Mark 16
Vincent's Word Studies
And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
At the rising of the sun (ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου)

More correctly, as Rev., when the sun was risen.

And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
Peculiar to Mark.
And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

See Mark 9:15, and Introduction. Rev., better, amazed. It was wonder rather than fright.

And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.
And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.

Omitted by best texts.

Astonishment (ἔκστασις)

See on Mark 5:42.

Afraid (ἐφοβοῦντο)

The wonder merges into fear.

By a large number of the ablest modern critics the remainder of this chapter is held to be from some other hand than Mark's. It is omitted from the two oldest manuscripts.

Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
The first day of the week (πρώτῃ σαββάτου)

A phrase which Mark does not use. In Mark 16:2 of this chapter it is μιᾶς σαββάτων

Out of whom he had cast seven devils

With Mark's well-known habit of particularizing, it is somewhat singular that this circumstance was not mentioned in either of the three previous allusions to Mary (Mark 15:40, Mark 15:47; Mark 16:1).

Out of whom (ἀφ' ἧς)

An unusual expression. Mark habitually uses the preposition ἐκ in this connection (Mark 1:25, Mark 1:26; Mark 5:8; Mark 7:26, Mark 7:29; Mark 9:25). Moreover, ἀπὸ, from, is used with ἐκβάλλειν, cast out, nowhere else in the New Testament. The peculiarity is equally marked if we read with some, παῤ ἧς.

And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
She (ἐκείνη)

An absolute use of the pronoun unexampled in Mark. See also Mark 16:11, Mark 16:13. It would imply an emphasis which is not intended. Compare Mark 4:11; Mark 12:4, Mark 12:5, Mark 12:7; Mark 14:21.

Went (πορευθεῖσα)

So in Mark 16:12, Mark 16:15. Went, go. This verb for to go occurs nowhere else in this Gospel except in compounds.

Them that had been with him (τοῖς μετ' αὐτοῦ γενομένοις)

A circumlocution foreign to the Gospels.

And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
After these things (μετά ταῦτα)

An expression never used by Mark.

Another form (ἑτέρᾳ μορφῇ)

More correctly, a different form.

And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
Afterward (ὕστερον)

Not found elsewhere in Mark. Often in Matthew.

And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
To every creature (τάσῃ τῇ κτίσει)

Rightly, as Rev., to the whole creation.

He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
Shall be damned (κατακριθήσεται)

A most unfortunate rendering. The word is a judicial term, and, as Dr. Morison truthfully says, "determines, by itself, nothing at all concerning the nature, degree, or extent of the penalty to be endured." See on the kindred noun, κρῖμα, judgment, rendered by A. V. damnation, 1 Corinthians 11:29. Rev., rightly, condemned.

And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
Shall follow (παρακολουθήσει)

The preposition παρά, alongside of, gives the sense of accompany.

They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
The sick (ἀρρώστους)

See on Mark 6:5.

So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.
And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
Following (ἐπακολουθούντων)

Following closely: force of ἐπί. Both this and the word for follow, in Mark 16:17, are foreign to Mark's diction, though he frequently uses the simple verb.

A manuscript of the eighth or ninth century, known as L, has, at the close of Mark 16:8, these words: "In some instances there is added as follows." Then we read: "But all the things enjoined they announced without delay to those who were around Peter (i.e., to Peter and those who were with him). And afterward Jesus himself, from the east unto the west, sent forth through them the sacred and incorruptible message of eternal salvation."

The subject of the last twelve verses of this Gospel may be found critically discussed in the second volume of Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament; by Dean John W. Burgon in his monograph, "The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel according to St. Mark Vindicated against Recent Objectors and Established;" Frederick Henry Scrivener, LL.D., "Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament;" James Morison, D.D., "Practical Commentary on the Gospel according to St. Mark;" Samuel Davidson, D.D., "Introduction to the Study of the New Testament;" Philip Schaff, D.D., "History of the Christian Church;" Canon F. C. Cook in "Speaker's Commentary on Mark ;" Samuel P. Tregelles, LL.D., "On the Printed Text of the Greek Testament;" also in the commentaries of Alford and Meyer.

Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent [1886].
Text Courtesy of Internet Sacred Texts Archive.

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