mikloth:

Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest; or rather a prince, a principal officer, was general of the army for the third month, Sivan, or May; the same was mighty among the thirty, and even above them, for he was among the three mighty, 1 Chronicles 11:22 and Ammizabad his son succeeded him, or was his deputy, when other ways employed: though led by our version here, and following the Jewish writers, I have called Benaiah a priest; see Gill on 1 Kings 2:31, yet I am now rather of opinion that he was not one; for though priests might bear arms on some occasions, yet it is not likely that one should be in a constant military office, and especially general of an army; and besides, this man was of Kabzeel, a city in the tribe of Judah, which is not mentioned among the Levitical cities, see 2 Samuel 23:20. Asahel the brother of Joab was over the course for the fourth month, Tammuz, or June, and who being slain by Abner, his son Zebadiah succeeded him: Shamhuth, the same with Shammah, 2 Samuel 23:11 and Shammoth, 1 Chronicles 11:27 was captain for the fifth month, Ab, or July: Ira the son of Ikkesh, the Tekoite, was over the course of the sixth month, Elul, or August, see 1 Chronicles 11:28. Helez the Pelonite was captain for the seventh month, Tisri, or September, see 1 Chronicles 11:27, the captain for the eighth month, Marchesvan, sometimes called Bul, or October, was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zarbites, of the posterity of Zerah, a son of Judah in the line of Hushah, 1 Chronicles 4:4, the captain of the course for the ninth month, Cisleu, or November was Abiezer, of Anethoth, in the tribe of Benjamin, see 1 Chronicles 11:28, Maharai, of Netophah, in the tribe of Judah, and of the posterity of Zerah, was over the course for the tenth month, Tebet, or December, see 1 Chronicles 11:30 and the captain for the eleventh month, Sheber, or January, was Benaiah, of Pirathon, in the tribe of Ephraim, see 1 Chronicles 11:31 and over the course for the twelfth month, Adar, or February, was Heldai the Netophathite, the same with Heled, 1 Chronicles 11:30 and who was of the posterity of Othniel, the first judge in Israel, Judges 1:13.

The fourth captain for the fourth month was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
7. Asahel] Cp. 1 Chronicles 11:26, note.Verse 7. - With this verse, as Keil observes, the description of the successive courses is given with the greatest brevity. Zebadiah was of Judah. Inasmuch as Asahel (1 Chronicles 11:26; 2 Samuel 23:24) was killed by Abner (2 Samuel 2:23) before this division of military courses was made, it is evident that his name in this place marks, not the individual, but the family. Possibly he and his name were held in all the greater regard, and his son Zebadiah best known for the sake of his father. The twelve divisions of the army. - 1 Chronicles 27:1. The lengthy superscription, "And the sons of Israel according to their number, the heads of the fathers'-houses, and the princes over the thousands and the hundreds, and their scribes, who swerved the king in regard to every matter of the divisions; which month for month of all months of the year went and came, one division 24,000 men," is towards the end so intimately interwoven with the divisions of the army, that it can only refer to this, i.e., only to the catalogue, 1 Chronicles 27:2-15. Since, then, we find in this catalogue only the twelve classes, the number of the men belonging to each, and their leaders, and since for this the short superscription, "the Israelites according to their number, and the princes of the divisions which served the king," would be amply sufficient, Bertheau thinks that the superscription originally belonged to a more complete description of the classes and their different officers, of which only a short extract is here communicated. This hypothesis is indeed possible, but is not at all certain; for it is questionable whether, according to the above superscription, we have a right to expect an enumeration by name of the various officials who served the king in the classes of the army. The answer to this question depends upon our view of the relation of the words, "the heads of the fathers'-houses, and the princes," to the first clause, "the sons of Israel according to their number." Had these words been connected by the conjunction ו (וראשׁי) with this clause, and thereby made co-ordinate with it, we should be justified in having such an expectation. But the want of the conjunction shows that these words form an apposition, which as to signification is subordinate to the main idea. If we take this appositional explanation to mean something like this, "the sons of Israel, according to their number, with the heads of the fathers'-houses and the princes," the emphasis of the superscription falls upon למספּרם, and the number of the sons of Israel, who with their heads and princes were divided into classes, is announced to be the important thing in the following catalogue. That this is the meaning and object of the words may be gathered from this, that in the second half of the verse, the number of the men fit for service, who from month to month came and went as one class, is stated האחת, one at a time (distributive), as in Judges 8:18; Numbers 17:6, etc.; cf. Ew. 313, a, note 1. וצא בּוא, used of entering upon and leaving the service (cf. 2 Chronicles 23:4, 2 Chronicles 23:8; 2 Kings 11:5, 2 Kings 11:7,2 Kings 11:9). But the words are hardly to be understood to mean that the classes which were in service each month were ordered from various parts of the kingdom to the capital, and there remained under arms; but rather, as Clericus, that they paratae essent ducum imperiis parere, si quid contigisset, dum ceterae copiae, si necesse essent, convenirent.
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