Song of Solomon 3:7
Behold his bed, which is Solomon's; three score valiant men are about it, of the valiant of Israel.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(7) Bed.—Heb., mitta. Probably, from context, a litter.

Song of Solomon 3:7-8. Behold — The bride-men continue their speech, and from the admiration of the bride, proceed to the admiration of the bridegroom: his bed — The bed seems to denote the church, which is comely through Christ’s beauty, and safe by his protection, in which Christ is glorified, and believers enjoy sweet fellowship with him. Solomon’s — Which is the bed, not of an ordinary man, but of a great king, whom Solomon typifies, and who is greater than Solomon. Threescore valiant men are about it — Very many, a certain number being put for an uncertain. He alludes to Solomon’s guard, whereby he designs all those creatures, whether angels, princes, ministers, or others, whose ministry God uses for the protection of his church. Every man hath his sword — Is prepared and ready to fight, to prevent those dangers which are frequent in the night season. The night may denote the whole time of this life, which may well be called night, in respect of that ignorance and error wherewith it is attended, (as the future life is compared to day,) this life being the only time wherein such a guard is necessary. 3:6-11 A wilderness is an emblem of the world; the believer comes out of it when he is delivered from the love of its sinful pleasures and pursuits, and refuses to comply with its customs and fashions, to seek happiness in communion with the Saviour. A poor soul shall come up, at last, under the conduct of the Comforter; like a cloud of incense ascending from the altar, or the smoke of the burnt-offerings. This signifies pious and devout affections, and the mounting of the soul heaven-ward. The believer is filled with the graces of God's Spirit; his devotions now are very lively. These graces and comforts are from the heavenly Canaan. He, who is the Peace of his people, the King of the heavenly Zion, has provided for the safe conveyance of his redeemed through the wilderness of this world. The bed, or palanquin, was contrived for rest and easy conveyance, but its beauty and magnificence showed the quality of its owner. The church is well guarded; more are with her than are against her: believers, when they repose in Christ, and with him, though they have their fears in the night, are yet safe. The chariot here denotes the covenant of redemption, the way of our salvation. This is that work of Christ, which makes him loved and admired in the eyes of believers. It is framed and contrived, both for the glory of Christ, and for the comfort of believers; it is well ordered in all things and sure. The blood of the covenant, that rich purple, is the cover of this chariot, by which believers are sheltered from the wind and storms of Divine wrath, and the troubles of this world; but the midst of it is that love of Christ which passes knowledge, this is for believers to repose upon. Christ, in his gospel, manifests himself. Take special notice of his crown. Applying this to Christ, it speaks the honour put upon him, and his power and dominion.Bed - Probably the royal litter or palanquin in which the bride is borne, surrounded by his own body-guard consisting of sixty mighties of the mighty men of Israel.7. In So 3:6 the wilderness character of the Church is portrayed; in So 3:7, 8, its militant aspect. In So 3:9, 10, Jesus Christ is seen dwelling in believers, who are His "chariot" and "body." In So 3:11, the consummation in glory.

bed—palanquin. His body, literally, guarded by a definite number of angels, threescore, or sixty (Mt 26:53), from the wilderness (Mt 4:1, 11), and continually (Lu 2:13; 22:43; Ac 1:10, 11); just as six hundred thousand of Israel guarded the Lord's tabernacle (Nu 2:17-32), one for every ten thousand. In contrast to the "bed of sloth" (So 3:1).

valiant—(Jos 5:13, 14). Angels guarding His tomb used like words (Mr 16:6).

of Israel—true subjects, not mercenaries.

Behold his bed: these are the words either,

1. Of the bridemen, who spake Song of Solomon 3:6, and here continue their speech, and from the admiration of the bride proceed to the admiration of the Bridegroom. Or,

2. Of the spouse, who being admired by the bridemen, turns their eyes and thoughts to the Bridegroom, and directs them to the study of his excellencies, and intimates that all her comfort and safety is from him. The bed, the place of rest and conjugal converse, seems to denote the church, which is comely through Christ’s beauty, and safe by his protection, in which Christ is glorified, and believers enjoy sweet fellowship with him, both here in the church militant, and especially hereafter in the church triumphant.

Which is Solomon’s; which is the bed, not of an ordinary man, but of a great King, whom Solomon represents or typifies, and who is greater than Solomon. Nor is it hard to understand the Messias under the name of Solomon, his type and progenitor, seeing he is, upon the same reason, called David, Jeremiah 30:9 Ezekiel 34:23, and elsewhere, especially considering that this whole book is by the confession both of Jewish and Christian interpreters to be mystically understood.

Threescore, i.e. very many, the certain number being put for an uncertain, as is frequent.

The valiant of Israel; he alludes to Solomon’s guard, or watchmen, whereby he designs all those creatures, whether angels, princes, ministers, or others, whose ministry God useth for the protection of his church. Behold his bed which is Solomon's,.... Not Solomon the son of David, and penman of this song, but a greater than he, the antitype of him; so it is interpreted of the Messiah by many Jewish writers (q): they were both sons of David and sons of God, and kings and preachers in Jerusalem. Solomon was a type of Christ in his wisdom and wealth, in the largeness and peaceableness of his kingdom; in his marriage with Pharaoh's daughter, and in building the temple, a figure of the church: and by his bed is meant the place where saints meet together for religious worship, his church visible, which is his resting and dwelling place; where souls are begotten and born again, and have fellowship with Christ; and which he has a property in by gift and purchase: and a behold is prefixed to it as a note of attention, directing the daughters of Jerusalem to turn off the discourse from her, and from commendation of her, to consider the greatness of Christ her beloved; who might conclude, that if his bed was so stately as after described, bow great must he himself be; and as a note of admiration, to show how much she was affected with the greatness of his grace to her, and the privileges she enjoyed of having nearness to him, and fellowship with him;

threescore valiant men are about it, of the valiant of Israel; ministers of the Gospel, such as are Israelites indeed, faithful and upright; and who are valiant, and heartily concerned for the good and welfare of Christ's people, and are careful that nothing hurt them, nor disturb their rest and repose. In the number of them, the allusion may be to the guard about Solomon's bed; which might consist of so many, partly for the security of his royal person, and partly for grandeur and majesty: and were just double the number of his father's worthies, he excelling him in greatness and glory; though it may be a certain number is put for an uncertain; and this is a competent and sufficient one.

(q) Targum, Aben Ezra, Jarchi, Kimchi, Ben Melech, and Abendana.

Behold his {f} bed, which is Solomon's; sixty valiant men are about it, of the valiant of Israel.

(f) By the bed is meant the temple which Solomon made.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
7. Behold his bed, which is Solomon’s] This is an answer to the question of the last verse, “Who or what is this which cometh up,” &c. It should be, Behold, it is Solomon’s palanquin, and it is spoken either by the same person who asks the question, or by another bystander. The word miṭṭâh, translated ‘bed’ by the A.V., has that meaning, but it is used also of couches at table, Esther 1:6 (R.V.), of sofas, Amos 3:12, and of biers, 2 Samuel 3:31. Here it means a litter or palanquin. The A.V. rendering, his bed, which is Solomon’s, is simply a literal translation of a pleonastic way of expressing the genitive which is constant in Aramaic, and which may have been common in the popular speech of Northern Israel.

threescore valiant men are about it, of the valiant of Israel] Gibbôr, the word translated valiant man, is the intensive of geber = ‘a man,’ and denotes a strong, bold man, hence a hero in war. Solomon’s litter is surrounded by his bodyguard.Verse 7. - Behold, it is the litter of Solomon; three score mighty men are about it, of the mighty men of Israel. The litter, or palanquin, is easily recognized. The word is mittah, which is literally "bed," or "litter," but in the ninth verse we have another word, appiryon, which is a more stately word. "the royal car." It is the bringing home of the bride which is described. In the forty-fifth psalm the idea seems to be that the bridegroom betook himself to the house of the parents and fetched his bride, or that she was brought to him in festal procession, and he went forth to meet her (see 1 Macc. 9:39). That was the prevailing custom, as we see in the parable of the ten virgins (Matthew 25:1-13). In this case, however, there is a vast difference in rank between the bride and bridegroom, and she is brought to him. The long journey through the wilderness is implied in the mention of the bodyguard (cf. Isaiah 4:6; Isaiah 25:4). The intention evidently is to show how dear the bride was to Solomon. His mighty men were chosen to defend her. So the Church is surrounded with armies of guardian attendants. Her Lord is the Lord of hosts. The description reminds us of the exquisite lines in Shakespeare's 'Antony and Cleopatra,' in which he describes the lovely Egyptian in her barge "like a burnished throne," lying "in her pavilion (cloth of gold, of tissue)," with the smiling cupids on each side, while

"... from the barge,
A strange invisible perfume hits the sense
Of the adjacent wharfs."


(Acts 2, sc. 2) The word mittah, "a bed, or litter," comes from a root "to stretch out," and is also used of a bier (see 2 Samuel 3:21). The idea is that of a portable bed, or sitting cushion, hung round with curtains, after the manner of the Indian palanquin, such as is still found in the Turkish caiques or the Venetian gondolas. It was, of course, royal, belonging to Solomon, not to any nobleman or private person; hence its magnificence. The bearers are not named. The bodyguard, consisting of sixty chosen men, forming an escort, were one tenth part of the whole royal guard, as we see from 1 Samuel 27:2; 1 Samuel 30:9. Delitzsch suggests that in the mention of the number there may be a reference to the twelve tribes of Israel - 60 being a multiple of 12. The term, "mighty men," is explained in the next verse as warriors, that is, men "held fast by the sword" (אֲחֻזִיִ חֶרֶב), i.e., according to Hebrew idiom, men practised in the use of the sword; so it is explained by some; but others take it as meaning that they "handle the sword;" hence our Revised Version. 1 On my bed in the nights

   I sought him whom my soul loveth:

   I sought him, and found him not.

She does not mean to say that she sought him beside herself on her couch; for how could that be of the modest one, whose home-bringing is first described in the next act - she could and might miss him there neither waking nor sleeping. The commencement is like Job 33:15. She was at night on her couch, when a painful longing seized her: the beloved of her soul appeared to have forsaken her, to have withdrawn from her; she had lost the feeling of his nearness, and was not able to recover it. לילות is neither here nor at Sol 3:8 necessarily the categ. plur. The meaning may also be, that this pain, arising from a sense of being forgotten, always returned upon her for several nights through: she became distrustful of his fidelity; but the more she apprehended that she was no longer loved, the more ardent became her longing, and she arose to seek for him who had disappeared.

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