The LORD tries the righteous: but the wicked and him that loves violence his soul hates.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Psalm 11:5. The Lord trieth the righteous — God may think fit to try the fidelity of him whom he knows to be upright, by many adversities, that he may afterward give him the more illustrious testimonies of his approbation and love, as well as that he may thereby correct the remaining imperfections of his character, may purge away his dross, and more thoroughly refine him for his Master’s use. But the wicked, &c., his soul hateth — Whatever success the wicked, and he that delights in doing mischief, may have for the present, it is certain God abhors his conduct, and, unless he repent, he will, without fail, severely punish him for abusing his power to oppression and violent dealing.
But the wicked - The wicked in general. All the wicked.
And him that loveth violence - Referring particularly here to those who were engaged in persecuting him who was the author of this psalm. They were contemplating acts of violence toward him Psalm 11:2; he says that all such persons were the objects of the divine displeasure, and would be appropriately punished.
His soul hateth - that is, "he" hates. God is often spoken of in language appropriate to man; and he is here referred to as having a soul - as he is elsewhere as having eyes, hands, or feet. The meaning is, that all such persons were the objects of the divine abhorrence, and that the divine dealings with them were not, as with the righteous, to "try" them, but to "punish" and "destroy" them. Knowing this, the persecuted author of the psalm, instead of fleeing, calmly committed himself and his cause to God.The Lord trieth the righteous; either,
1. He examines them, and knows them to be righteous, and consequently approveth, and loveth, and will preserve and bless them; which may be gathered from the contrary condition of the wicked, whom God is supposed to try, though that be not expressed, and upon trial finds them to be wicked, and therefore hates and punisheth them, as it follows. The like ellipsis of a whole sentence, see on Psalm 1:6. Or,
2. He trieth and exerciseth them and their graces by afflictions, or he corrects them for their sins; which is oft called trying, as Psalm 66:10 Zechariah 13:9 Jam 1:12 1 Peter 4:12. So this is spoken by way of concession, and to remove the offence which some men might take at David, whose person and cause they might be apt to condemn because of his troubles. Therefore he saith, God tries, i.e. chastens, even righteous persons; yet still he loves them, and therefore will in due time deliver them. But as for the wicked, let not them rejoice in my trials, for far worse things are appointed for them; God hates them, and will severely punish them.
Him that loveth violence; by which character he describes and brands his enemies, and aggravates their malice, because they chose and practised violence against him, not for any need which they had of it, (for David was a most peaceable and harmless man, and neither pretended nor endeavoured to do any more than to defend himself, and that, as far as was possible, without the offence or injury of any other man,) but merely from their love to injustice and violence, and their implacable hatred against goodness and good men.
His soul hateth; he hateth with or from his soul, i.e. inwardly and ardently.
but the wicked, and him that loveth violence, his soul hateth; that is, such who live in a course of sin and wickedness, and who not only do injury to the persons, characters, and properties of men, but love it, and delight therein, and also take pleasure in them that do the same: these God has a continued and inward aversion to; sin and wickedness being the abominable thing his righteous soul hates: and he shows his hatred to them, by not chastising them now, as he does his own people, but reserving everlasting punishment for them hereafter; see Proverbs 13:24.The LORD trieth the righteous: but the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)5. Each half of the verse is to be completed from the other. God proves and approves the righteous: He proves and rejects the wicked.
trieth] Alloweth in P.B.V. means ‘approveth after trial.’ Cp. Romans 14:22; 1 Thessalonians 2:4.
his soul hateth] Cp. Isaiah 1:14. God’s soul is a bold expression for His innermost, essential nature, which cannot do otherwise than hate evil, and of necessity also the evil man, in so far as he surrenders himself to ‘love violence,’ deliberately choosing evil for his good. Cp. Micah 3:2; Romans 1:32.Verse 5. - The Lord trieth the righteous. God tries the righteous, scrutinizing them with his penetrating glance, but a glance wherein there is protection and love. When he tries (or closely scrutinizes) the wicked, the result is different - the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth. Isaiah 26:8), has now been heard by Him, and that under circumstances which find expression in the following futt., which have a past signification: God has given and preserved to their hearts the right disposition towards Himself (הכין, as in Psalm 78:8; Job 11:13, Sir. 2:17 ἑτοιμάζειν καρδίας, post-biblical כּוּן
(Note: B. Berachoth 31a: the man who prays must direct his heart steadfastly towards God (יכוּן לבּו לשּׁמים).)
and to be understood according to 1 Samuel 7:3; 2 Chronicles 20:33, cf. לב נכון Psalm 51:12; Psalm 78:37; it is equivalent to "the single eye" in the language of the New Testament), just as, on the other hand, He has set His ear in the attitude of close attention to their prayer, and even to their most secret sighings (הקשׁיב with אזן, as in Proverbs 2:2; to stiffen the ear, from קשׁב, Arab. qasuba, root קש to be hard, rigid, firm from which we also have קשׁה, Arab. qsâ, קשׁה, Arab. qsh, qsn, cf. on Isaiah 21:7). It was a mutual relation, the design of which was finally and speedily to obtain justice for the fatherless and oppressed, yea crushed, few, in order that mortal man of the earth may no longer (בּל, as in Isaiah 14:21, and in post-biblical Hebrew בּל and לבל instead of פּן) terrify. From the parallel conclusion, Psalm 9:20-21, it is to be inferred that אנושׁ does not refer to the oppressed but to the oppressor, and is therefore intended as the subject; and then the phrase מן־הארץ also belongs to it, as in Psalm 17:14, people of the world, Psalm 80:14 boar of the woods, whereas in Proverbs 30:14 מארץ belongs to the verb (to devour from off the earth). It is only in this combination that מן־הארץ אנושׁ forms with לערץ a significant paronomasia, by contrasting the conduct of the tyrant with his true nature: a mortal of the earth, i.e., a being who, far removed from any possibility of vying with the God who is in heaven, has the earth as his birth-place. It is not מן־האדמה, for the earth is not referred to as the material out of which man is formed, but as his ancestral house, his home, his bound, just as in the expression of John ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς, John 3:31 (Lat. ut non amplius terreat homo terrenus). A similar play of words was attempted before in Psalm 9:20 אנושׁ אל־יעז. The Hebrew verb ערץ signifies both to give way to fear, Deuteronomy 7:21, and to put in fear, Isaiah 2:19, Isaiah 2:21; Isaiah 47:12. It does mean "to defy, rebel against," although it might have this meaning according to the Arabic ‛rḍ (to come in the way, withstand, according to which Wetzstein explains ערוּץ Job 30:6, like Arab. ‛irḍ, "a valley that runs slantwise across a district, a gorge that blocks up the traveller's way"
(Note: Zeitschrift fr Allgem. Erdkunde xviii. (1865) 1, S. 30.)).
It is related to Arab. ‛rṣ, to vibrate, tremble (e.g., of lightning).
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