1 Chronicles 2:46
And Ephah, Caleb's concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez: and Haran begat Gazez.
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II.—1Chronicles 2:46-49 : The sons of Ephah and Maachah, two concubines of Caleb.

(46) Ephah, Caleb’s concubine . . .—These sons of concubines appear to represent mixed populations or tribal groups considered to be of less pure descent than the chief houses of Caleb. The same title of inferiority might cover a relation of dependence, something like that of the clients of the great Roman houses. The name Ephah occurred in 1Chronicles 1:33 as a tribe of the Midianites. It is likely, therefore, that we have before us a record of the admixture of a Midianite element with the southern Judeans.

Haran.—Abraham’s brother (Genesis 11:26); a place in Mesopotamia where Abraham settled (Genesis 11:31). It is the Assyrian harranu (high-road). The Midianites claimed descent from Abraham (1Chronicles 1:33), this name therefore might well be borne by a semi-Midianite clan.

Moza.—Occurs in Joshua 18:26 as a town in Benjamin.

Haran begat Gazez.—Comp. 1Chronicles 2:24, Note. Gazez was probably a branch of the clan Haran. The LXX. (Vat.) omits the clause.

(47) The sons of Jahdai.—Heb., Yohdai, or Yehdai. The connection of these tribal groups with the foregoing is not clear; but from 1Chronicles 2:46 it appears that they were Calebites with a foreign admixture. It is curious to find the Midianite name Ephah recurring among them.

(48) Maachah, Caleb’s concubine, bare . . .—The Heb. is peculiar, “Caleb’s concubine Maachah—he bare Sheber,” &c. There is another reading, “she bare.” Maachah was a well-known Syrian state (Deuteronomy 3:14). (Comp. 2Samuel 3:3; 1Chronicles 11:43; 1Chronicles 19:6-7; and 2Kings 25:23.) These Calebites, it would seem, were of partly Aramean origin. The masculine verb “he bare” is intelligible if Maachah means not a woman, but a race. (Comp. 1Chronicles 19:15, “Aram hath fled” = the Syrians have fled; 16, “Aram saw,” &c.)

(49) Madmannah.—A town of southern Judah, mentioned along with Ziklag in Joshua 15:31. The Shaaf who settled here are different from those mentioned in 1Chronicles 2:47.

Machbenah, an unknown place in Judah, and Gibeah in the hill-country (Joshua 15:57) were settlements of the mixed Calebites called Sheva.

The daughter of Caleb was Achsa.—In Joshua 15:13-19 the father of Achsah is called Caleb son of Jephunneh. This Caleb son of Jephunneh is associated with Joshua in the Pentateuch (Numbers 12:6; Numbers 12:8), and took a prominent part in the conquest of Canaan.

As he represents Judah (Numbers 12:6; comp. Judges 1:10-12), it is reasonable to see in Caleb son of Jephunneh the chief of the tribal division of Hezron-Caleb in the time of Joshua.

Already in these curious lists we have met with special memorials of remarkable members of clans (comp. 1Chronicles 2:6-7; 1Chronicles 2:20), and we may see in the brief clause “and Achsah, daughter of Caleb” a similar notice that this famous person was a Calebite.

2:1-55 Genealogies. - We are now come to the register of the children of Israel, that distinguished people, who were to dwell alone, and not be reckoned among the nations. But now, in Christ, all are welcome to his salvation who come to him; all have equal privileges according to their faith in him, their love and devotedness to him. All that is truly valuable consists in the favour, peace, and image of God, and a life spent to his glory, in promoting the welfare of our fellow-creatures.A third line of descent from Caleb, the son of Hezron, the issue probably of a different mother, perhaps Jerioth 1 Chronicles 2:18. The supposed omissions in this verse have been supplied as follows:

(1) "Mesha, the father of Ziph; and the sons of Ziph, Mareshah, the father of Hebron;" or

(2) "Mareshah, the father of Ziph; and the sons of Mareshah, the father of Ziph, Hebron."

Ziph, like Jorkoam 1 Chronicles 2:44 and Beth-zur 1 Chronicles 2:45, is the name of a place where the respective chiefs ("fathers") settled. Similarly Madmannah, Machbenah, and Gibea 1 Chronicles 2:49, Kirjath-jearim (Joshua 9:17 note), Bethlehem and Beth-gader (Jedur, 1 Chronicles 2:51) are unmistakeable names of places in the list, names which it is not probable were ever borne by persons.

42. the sons of Caleb—(compare 1Ch 2:18, 25). The sons here noticed were the fruit of his union with a third wife. No text from Poole on this verse.

And Ephah Caleb's concubine bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez,.... An half-wife, or secondary wife; for though this man seems not to have had more wives than one at a time, yet he had concubines with them; we read of another after this, if not a third:

and Haran begat Gazez; whom he so named after his brother.

And Ephah, Caleb's {m} concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez: and Haran begat Gazez.

(m) The difference between the wife and the concubine was that the wife was taken with a ceremony of marriage and her children inherited, while the concubine had no marriage ceremony, neither did her children inherit, but had a portion of goods or money given to them.

Verses 46-49 give the names (the first of which appears as that of a man also, next verse and 1 Chronicles 1:33) of two additional concubines of Caleb, and of their descendants. 1 Chronicles 2:46Descendants of Caleb by two concubines. - The name עיפה occurs in 1 Chronicles 2:47 and 1 Chronicles 1:33 as a man's name. Caleb's concubine of this name bore three sons: Haran, of whom nothing further is known; Moza, which, though in Joshua 18:26 it is the name of a Benjamite town, is not necessarily on that account the name of a town here; and Gazez, unknown, perhaps a grandson of Caleb, especially if the clause "Haran begat Gazez" be merely an explanatory addition. But Haran may also have given to his son the name of his younger brother, so that a son and grandson of Caleb may have borne the same name.
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