Nehemiah 3:3
But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(3) The fish gate.—Through which fish entered from the Jordan and Galilee.

The sons of Hassenaah.—Contrary to custom, their names are not mentioned.

The locks thereof, and the bars thereof.The crossbars thereof, and the catches thereof, the latter holding the former at the two ends. Similarly in several other verses.

3:1-32 The rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem. - The work was divided, so that every one might know what he had to do, and mind it, with a desire to excel; yet without contention, or separate interests. No strife appears among them, but which should do most for the public good. Every Israelite should lend a hand toward the building up of Jerusalem. Let not nobles think any thing below them, by which they may advance the good of their country. Even some females helped forward the work. Some repaired over against their houses, and one repaired over against his chamber. When a general good work is to be done, each should apply himself to that part which is within his reach. If every one will sweep before his own door, the street will be clean; if every one will mend one, we shall all be mended. Some that had first done helped their fellows. The walls of Jerusalem, in heaps of rubbish, represent the desperate state of the world around, while the number and malice of those who hindered the building, give some faint idea of the enemies we have to contend with, while executing the work of God. Every one must begin at home; for it is by getting the work of God advanced in our own souls that we shall best contribute to the good of the church of Christ. May the Lord thus stir up the hearts of his people, to lay aside their petty disputes, and to disregard their worldly interests, compared with building the walls of Jerusalem, and defending the cause of truth and godliness against the assaults of avowed enemies.The fish gate - The gate through which fish from the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee entered Jerusalem; a gate in the north wall, a little to the east of the modern Damascus gate.

Locks - The word used (here and in Nehemiah 3:6, Nehemiah 3:13-15) is thought to mean rather a "cross-bar" than a lock, while that translated "bars" is regarded as denoting the "hooks" or "catches" which held the cross-bar at its two ends.

2. next unto him builded the men of Jericho, &c.—The wall was divided into portions, one of which was assigned respectively to each of the great families which had returned from the captivity. This distribution, by which the building was carried on in all parts simultaneously with great energy, was eminently favorable to despatch. "The villages where the restorers resided being mostly mentioned, it will be seen that this circumstance affords a general indication of the part of the wall upon which they labored, such places being on that side of the city nearest their place of abode; the only apparent exception being, perhaps, where they repaired more than their piece. Having completed their first undertaking (if they worked any more), there being no more work to be done on the side next their residence, or having arrived after the repairs on that part of the city nearest them under operation were completed, they would go wherever their services would be required" [Barclay, City of the Great King]. The fish-gate; of which mention is made 2 Chronicles 33:14 Nehemiah 12:39 Zephaniah 1:10; so called, either from the fish-market, which was near it; or because the fish was brought in by it from the sea, Nehemiah 13:16; this gate being north-westward from Jerusalem.

The locks thereof, and the bars thereof: this is either here related by anticipation, the whole work being here mentioned together, though this part was not done till afterwards, Nehemiah 6:1 7:1; or this was done to some of the gates, but not to all; and therefore this is said to be done more completely and universally afterwards. But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build,.... So called, because fish was brought from the sea coasts through it, and near it was the fish market; this also was southward, according to Dr. Lightfoot (x); others say northward; some say it led to the sea of Galilee, Jordan, and all the east and north country: but it is most likely to be westward towards the Mediterranean sea, Tyre, and Joppa, from whence fish were brought; and Rauwolff says (y) it is still standing towards the west, behind Mount Sion, and over against Mount Gihon, see 2 Chronicles 33:14 he also says, this gate was called the gate of Hebron, because the road of Hebron went through it, which is about seven or eight hours' walking distant from it:

who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof; completely finished it.

(x) Chorograph. Cent. of the Land of Israel, c. 26. p. 27. vol. 2.((y) Ut supra, (Travels, par. 3. c. 3.) p. 226, 227.

But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
3. But the fish gate] R.V. And the fish gate. This gate is referred to in chap. Nehemiah 12:39; 2 Chronicles 33:14; Zephaniah 1:10. It was on the northern or north-western wall; how far distant from the ‘tower of Hananel’ we cannot tell. But the two sections of wall-building undertaken by ‘the men of Jericho’ and ‘Zaccur the son of Imri’ intervened.

The name of the gate may have been derived from the proximity of the fish market. It has been suggested that the fish brought by the Tyrian traders (Nehemiah 13:16) and by the fishermen of Lake Galilee would arrive by this gate. From Zephaniah 1:10-11, it appears that this gate adjoined the merchant quarter of Jerusalem.

Hassenaah] cf. Ezra 2:35; Nehemiah 7:38, Senaah.

who also] R.V. they.

the locks thereof] R.V. the bolts thereof. The details of the fully completed gate are repeated in Nehemiah 3:6; Nehemiah 3:13-15. What the ‘bolts’ (A.V. ‘locks’) were, is not certain (LXX. κλεῖθρα, Vulg. valvas). The word occurs again in Song of Solomon 5:5.

Some suppose them to be the ‘sockets’ or ‘supports’ into which the ‘bars’ and ‘stanchions’ of the gate filled; others the ‘bolts’ which held the cross-bars firm. The city gates of ancient times turned upon pivots in sockets instead of upon hinges; and we may conjecture that the word rendered ‘locks’ denoted that which held a gate in its place, while ‘the bars’ fastened it to the side-posts.Verse 3. - It is strange that the sons of Hassenaah, who built the fourth piece of wall, are not mentioned by name. There is no other similar omission. The fish gate, which they built, was in the northern wall, towards its eastern extremity, and not far from the modern "Damascus gate." It is thought to be so called from being the gate through which fish were brought in from the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee. The locks thereof should rather be "the bars thereof"; and the bars, "the sockets," or "catches," which held the bars. The gates of towns in ancient times were almost always secured in this way. He had spoken to no one of his purpose (Nehemiah 2:12); hence the rulers of the city knew neither whither he was going nor what he was doing (i.e., undertaking) when he rode by night out of the city gate accompanied by a few followers. As yet he had said nothing either to the Jews (the citizens of Jerusalem), the priests, the nobles, the rulers, or the rest who did the work. החרים and הסּגנים are connected, as in Ezra 9:2 השּׂרים and הסּגנים. The nobles (חרים, nobiles) or princes are the heads of the different houses or races of the people; סגנים, the rulers of the town, the authorities. המּלאכה עשׂה, the doers of the work, are the builders; comp. Ezra 3:9. When these are, in comparison with the priests, nobles, and rulers, designated as יתר, the remnant, this is explained by the fact that the priests and rulers of the people were not actively engaged in building. המּלאכה, the work in question, i.e., here the building of the walls. כּן עד, until thus, i.e., until now, until the time apparent from the context. Nehemiah then, having inspected the condition of the ruined walls, and being now persuaded of the possibility of restoring them, made known his resolution to the nobles, the rulers, and the community, i.e., to a public assembly called together for this purpose (Nehemiah 2:17). "Ye see (have before your eyes, know from experience) the distress that we are in, that Jerusalem lieth waste: come (לכוּ), let us build up the walls of Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach." In other words: Let us by building our walls put an end to the miserable condition which gives our adversaries occasion to reproach us.
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