And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about: and Joab repaired the rest of the city.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And he built the city round about.—Literally, and he built (or rebuilt or fortified) the city all round, from the Millo even unto the (complete) round. The Millo was probably a tower or citadel, like the Arx Antonia of later times. According to the chronicler David started from that point, and brought his line of defences round to it again. Samuel has simply, “And David built around, from the Millo, and inward.” This seems to mean that he carried his buildings from the fortress towards the interior of the city. Both statements may, of course, be true.2 Samuel 5:8 where something has evidently dropped out of the text.
The prowess of Joab on this occasion, and the part which he took in the building of the city of David 1 Chronicles 11:8, are known to us only from this passage of Chronicles.1 Samuel 28:6 the Targum adds another reason of his death, because he killed the priests of Nob; but that is not in the text:
therefore he slew him; or suffered him to be slain:
and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse; translated the kingdom of Israel out of Saul's family, upon his death, into Jesse's, even unto David; for the sake of which observation this short account is given of the last end of Saul.And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about: and Joab repaired the rest of the city.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)8. even from Millo round about] R.V. from Millo even round about. Millo, usually “the Millo,” meaning perhaps “The filling up,” was some part of the defences of the “city of David,” either a solid tower or perhaps an armoury, or a piece of supplementary work intended to strengthen an existing wall (LXX. 2 Chronicles 32:5, ἀνάλημμα, “support”).
repaired] Render spared or kept alive; cp. Exodus 1:17. Pesh. translates: “Joab gave his right hand to the rest of the men who were in the city.” The “rest (remnant) of the city” included Benjamites as well as Jebusites (Jdg 1:21).Verse 8. - Millo. There is great uncertainty as to the derivation and the meaning of this word. It is probably not really of Hebrew extraction, but of the oldest Canaanitish origin. In the Hebrew it is always used with the article, and would presumably come from the Hebrew root "to fill." Josephus seems to use, as synonymous expression for "David's wall round Millo," this, viz. "buildings round about the lower city" ('Jud. Ant.,' 3:2, compared with 5; 'Wars,' 6:1, where he identifies those "buildings," etc., with Acra). As the name of a family, it is mentioned in connection with Shechem, known specially as a place of the Canaanites (Judges 9:6, 20). The Septuagint represents it by the word ἡ α}κρα. In the remarkable passage, 2 Kings 12:20, the word "Silla" is even a greater enigma, which, however, may designate the "steps from the city of David" (Nehemiah 3:15), or "the causeway of going up" to the west of the temple (1 Chronicles 22:16). The likeliest view of Mille is that it was a very strong point of fortification in the surrounding defences of the hill of Zion (1 Kings 9:24; 1 Kings 11:27). In 2 Chronicles 32:5 the otherwise unvarying translation (ἡ α}κρα) of the Septuagint is superseded by τὸ ἀνάλημμα, a word itself of doubtful signification. For while some would render it by the word "foundation," Schleusner translates it "height." Grove (in Smith's 'Bible Dictionary,' 2:367) puts it in "the neighbourhood of the Tyropaean valley at the foot of Zion." Some clue may lie in the word "inward," applied to the building by David. Does it imply a covering by edifices of the space, or some portion of it, that lay between Zion and the rest of the city? (See also Keil on Kings, vol. 2:163.) 2 Samuel 5:1-3. - After Saul's death, in obedience to a divine intimation, David left Ziklag, whither he had withdrawn himself before the decisive battle between the Philistines and the Israelites, and betook himself with his wives and his warriors to Hebron, and was there anointed by the men of Judah to be king over their tribe (2 Samuel 2:1-4). But Abner, the captain of Saul's host, led Ishbosheth, Saul's son, with the remainder of the defeated army of the Israelites, to Mahanaim in Gilead, and there made him king over Gilead, and gradually also, as he reconquered it from the Philistines, over the land of Israel, over Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin, and all (the remainder of) Israel, with the exception of the tribal domain of Judah. Ishbosheth's kingship did not last longer than two years, while David reigned over Judah in Hebron for seven years and a half (2 Samuel 2:10 and 2 Samuel 2:11). When Abner advanced with Ishbosheth's army from Mahanaim against Gibeon, he was defeated by Joab, David's captain, so that he was obliged again to withdraw beyond Jordan (2 Samuel 2:12-32); and although the struggle between the house of Saul and the house of David still continued, yet the house of Saul waxed ever weaker, while David's power increased. At length, when Ishbosheth reproached the powerful Abner because of a concubine of his father's, he threatened that he would transfer the crown of Israel to David, and carried his threat into execution without delay. He imparted his design to the elders of Israel and Benjamin; and when they had given their consent, he made his way to Hebron, and announced to David the submission of all Israel to his sway (2 Samuel 3:1-21). Abner, indeed, did not fully carry out the undertaking; for on his return journey he was assassinated by Joab, without David's knowledge, and against his will. Immediately afterwards, Ishbosheth, who had become powerless and spiritless through terror at Abner's death, was murdered in his own house by two of the leaders of his army. There now remained of Saul's family only Jonathan's son Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 4:1-12), then not more than twelve years old, and lame in both his feet, and all the tribes of Israel determined to anoint David to be their king. The carrying out of this resolution is narrated in 1 Chronicles 11:1-3, in complete agreement as to the facts with 2 Samuel 5:1-3, where the matter has been already commented upon. In ch. 12 23-40 there follows a more detailed account of the assembly of the tribes of Israel in Hebron. The last words in 1 Chronicles 11:3, וגו יהוה כּדבר, are a didactic addition of the author of the Chronicle, which has been derived from 1 Samuel 16:13 and 1 Samuel 15:28. In 2 Samuel 5:4-5, in accordance with the custom of the author of the books of Samuel and Kings to state the age and duration of the reign of each of the kings immediately after the announcement of their entry upon their office, there follows after the preceding a statement of the duration of David's reign; cf. 1 Samuel 13:1; 2 Samuel 2:10., 1 Kings 14:21; 1 Kings 15:2, etc. This remark is to be found in the Chronicle only at the close of David's reign; see 1 Chronicles 29:29, which shows that Thenius' opinion that this verse has been omitted from the Chronicle by a mistake is not tenable.
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