For I give you good doctrine, forsake you not my law.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Pr 4:1-27. To an earnest call for attention to his teachings, the writer adds a commendation of wisdom, preceded and enforced by the counsels of his father and teacher. To this he adds a caution (against the devices of the wicked), and a series of exhortations to docility, integrity, and uprightness.
1, 2. (Compare Pr 1:8).
to know—in order to know.
doctrine—the matter of learning (Pr 1:5), such as he had received (La 3:1).Good doctrine; not vain, or foolish, or false, or pernicious counsels, but such as are true and profitable.
My law; God’s law or commands, delivered to you by my mouth. See Poole "Proverbs 3:1". 1 Timothy 4:6; and no other is here meant: it is the doctrine concerning Wisdom or Christ, as the following verses show; which serves to exalt him, and makes for the good and welfare of immortal souls; and such is the doctrine of the Scriptures, of Christ and his apostles, even all the doctrines and truths of the Gospel;
forsake you not my law; or "doctrine" (o); not the law given on Mount Sinai, as Gersom interprets it; but the doctrine of Christ, which goes out from Mount Zion: this the children of Wisdom should not neglect, relinquish, drop, or depart from; but should keep it, and abide by it.For I give you good doctrine, forsake ye not my law.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Verse 2. - For I give you good doctrine. This, while stating the reason for the exhortation in the previous verse, signifies that what the teacher has given and is giving, he has received from his father. I give; nathati, literally, "I gave," is the kal perfect of nathan, "to give," but the perfect is here used for the present, as denoting not only a past action, but one that is still continuing (Gesenius, 'Hebrews Gram.,' § 126. 3). Good doctrine (lekakh tov). The doctrine or instruction is "good," not only intrinsically, but as to the source from which it was derived, and in its effects. Lekakh is, according to its root lakakh, "something which is received or taken." From the standpoint of the teacher it is that instruction which he had received of his father. With respect to his hearers it is the instruction which is communicated to them, and which they receive (see on Proverbs 1:5). The LXX. renders, δῶρον ἀγαθὸν; similarly the Vulgate, donum bonum, "a good gift." Forsake ye not; al-taazovu, from azav, "to leave, forsake" (compare the corresponding phrase, al-tiltosh, from natash, "to leave, forsake," in Proverbs 1:8). Law (torah); as in Proverbs 1:8.
31 Be not envious toward the man of violence,
And have no pleasure in all his ways.
32 For an abhorrence to Jahve is the perverse,
But with the upight is His secret.
The conceptions of jealousy and envy lie in קנּא (derived by Schultens from קנא, Arab. ḳanâ, intensius rubere) inseparable from each other. The lxx, which for תקנא reads תקנה (κτήσῃ), brings the envy into 31b, as if the words here were ואל־תּתחר, as in Psalm 37:1, Psalm 37:7 (there the lxx has μὴ παραζήλου, here μηδὲ ζηλώσῃς). There is no reason for correcting our text in accordance with this (substituting תּתחר for תּבחר as Hitzig does), because בּכל־דּרכיו would be too vague an expression for the object of the envy, while אל־תבחר altogether agrees with it; and the contrary remark, that בּחר בּכּל is fundamentally no בחר, fails since (1) בחר frequently expresses pleasure in anything without the idea of choice, and (2) "have not pleasure in all his ways" is in the Hebrew style equivalent to "in any one of his ways;" Ewald, 323b. He who does "violence to the law" (Zephaniah 3:4) becomes thereby, according to the common course of the world, a person who is feared, whose authority, power, and resources are increased, but one must not therefore envy him, nor on any side take pleasure in his conduct, which in all respects is to be reprobated; for the נלוז, inflexus, tortuosus (vid., Proverbs 2:15), who swerves from the right way and goes in a crooked false way, is an object of Jahve's abhorrence, while, on the contrary, the just, who with a right mind walks in the right way, is Jahve's סוד - an echo of Psalm 25:14. סוד (R. סד, to be firm, compressed) means properly the being pressed together, or sitting together (cf. the Arab. wisâd, wisâdt, a cushion, divan, corresponding in form to the Hebr. יסוד) for the purpose of private communication and conversation (הוּסד), and then partly the confidential intercourse, as here (cf. Job 29:4), partly the private communication, the secret (Amos 3:7). lxx, ἐν δὲ δικαίοις [οὐ] συνεδριάζει. Those who are out of the way, who prefer to the simplicity of right-doing all manner of crooked ways, are contrary to God, and He may have nothing to do with them; but the right-minded He makes partakers of His most intimate intercourse, He deals with them as His friends.
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